; The Rwandan Genocide
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The Rwandan Genocide

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									The Rwandan Genocide
                Quick Facts
• Lasted from Early April to Mid-July of 1994

• Between 500,000 and 1 Million people murdered

• Perpetrators: Hutu Government

• Victims: Tutsi and Moderate Hutu tribe members
       How It All Came About
• Tutsi tribes placed ahead of Hutu and Twa
  during the Colonial Period by French rulers
• Hutu are bitter over the fact that they have
  always been made to serve
• Coup d’etat in 1973 installed Army Chief Juvenal
  Habyarimana of the Hutu tribe as President of
• The group that surrounded the president, akuza,
  came up with the idea for the genocide.
• Genocide first proposed in 1992 by the akuza group, made up of
  many people from Habyarimana’s Northern Rwandan homeland.

• Feeling threatened by rising power of the RPF—Rwandan Patriotic
  Front, an army made up of Tutsi refugees—the akuza came up with
  the plan to get rid of Tutsi and moderate Hutu.

• In 1993, massacres of Tutsi in a few regions of Rwanda led to a
  massive RPF assault that led many Hutu to shift their support to
  Habyarimana and his party.

• Habyarimana signed a peace agreement known as the Arusha
  Accords with the RPF that led to the creation of the Political Group
  Hutu power. Many believe the treaty was a front.
                                          Juvenal Habyarimana, the leader of
                                          the Hutu Power political party and
                                          the President of Rwanda before the
                                          Genocide Occurred.

                                          Habyarimana set up a national radio
                                          Station that broadcast anti-Tutsi,
                                          anti-opposition and anti-Arusha
                                          Accords rhetoric, all of which served
                                          to fuel the flames that would start the

In 1993, the assassination of Burundi’s
popularly elected Hutu president
forced thousands of Hutu refugees
into Rwanda. The Hutu Power party
accepted all the refugees.
At this time the Rwandan military
began training their youth
organization, the Interahamwe, to be a
civilian military of sorts.
•   Numerous political assassinations led to increased ethnic tensions in

•   These assassinations set the stage for genocide and increased the sense of
    crisis in the country.

•   Reports coming out of the Us, France and Belgium all warned that the
    results of this ethnic tension could easily be a full scale genocide

•   One commander even sent a report to the UN that said he was aware of the
    existence of a secret Hutu plan to carry out the Genocide.

•   None of the warnings were heeded.
•   On April 6th, 1994, President Habyarimana’s plane was shot down while
    returning to Rwanda. The president was killed.

•   No one knows for sure who led the assassination but the Hutu Power party
    took advantage of it. Habyarimana had been reluctant to allow a genocide,
    and with him gone, the government put their plan into motion.

•   On April 7th, the prime minister of Rwanda, Agathe Uwilingiyimana, a
    moderate Hutu, was assassinated.

•   On this first actual day of the genocide, many political leaders from the
    Liberal Party, Social Democratic party,, may cabinet ministers, court
    justices, journalists, human rights activists and progressive priests.
•   For a little while, the genocide was focused in Kigali and was mainly aimed
    at executing prominent figures that were perceived threats to the Hutu
    government. These included moderate Hutu as well as Tutsi.

•   Rather than fighting against the genocide, many foreign countries simply
    had their representatives evacuated out of the country, without clearly
    condemning the genocide.

•   Despite calls to increase aid to the country, the United Nations voted to
    decrease the number of forces from 2500 to about 270m largely at the call
    of countries like the US, who feared another disaster like Somalia.
• The genocide really began when it was moved
  into its second phase.

• It was now more focused on the complete
  eradication of the Tutsi tribe and the help of local
  militia was enlisted by the main death squads of
  the Rwandan Army.

• The genocide followed a distinct pattern in each
  community and was meticulously planned by the
  Hutu Government
• First, civilian militias raided Tutsi homes and businesses,
  forcing fleeing Tutsi to seek refuge in central locations.

• Often times, many of the Tutsi were told they would be
  protected at these locations, which were usually
  churches, schools, or public offices, when in fact they
  were being rounded up for mass murders.

• Once gathered at these locations, soldiers police and the
  militia would fire on the crowds and would throw
  grenades into their midst.

• Survivors were systematically slaughtered with
  machetes and axes.

• Sometimes, buildings filled with Tutsi were set on fire,
  destroying all the people inside.
Sites like this one litter the Rwandan countryside after the genocide. This
is just one of the places where the Rwandan military murdered hundreds
of Tutsi and left them to rot.
• By early may, the large scale massacres were finished,
  and now the genocide moved into its next stage.

• Militia members had to search out all surviving Tutsi and
  put them to death.

• All grown Hutu men were expected to help on nightly
  patrols and man the roadblocks.

• These nightly patrols went out “looking for perpetrators”
  but in all actuality they searched out surviving Tutsi and
  killed them.
Roadblocks like this one were manned by Hutu militia and civilians. People
wishing to pass through the roadblock had to present the card that said which
race they were, and if they were Tutsi, he or she was killed on the spot. If they
were without a card, they were assumed to be Tutsi and killed on the spot. If a
person had the inherent traits of a Tutsi or resembled a Tutsi they were killed on
the spot.
•   Although many in the Rwandan Government considered the genocide a
    success, it was actually the its own downfall.
•   The genocide drained resources and directed attention away from the RPF
•   The RPF took over much of eastern Rwanda on its march thru the country.
    They liberated Tutsi and by July 4th, had captured most of Rwanda’s major
    cities including the capital. Despite the good things the RPF did, they also
    perform mass civilian murders of many Hutu that they captured.

•   The UN finally decided to get a force together on May 17th to aid Rwanda,
    after previously refusing to intervene, but by the time they were ready to go,
    the genocide was already stopped.
All of these were common sites
for an everyday Rwandan during
this genocide. Burned and
murdered, the dead were left to
rot out in the open.
Top right is a picture of a survivor
who suffered numerous machete
After the mass destruction of the Rwandan people, militia men and the military
simply check to make sure no one is still alive and then leave the bodies to rot.
 All these people were most likely cut down with machine guns and machetes.
• The RPF became the new national army and set
  about taking control of the rest of Rwanda using
  mainly brute force.
• Hundreds of people suspected of involvement
  with the genocidal plan were murdered and
  thousands more were arrested.
• The RPF destroyed many refugee camps that
  held Hutu civilians who fled before the march of
  the RPF across Rwanda earlier in the year.
  Thousands of civilians were murdered.

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