Franklin D. Roosevelt _dem_ by LegionZ411


America on its Journey to Socialism and Communism.

More Info
									Franklin D. Roosevelt                                                                                                                                        4/13/09 2:16 PM

                                                                             search     about us      contact       home

  Chronological Eras    Franklin D. Roosevelt
  Information Tables
  General Interest
  Maps                     Masters in Leadership                 Franklin Delano Roosevelt                      Franklin D Roosevelt
  Glossary                 Master of Science in Organizational   Learn Little-Known Facts About The             Huge selection of Franklin Roosevelt
                           Leadership Online. Free Brochure.     Fascinating Life of Roosevelt.                 items.
  History Quizzes          Leadership.Norwich.Edu                                

  Florida               Presidents, 1882-1945
  New York
  Oregon                Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, on January 30, 1882,
  Washington            the son of James Roosevelt and Sara Delano Roosevelt.

                        Nearly all of his early schooling was furnished by his parents, and tutors. He
  Read and Post         attended Groton, an upper-class preparatory school in Massachusetts, from 1896 to
  Comments              1900, then received a BA degree in history from Harvard in just three years (1900-
                        03). Roosevelt went on to study law at Columbia University in New York City. He
                        left the university without receiving a degree when he passed the bar examination in
                        1907. For the next three years he practiced law with a prominent New York City
                                                                                                                             Top 10 Most Viewed Pages
                        In 1905, Roosevelt married Anna Eleanor
                        Roosevelt, a distant cousin and the niece of                                                         1. The Progressive Movement
                        President Theodore Roosevelt. She would
                        become Franklin's most influential ally and                                                          2. Eastern Woodland Culture
                        an active, beloved First Lady. The couple
                        had six children, of whom five survived                                                              3. First Continental Congress
                        infancy. Roosevelt was a great companion to
                        his children, especially enjoying outdoor                                                            4. Roaring Twenties
                        sports with them.
                                                                                                                             5. Quartering Act
                        Political beginnings
                                                                                                                             6. Historical Eras
                        Roosevelt, a Democrat like his father, tried
                        politics in 1910 and won a seat in the New                                                           7. Stamp Act
                        York State Senate from his traditionally
                        Republican home district. He flourished as a                                                         8. Proclamation of 1763
                        courageous and adroit political contender.
                                                                                                                             9. Jacques Cartier
                        State legislatures elected U.S. senators in those days. Leading a group of fellow
                                                                                                             10. The Temperance Movement
                        Democratic legislators, Roosevelt spearheaded a successful drive against a candidate
                        hand picked by the party bosses. His ploy infuriated Tammany Hall, the Democratic
                        political machine in New York City.                                                                                                                       Page 1 of 4
Franklin D. Roosevelt                                                                                                  4/13/09 2:16 PM

                        political machine in New York City.

                        In 1912, Roosevelt was reelected to the State Senate. That year he actively backed
                        Woodrow Wilson against his fifth cousin, Theodore Roosevelt, in the presidential
                        election. Wilson won and rewarded the young senator with the post of Assistant
                        Secretary of the Navy in 1913. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, tutored his
                        assistant on national politics, including the art of dealing with Congress.

                        In 1914, Roosevelt sought nomination as a candidate for the U.S. Senate. He was
                        trounced, mainly because Tammany Hall had opposed him.

                        Roosevelt wanted to enter military service following the United States' entry into
                        World War I in April 1917, but Daniels persuaded him to stay on. Roosevelt tackled
                        numerous wartime projects. In 1918, he toured European battlefields and consulted
                        with military leaders. He had gained national prominence.

                        The Democratic National Convention nominated Governor James M. Cox of Ohio
                        for president in 1920. The delegates wanted a vice-presidential candidate from an
                        eastern state to balance the ticket. The convention chose Roosevelt.

                        Cox and Roosevelt ran on a platform advocating U.S. membership in the League of
                        Nations. However, the Senate had snuffed out America's chance for membership.
                        Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio and Governor Calvin Coolidge of
                        Massachusetts, the Republican candidates, handily defeated the Democratic ticket.

                        Roosevelt had established himself as a leader and was only 38; the defeat did him
                        little harm. In 1920, he became a vice president of the Fidelity and Deposit
                        Company of Maryland and took charge of the New York City office.


                        Tragedy struck, however, in 1921. Roosevelt, now 39, contracted polio, a fearsome
                        and incurable disease that paralyzed his legs. He devoted a considerable part of his
                        fortune in the 1920s to renovate a spa in Warm Springs, Georgia, said to have
                        curative waters that he had sought to aid in his recovery. He founded the Roosevelt
                        Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, which continues to accommodate people
                        with physical disabilities. In later years, a cottage he had built there would be called
                        “the Little White House.”

                        Roosevelt's iron determination played a major role as he struggled to recover, but he
                        never regained the use of his legs. He frequently resorted to a wheelchair, but
                        largely managed to hide the fact — with the media's help — throughout his later
                        career. Eleanor Roosevelt once recalled, "I know that he had real fear when he was
                        first taken ill, but he learned to surmount it. After that I never heard him say he was
                        afraid of anything."

                        A resumed career

                        Roosevelt resumed his political career with the support and assistance of Eleanor,
                        and Louis Howe, his trusted political advisor and friend. At the Democratic National
                        Convention of 1924, Roosevelt rose to nominate New York governor Alfred E.
                        Smith for president, but Smith lost the nomination to John W. Davis. In 1928, Smith
                        won the presidential nomination, then arranged for Roosevelt's nomination to
                        succeed him as New York's governor. Republican candidate Herbert Hoover
                        defeated Smith, but Roosevelt won the gubernatorial race.

                        The majority of Roosevelt's policies during his first term as governor would not be
                        characterized as activist. However, during his second term, the Depression's effects
                        became more pronounced in New York. To jump start the economy, he secured
                        legislation in the fall of 1931 that established the first of the state relief agencies, the
                        Temporary Emergency Relief Administration. In fact, Roosevelt was effective in
                        most of his dealings with the Republican legislature, and honed skills that he would
                        use in the future.

                        Roosevelt began to campaign for the presidency following his reelection as governor
                        in 1930. The governor's pronounced efforts to alleviate the economic depression in
                        New York burnished his credentials, while the deep doldrums hobbled President
                        Hoover and the Republicans nationwide.

                        The Democratic Party anointed Roosevelt as candidate for president at its national
                        convention of 1932 in Chicago. He ignored tradition and showed up in person to
                        accept the nomination, following a flight to Chicago. He then vigorously hit the                                                                                 Page 2 of 4
Franklin D. Roosevelt                                                                                             4/13/09 2:16 PM

                        campaign trail, calling for "relief, recovery, and reform" by government intervention
                        in the economy. Roosevelt's charisma and pro-active approach fused to help rout
                        Hoover by seven million votes in November 1932 — beginning the first of four

                        Tackling the Depression

                        In his first 99 days, he proposed, and a Democratically controlled Congress swiftly
                        enacted, an ambitious "New Deal" to deliver relief to the unemployed and those in
                        danger of losing farms and homes, recovery to agriculture and business, and reform,
                        notably through the inception of the vast Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The
                        New Deal effects would take time; some 13,000,000 people were out of work by
                        March 1933, and virtually every bank was shuttered.

                        On March 12, 1933, Roosevelt broadcast the first of 30 "fireside chats" over the
                        radio to the American people. The opening topic was the Bank Crisis. Primarily, he
                        spoke on a variety of topics to inform Americans and exhort them to support his
                        domestic agenda, and later, the war effort.

                        The nation enjoyed measurable progress by 1935, but businessmen and bankers
                        increasingly opposed the New Deal. The president's experiments alarmed them.
                        They were dismayed by his toleration of budget deficits and his removal of the
                        nation from the gold standard, and were disgusted by legislation favorable to labor.

                        Nevertheless, Roosevelt and the Congress forged ahead with a new program of
                        reform, often called the Second New Deal, which included Social Security, more
                        controls over banks and public utilities, an immense work relief program, and higher
                        taxes on the rich to help pay for it all.

                        The president was re-elected by a wide margin in 1936, but the U.S. Supreme Court
                        had been nullifying crucial New Deal legislation. Persuaded that he had popular
                        backing, Roosevelt introduced legislation to expand the federal courts, ostensibly as
                        a straightforward organizational reform, but actually to "pack" the courts with
                        justices sympathetic to his proposals. He was unsuccessful, but constitutional law
                        would eventually change to allow the government to regulate the national economy.

                        During the period between the wars, Roosevelt maintained a pragmatic diplomatic
                        stance on foreign affairs. He had been a supporter of Woodrow Wilson's
                        internationalist ideas, but dropped them when the country turned inward to
                        isolationism in the 1920s.

                        In the late 1930s, however, FDR brought the nation's attention back to foreign
                        affairs. He was alarmed by Germany's aggression in Europe and Japanese incursions
                        in the Pacific. A widespread isolationist perspective held by the electorate, and by
                        Congress, which enacted neutrality laws intended to prevent American involvement
                        in a second world war, inhibited the president.

                        Roosevelt gained ground when, spurred by Germany’s defeat of France in 1940,
                        Congress passed his Lend-Lease legislation to materially support Great Britain’s
                        resistance to the Germans. Britain and the Soviet Union were joined by the United
                        States following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7,

                        Leadership in World War II

                        As a wartime leader, Roosevelt promulgated his foreign policy goals in a succession
                        of major conferences:

                                 He spelled out Anglo-American war goals in concert with Winston
                              Churchill (August 1941) in the Atlantic Charter. The charter rejected territorial
                              aspirations, promoted autonomous government and progressive international
                              trade agreements. It also vowed permanent security against aggression and
                              freedom from privation.

                               At Casablanca in January 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill insisted that
                              Germany unconditionally surrender to preclude a future armed comeback.

                                The Québec Conference in August 1943 plotted the invasion of Normandy.

                                At Moscow in October 1943, a postwar world security organization was
                              agreed upon in principle by the Allied foreign ministers.                                                                            Page 3 of 4
Franklin D. Roosevelt                                                                                           4/13/09 2:16 PM

                                Military strategy and the prospect of a postwar Germany were discussed at
                               Cairo (November–December 1943) and Québec (September 1944).

                                 At Yalta (February 1945), Roosevelt, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin discussed
                               their course of action for the postwar world.

                        Over the years, Roosevelt promoted China's admission as a significant power to the
                        Allied fold, by opening global trade as a way to prevent wars, and establishing a
                        United Nations organization to preserve the peace.

                        FDR would not witness the war's conclusion. On April 12, 1945, at Warm Springs,
                        Georgia, a cerebral hemorrhage took his life.

                        A legacy

                        National ambition snuffed out Roosevelt’s dream of a postwar world of peace and
                        order. Shortly before his death, it became clear that the U.S.S.R.'s postwar plans
                        included hegemony over central and eastern Europe. His belief in the UN's capacity
                        to maintain the peace using the cooperation of the former wartime Allies was lost in
                        the cold war that followed.

                        The nation changed forever during Roosevelt's tenure and the New Deal coalition
                        lasted for many years after his death. Such programs as Social Security, and the
                        Food and Drug Administration, are part of the national safety net. A great
                        transformation of the president's power came with Franklin D. Roosevelt. His
                        forceful leadership and many years in office inspired a term, the "imperial
                        presidency," that would be applied to subsequent presidents with similar leadership

                         Off-site search results for "Franklin D. Roosevelt"...
                         Franklin D. Roosevelt
                         ... Eleanor Roosevelt Occupation: Public Official, Lawyer During his presidency,
                         Franklin D. Roosevelt had a Vice President John N. Garner for two terms from
                         1933 to 1941. had a Vice President Henry A. Wallace for one term from Franklin
                         D. Roosevelt had a Vice President John N. Garner for two terms from 1933 to
                         1941. had a Vice President Henry A. Wallace for one term from 1941 to 1945. had

                         US Presidents - Franklin D. Roosevelt
                         Roosevelt Presidential Number: 32nd Years he was President: 1933-1945 State
                         Represented: New York Party Affiliation: Democrat Fact(s): Led during
                         Depression and World War II. First president to ride in an airplane while president.
                         Personal ...

                         Franklin D. Roosevelt - History Celebrities
                         Roosevelt by John T. Marck       FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT 32nd
                         President Term- March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945 Democratic Party Birth: Hyde
                         Park, New York, January 30, 1882 Ancestry: Dutch. Marriage: New York, New
                         York, March 17, 1905 to Anna ...

                        Sponsors of

                        Sponsor this site                                                                          Page 4 of 4

To top