Classroom Management _ Discipline by tyndale

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									                           Classroom Management & Discipline

•   Good ___________ helps prevent management problems &
•   Sound ___________________ provides a context within which good teaching
    can occur (Savage, 1999)
•   You have a responsibility to establish _________________
•   Focus on two areas:
     – Problem prevention through good _________________
     – Procedures useful as a response to inappropriate ____________________
                     Dimensions of Classroom Management
•   Most important component – __________________
•   Classrooms are complex environments. The class members will vary greatly
    in their:
    – Abilities
    – Backgrounds
    – Interests
    – ____________________
    – Motivations
•   They will spend large blocks of time in close ___________________________
•   This makes the setting ____________________
•   Your responsibility:
•   Provide appropriate materials, capture their interest, organize the space, use
    instructional time so that they all leave feeling positive about the class period.
•   Researchers have identified at least __________ different categories of
    psychological motivators
•   Must bring it all together by making a ___________
                                  Space Management
•   Need to consider the attractiveness of the ___________
•   The degree of _____________
•   Comfort level of the learners
•   Arrangement of materials & desks
•   Location of instructional materials
•   Need a plan
                                      Wall Space
•   Wall space should enhance the quality of the instructional ________________
•   Motivational displays to stimulate interest in a topic of study
•   Spots can be used for student _______________
•   Display schedules, important announcements
•   Classroom _______________
•   Add a little soft color – _________________
•   Occasionally change
•   Avoid clutter
                                     Floor Space
•   Density & convenience
•   Arrange so not crowded can observe & hear teacher, see board or
    instructional area
•   Big groups, small groups, or individual _____________________
•   Aisles that allow the teacher to move quickly for instruction & management
•   Be able to monitor the whole group while working with small group
•   Space between learners to reduce _______________________
                                      Traffic Patterns
•   Doorways
•   Personal item storage
•   Class material
•   Book storage
•   Teachers desk
•   Must be kept obstruction free to avoid disturbing others when used
                                     Teacher’s Desk
•   Not given much thought – traditionally in the front
•   Consider the ____________ of the room:
     – Encourages you to __________________ and move around the classroom
     – Better monitoring of learners _______________
     – Perceived as a ____________________ teacher
     – Prevents habit of teaching from behind the desk
     – Normally easier to monitor learners on-task behaviors from the rear of the
     – You might be looking
     – Easier to have individual ______________________ in the rear with out
       distracting or calling attention
                                   Equipment Storage
•   Computers
•   Projectors
•   Video & audio recorders
•   Television monitors
•   Phonographs
•   Must be secure & __________________
•   Best if stored where it can be ________________
•   ______________ is a head ache
•   Best if always in working order
                                  Time Management
•   Limited amount of time to accomplish important educational _____________
•   Effective if not wasted so learners become _________________ or
•   Overwhelmed & frustrated because of inadequate _____________
•   Research finds that the more _______________ the more learning takes place
•   Handle routine tasks in quick & efficient manner
•   Transition – changing from one ________ of lesson to another
•   To avoid wasting time & losing attention, plan transition _____________
•   When materials are to be distributed or work ________________ during
    transitions, organize in advance
•   Student movement should be orchestrated
                                    Beginning Class
•   Lessons that begin promptly:
     – Engage learners ____________
     – Eliminate potential off-task behavior
     – Maximize instructional ___________
•   Routines performed ______________
•   Useful to establish signal system to inform class to begin
•   Start when all are paying attention
•   Don’t elevate to be heard over ___________
•   Signals importance of lesson
                                     Lesson Pacing
•   Most difficult to _________________ – behavior implications
•   Too fast ________________ – too slow – _______________
•   Select reference group in class activity
•   Includes a ________________ section of learners
•   Watch reference group for ________________ to what you are doing
•   Based on group, speed up, slow down or stay the ______________
•   Pacing includes responding to those that ____________ sooner than others
•   Must establish follow up activities for smoother transition to another productive
•   Must not be more of the same or so enticing that learners race to __________
                                  Providing Assistance
•     If serving 25-30 students, may be frustrating to answer _____ questions
•     Fredrick Jones (1979) finds these ways to shorten the time with each:
         1. find something they have done correct & _________ for it
         2. Provide direct suggestion for what should be done _______
         3. Move quickly to the next student – check back
      • No more than ___ seconds per learners – avoid dependency
                          Establishing Routines & Procedures
•   Basic principle of classroom management – routines and procedures
    established to handle recurring & predictable ________________
•   Simplifies demands for attention to unplanned & unpredictable events
•   There are hundreds of personal ___________________
•   Will drain your __________________
•   Cause fatigue & management mistakes
•   Develop routines & procedures for these:
    • What learners are to do when they enter the _______________
    • What learners should do when they have a __________ problem to discuss
    • Procedure for passing out & __________________
    • When & where pencils are to be sharpened
    • How daily attendance is to be taken
    • What students are to do if they need to _____________________________
                          Responding to Learner Misbehavior
•     Will need more than a bag of ________________
•     Begins with the attitudes & _______________________
     1. What do you expect of students?
     2. Do you believe they are interested in learning?
     3. How do you see your role as a teacher?
     4. Do you believe it is wise to lay down the law?
     5. How do you think teachers establish good discipline in the classroom?
     6. What is your image of the ideal classroom?
     7. What is your image of young people today?
     8. What is the appropriate relationship between teachers & learners?
     9. Are you comfortable sharing power with the members of the class?
•    Can reveal your philosophy of teaching & _______________
•    Will influence how you respond to ______________________
•    Management or negotiations:
    – Are the students to be treated with ______________________________
    – Is the classroom a community or __________________
    – What is not negotiable?
•   Negotiation does not mean ______________trol by the teacher & all power
    is shifted to the learners
•   How you exercise your leadership is ______ to the success of the classroom
•   When there is serious disruptions, you will need to exercise unilateral _____
•   May need to teach how to have self-control & responsibility
•   Self-control & acceptance of responsibility is enhanced when treated with
    dignity & given responsibility
•   Several features in classroom negotiations:
      1. The degree of self-control and sense of responsibility is related to
          perceived reality
      2. when you give the opportunity to make choices, develops self-control
      3. Students with positive self concepts have better self-control –
          developed by you
      4. Learners that feel like they belong develop better self control
                     Discipline and Teachers’ use of Power
When students misbehave, you have to remedy the situation
• Several types of power are available:
1. Expert Power: comes to a person as a result of possessing specialized ___
• If knowledgeable, have considerable influence over _______________
• Earned rather than demanded
2. Referent Power: is power that results from a warm, positive ______________
• Willing to give power to others when they perceive that the other person is
• If you want referent power, you must be someone that the students respect
    & trust, ________ about them
• Must be earned, not demanded
3. Legitimate power: from a particular position a person _______________
• Teachers given it by administration & _____________________
• Problems result because not all accept it
• Asking for _____________________ if totally relying on legitimate power
• When authority is built on expert & referent power, legitimate power
4. Reward Power: ability to provide something another person sees as
•   Praise, grades, privileges
•   Not all will perceive these as _______________
•   This is granted not earned
•   May vanish quickly if not ______________
•   Works best with referent & and expert power
5. Coercive Power: power that people wield because of their ability to
     administer ______________________
• If relied on, creates classroom environments that are not warm, caring, or
• Learners fail to adopt favorable patterns
• When one is suppressed, another surfaces
• Prospect of being _________________________?
• Must continually have ability to punish
• Not earned, granted
• Constant _______________
                 Some Basic Principles of Effective Discipline
• Regardless, sometimes you have to ________________________
• Part of being a teacher
• They will make wrong choices
• Human beings
• ________________ experience
• Understand some basic principles to increase the possibility that your
   response will be effective:
                           Preserving Learners Dignity
• Care not to diminish learners _____________________
• Could lead to more discipline problems
• Leads to power ______________________
• Learner may respond with assaults on _______________ of the teacher
• Capital offenses often a result of ____________________
• Teaching respect begins by giving respect
                  Private Correction Versus Public Correction
• In place where comments can not be ________________________
• Public reprimands may make you feel pressed to ____________________
• __________________ leads to better, personal contact
• Committing full attention to situation
                 Addressing the Causes, Not just the behavior
• Identify the underlying __________________
• Attempt to communicate needs
• Will behave in a way they know is unacceptable to get your attention
               Distinguishing between Major & Minor Problems
• Many incidents are a result of learners ______________ rather than attempts
   to challenge behaviors
• Must distinguish between serious & minor
•   Overreaction can build learner __________________
        Learners Choose to Misbehave & Experience the Consequences
•   Teach students that the consequences are from their ______________, not
    your vindictiveness
•   Object is help learners to see relationship between inappropriate behaviors &
•   By choosing behaviors, also choosing __________________________
                            Consistent & Fair Responses
•   Must respond to __________ misbehavior
•   Otherwise sends wrong _____________
•   Often escalates into ______________ problem
•   Consistency communicates:
     – You are serious about discouraging misbehavior in the classroom
     – that you are ____________
               Responding to Misbehavior: A Range of Alternatives
•   Developing a plan prevents harsh & quick judgments
•   Plan fits circumstances
•   Should have a range that goes from mild to severe
•   Helps assure consistent & _______ circumstances
•   Must have a continuum of severity
                  Category 1: Responses Supporting Self-Control
                         Reinforcing Productive Behavior
•   Most productive – _________________ desirable patterns of behavior
•   ____________________ individuals & entire class when warranted
•   Verbal praise, special activities, free time
•   Must be meaningful to learner, not just to you
                  Using Nonverbal Signals to Indicate Disapproval
•   Minor things are handled as not to disrupt the flow of the ________________
•   Allows you to indicate to the learner that the misbehavior has been _________
•   You are giving them time to correct and to avoid more serious punishment
•   Can include: ________________, hand signals, facial expressions
                               Using Proximity Control
•   Often is enough to move to the area of the classroom where misbehavior is
•   Avoids interruption of the ____________________
                   Using Learner’s Name in Context of the lesson
•   Communicates that misbehavior has been _______________
•   Often will cause a quick end to inappropriate behavior
                             Redirecting Learner Attention
•   Most effective with ___________________ learners
•   Can be effective with older learners
•   Redirect misbehaving students back to assigned __________
                    Encouraging Learners to take Personal Action
•   More for the young learners
•   Count to 10, put heads down on desk, move to another part of the room
•   Works best when students have been taught how to do this
                     Category 2: Providing Situational Assistance
•   A little more ______________________
•   After category one has been applied
•   Still trying to help learners exercise self-control
•   Still trying to preserve the dignity of the learner
•   Dealing with problems in relatively private manner
                              Taking time for a Quiet word
•   Teachers moves _____________ student misbehaving
•   Quietly reminds student of behavior that is expected
•   Quick return to teaching the lesson
                                Providing Rule reminder
•   Stop lesson, voice loud enough for class to _________________
•   Bill’s group, what does our rules say about talking while some one is asking a
                       Removing the Learner from the Situation
•   Arrange for the learner to move
•   Different ________ or another part of the room
•   Instructions for this are brief, _____________, non- confrontational
•   Bill, take your things & move to empty seat
•   This should be carried out quickly & quietly without show of ____________
•   Maybe to a time out area of the _________________
•   We will visit later
                          Responding with Clarity & Firmness
•   If others have failed, next step
•   Address learner by name, using clear, direct, authoritative voice, no-nonsense
•   Make eye contact with leaner, take on I-mean-Business character
•   Specify the behavior that must stop & what must replace it
                  Arranging Conferences with Misbehaving Learners
•   Next step is individual conference
•   During the conference, explain exactly what must be done to _____________
    problem behavior
•   Refrain from _________________
•   Identify the problem, share your feelings about it and ask what might be done
    to solve
•   Sometimes a behavior contract is the result
•   States positives of improved behavior
•   Also, very clearly spells out the _________________
                       Asking Parents or Guardians for Help
•   Often the best allies of the teacher
•   Often all are concerned about _________________ & behavior in school
•   Maybe unaware of behavior problems
•   Often a _______________________ with explanation is suffice
•   Many variables to the success of parent involvement
•   Age level, kind of relationship between parent & learner, relationship with ____
•   Must take the team approach on phone
•   Not assign ______________
                     Category 3: Implementing Consequences
•   Only after categories one & two have been tried with no or limited __________
•   Or, if misbehavior is very serious
•   Must experience the consequences of the their _______________
•   Most effective when used infrequently and are appropriate to the nature of the
                                   Losing a Privilege
•   Effective for some young people
•   Success rest on learner having ___________________ available
•   Can vary from classroom job, favorite seats at event, field trip, others?
•   Learner must value it as ____________________ or not effective
•   Best if not take away permanently
•   Restoring privilege for improved behaviors strong motivator
                             Providing In-class Isolations
•   For _______________ learners
•   Often sent to area of the room that makes it difficult to interact with others in
    class or see class activities
•   Sometimes, allow to continue work on assignments
•   Or, reflect on nature of misbehavior
•   Reflect on improved behavior
•   Many younger learners find the boredom to be very undesirable
                                 Removing the Learner
•   If behavior persists, may need to remove from the ____________
•   Sent to office of principal or counselor
•   Often just to be _______________
•   Never to unsupervised area (hallway)
                                Making up wasted time
•   Maybe recess or before or after ____________
•   Important that it is not converted to reward
•   Important to respect parents time (bus ride)
•   Not always possible to make up time
                             Category 4: Involving Others
•   Category of last ___________
•   Only when all three other categories have failed
•   Must arrange a conference to deal with situation
•   Include parents, administrators, counselors, outside agencies
                           Involving Parents or Guardians
•   Must have had several contacts before formal conference is scheduled
•   Must _______________ for conference carefully
•   Must bring anecdotal records that document
     – Examples of problem behaviors
     – ________________ the behaviors occurred
     – Your attempts & strategies to _________________ the problem
     – Data as to the severity of the problem (data collection)
•   Extreme care must be take as to not make parents feel that their own
    ____________________ is being questioned

                 Arranging Conferences with Other Professionals
•   Best resources may be your colleagues
•   Sometimes wise to bring together group
•   Principals, counselors, psychologists, social workers, PO’s
•   Might result in behavior plan
•   Maybe the student goes to another class
•   Temporary suspension
•   Counseling
•   Supervised by school principal
•   Must have periodic updates on progress

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