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					Cultural Geography

WG.3c, 10b-c
Cultural Characteristics
 Cultural characteristics are
  parts of a groups everyday life.
  They are the ideas and themes
  which the group will teach to all
  members. These same
  characteristics can also link or
  divide a region.
 Examples of cultural
  characteristics would be
  language, religion, and
  ethnic heritage
Examples of cultural
characteristics
 Language
  Arabic unites the Arab world
  Spanish unites the Hispanic
   world
Brazil is the only South
 American nation which
 does not speak Spanish.
 It speaks Portuguese.
Canada is a bilingual
 nation. French and
 English is its official
 language.
Examples of cultural
characteristics
 Switzerland has multiple
  languages but very little
  conflict between the groups
 English is now considered the
  world language and is used
  for most business
  transactions around the world
Examples of cultural
characteristics
 Ethnic Heritage
 In Yugoslavia, many ethnic
  groups were made into one
  country (Serbs, Croats,
  Bosnians, Albanians).
When strong leadership
 died out, the different
 groups fought a very
 bloody civil war and now
 they all have separate
 countries
Examples of cultural
characteristics
 In the countries of Rwanda
  and Burundi in Africa, Two
  ethnic groups are dominate,
  the Tutsis and the Hutus.
 The Hutus are dominate in
  one and they persecute the
  Tutsis, and the Tutsis are
  dominate in the other
and they persecute the
 Hutus. It has led to
 almost constant war
 between the groups.
Examples of cultural
characteristics
 The United States and
  Switzerland have peacefully
  merged multiple ethnic groups
  in their countries.
 Korea and Japan have
  primarily one ethnic group
On the island of Cyprus,
 the Greeks and the Turks
 try to gain control
Examples of cultural
characteristics
 Religion can be both a unifying
  force.
 There are five major religions in
  the world today--Hinduism,
  Buddhism, Judaism,
  Christianity, and Islam.
 They have millions of
  followers all believing the
  same thing.
Examples of cultural
characteristics
 Religion can also be a dividing
  force around the world.
   Hindus and Muslims fight in
    India (Hindu) and Pakistan
    (Muslim)
There are conflicts
 between Catholics and
 Protestants (two forms of
 Christianity) in Northern
 Ireland
Jews, Christians and Muslims all
 claim Jerusalem as their
 religions holy site. They are
 constantly fighting over the land
Spatial divisions
 Spatial divisions are how we
  divide the livable space found
  on the earth by establishing
  social, economic, and political
  control.
 You can be a member of
  more than one spatial
  group.
 Spatial divisions can also
  cause conflicts or
  cooperation
Spatial divisions
 Examples of Spatial
  Divisions--
  Countries
  Economic alliances
    European Union (EU)
    Organization of Petroleum
     Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Examples of Spatial Divisions-
Economic Alliances cont.

     North America Free
      Trade Agreement
      (NAFTA)
     Association of
      Southeast Asian
      Nations
Spatial divisions
 Examples of Spatial
  Divisions
 Political alliances
  North Atlantic Treaty
   Organization (NATO)
  Commonwealth of Nations
  Organization of American
   States (OAS)
Examples of Spatial
Divisions
Political alliances cont.
      League of Arab States
      African Union (AU)
Spatial divisions
 Reasons for spatial divisions
 differences in culture,
  language, or religion
 keeping of historical
  boundaries
 imperial conquest and control
 economic similarities and
  differences
Reasons for spatial division
conflicts
 Boundary and territorial
  disputes--Syria/Israel,
  Western Sahara/Morocco,
  China/Taiwan, India/Pakistan,
  Iraq/Kuwait
Reasons for spatial division
conflicts
  Cultural differences
   (language and religion)--
   Indonesia, Canada
   (Quebec), Ireland, Sudan
  Nationalism--(the belief that
   your nation is superior to all
   others)
Reasons for spatial division
conflicts
Economic differences--
 fertile land, access to fresh
 water, access to the coast,
 fishing rights, natural
 resources, different
 economic philosophies
Reasons for spatial division
conflicts
 Ethnic differences--Balkans
  (Europe), Cyprus (Europe),
  Rwanda and Burundi (Africa),
  Kashmir (India)
Examples of Cooperation

Humanitarian--Red Cross,
 Red Crescent
Economic Alliances--
 NAFTA, Law of the Sea,
 multinational corporations,
 OPEC
Examples of Cooperation
 Cultural Alliances--French
  speaking world,
  Commonwealth of Nations
 Military Alliances--NATO
 Problem-solving Alliances--
  United Nations (UN), Antarctica
  Treaty
Examples of Cooperation
 Programs to promote
  international understanding--
         Peace Corps
   Foreign Aid
   Alliances for environmental
    preservation

				
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