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					Central Venous Catheter
   Insertion Policies
     Athos J. Rassias, MD
     Critical Care Medicine
  Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical
              Center
                Outline
•   Introduction
•   CDC recommendations
•   Sterile technique description
•   Use of ultrasound
•   Confirmation of placement
                                                                        Biofilm
                                                                                        • A matrix of biofilm
                                                                                          becomes colonized on
                                                                                          a prosthetic structure,
                                                                                          such as a catheter, in
                                                                                          vivo
QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (Uncomp resse d) decompressor are neede d to see this picture.
                                                                                        • Catheter infection
                                                                                          etiologies:
                                                                                           –   During placement
                                                                                           –   Entry site contamination
                                                                                           –   Hematogenous spread
                                                                                           –   Contamination of
                                                                                               tubing/injection ports
                Outline
•   Introduction
•   CDC recommendations
•   Sterile technique description
•   Use of ultrasound
•   Confirmation of placement
       CDC expert panel
• Convened to review the data
• Recommendations published
  – MMWR. August 9, 2002;51(RR10);1-26
    CDC panel assumptions
• Average rate of catheter-related blood stream
  infections (CRBSI) is 5.3 per 1,000 catheter days in
  the ICU
   – 80,000 CRBSIs occur in ICUs/year
• Mortality ranges from no increase in studies that
  controlled for severity of illness, to 35% increase in
  mortality in prospective studies that did not use this
  control
• Attributable cost per infection is $34,508--$56,000
• Annual cost of $296 million to $2.3 billion
      Total system impact
• A total of 250,000 cases of CRBSIs
  have been estimated to occur annually
  if entire hospitals are assessed rather
  than ICUs exclusively
• In this case, attributable mortality is an
  estimated 12%--25% for each infection
• Marginal cost to the health-care system
  is $25,000 per episode
         Recommendation
          categorizations
• Category IA: Strongly recommended for
  implementation and strongly supported by well-
  designed experimental, clinical, or epidemiologic
  studies.
• Category IB: Strongly recommended for
  implementation and supported by some
  experimental, clinical, or epidemiologic studies, and
  a strong theoretical rationale.
• Category IC: Required by state or federal
  regulations, rules, or standards.
• Category II: Suggested for implementation and
  supported by suggestive clinical or epidemiologic
  studies or a theoretical rationale.
     Education and training
• Educate health-care workers regarding the
  indications for intravascular catheter use, proper
  procedures for the insertion and maintenance of
  intravascular catheters, and appropriate infection-
  control measures to prevent intravascular catheter-
  related infections Category IA
• Assess knowledge of and adherence to guidelines
  periodically for all persons who insert and manage
  intravascular catheters Category IA
• Ensure appropriate nursing staff levels in ICUs to
  minimize the incidence of CRBSIs Category IB


     http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
                Surveillance
• Monitor the catheter sites visually or by
  palpation through the intact dressing on a
  regular basis, depending on the clinical
  situation of individual patients. If patients
  have tenderness at the insertion site, fever
  without obvious source, or other
  manifestations suggesting local or BSI, the
  dressing should be removed to allow
  thorough examination of the site Category
  IB

       http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
                Surveillance
• Encourage patients to report to their health-
  care provider any changes in their catheter
  site or any new discomfort. Category II
• Record the operator, date, and time of
  catheter insertion and removal, and dressing
  changes on a standardized form. Category II




       http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
                   Hand hygiene
• Observe proper hand-hygiene procedures either by
  washing hands with conventional antiseptic-
  containing soap and water or with waterless alcohol-
  based gels or foams. Category IA
• Observe hand hygiene before and after palpating
  catheter insertion sites, as well as before and after
  inserting, replacing, accessing, repairing, or dressing
  an intravascular catheter. Category IA
• Palpation of the insertion site should not be
  performed after the application of antiseptic, unless
  aseptic technique is maintained Category IA
• Use of gloves does NOT obviate the need for hand
  hygiene Category IA

           http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
         Aseptic technique
• Maintain aseptic technique for the insertion
  and care of intravascular catheters. Category
  IA
• Wear clean or sterile gloves when inserting
  an intravascular catheter. Category IC.




       http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
         Aseptic technique
• Wearing clean gloves rather than sterile
  gloves is acceptable for the insertion of
  peripheral intravascular catheters if the
  access site is not touched after the
  application of skin antiseptics. Sterile gloves
  should be worn for the insertion of arterial
  and central catheters Category IA
• Wear clean or sterile gloves when changing
  the dressing on intravascular catheters.
  Category IC

       http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
       Cutaneous antisepsis
• Disinfect clean skin with an appropriate antiseptic
  before catheter insertion and during dressing
  changes. Although a 2% chlorhexidine-based
  preparation is preferred, tincture of iodine, an
  iodophor, or 70% alcohol can be used Category IA
• Allow the antiseptic to remain on the insertion site
  and to air dry before catheter insertion. Allow
  povidone iodine to remain on the skin for at least 2
  minutes, or longer if it is not yet dry before insertion.
  Category IB
• Do not apply organic solvents (e.g., acetone and
  ether) to the skin before insertion of catheters or
  during dressing changes Category IA
         http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
           Maximal barrier
            precautions
• Use aseptic technique including the use
  of a cap, mask, sterile gown, sterile
  gloves, and a large sterile sheet, for the
  insertion of CVCs (including PICCS) or
  guidewire exchange Category IA
• Use a sterile sleeve to protect
  pulmonary artery catheters during
  insertion Category IB

      http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
    Catheter-site dressing
          regimens
• Use either sterile gauze or sterile,
  transparent, semipermeable dressing to
  cover the catheter site Category IAB
  – If the patient is diaphoretic, or if the site is
    bleeding or oozing, a gauze dressing is preferable
    to a transparent, semi-permeable dressing.
    Category II.
• Replace catheter-site dressing if the dressing
  becomes damp, loosened, or visibly soiled
  Category IB

       http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
    Catheter-site dressing
          regimens
• Change dressings at least weekly for adult
  and adolescent patients depending on the
  circumstances of the individual patient.
  Category II
• Do not use topical antibiotic ointment or
  creams on insertion sites (except when using
  dialysis catheters) because of their potential
  to promote fungal infections and antimicrobial
  resistance. Category IA


       http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5110a1.htm
               Outline
•   Introduction
•   CDC recommendations
•   Sterile technique
•   Use of ultrasound
•   Confirmation of placement
     The Culture of Sterile
          Technique
• It is expected that all team members will
  maintain and monitor the sterile field
  and will intervene if sterility is
  compromised.
   Identify need for a CVC
• Hemodynamic monitoring
• Certain medications need central
  venous route
  – Caustic to vein or skin if infiltrated
  – E.g., TPN, vasoactive medications, Ca++
• A large number of ports needed
• Risk vs Benefit must always be weighed
• To minimize line days is optimal goal
       Room Preparation
• Bedside cart moved out of the room,
• Minimization of traffic is important
  – Procedure cart may be placed in doorway
    to reduce traffic
  – Sign stating "line insertion in progress"
    hung on back of Procedure cart or on door
Room Preparation
        • ICU rooms are
          jungles!
        • Make every effort to
          think ahead and
          move hanging items
        • Optimize placement
          of all life support
          devices
           Patient
   Positioning/Preparation
• Intravenous administration lines, tubes,
  and cables appropriately positioned.
• An accessible intravenous
  administration port is identified and
  appropriately positioned.
• Access to the respiratory circuit for
  suctioning and maintenance ensured
       Preliminary Steps
• Hand Hygiene: 30 seconds of soap and
  water or ethanol-based solution
  – When entering room
  – Before donning gloves.
• Time Out: As per the time out sheet
• Pre-medicate the patient, if needed
     Set-up of Equipment
• Open kit in appropriate location
  – The bedside table should have been
    cleared and cleaned during room prep
• Don gown & gloves in an appropriate
  location using sterile technique
• Drape: Best practice is a sufficiently
  large drape with adhesive fenestration
Donning gown and gloves
Donning gown and gloves
         Skin Preparation
• Recommended: Chlorhexidine applied via
  back and forth motions for 30 seconds. Allow
  to dry for 30 seconds.
• Alternative: Iodine-based solution applied via
  is spiral motions for three applications. The
  solution must dry prior to procedure.
• Remember to prepare an area which is large
  enough for the procedure.
 Application of Skin
Disinfectant & Drape
     Insertion of Catheter
• Place Line
  – The operator and observers are all
    responsible for the sterile field
  – Ultrasound is appropriate for routine use
• Confirm venous placement
  – DHMC policy: available www.dhmcicu.org -
    click on “Clinical links” in “About Critical
    Care”
  Completion of procedure
• Flush: Open white caps into kits, squirt saline
  into kit, place sterile 10 cc syringe into kit
   – Aspirate blood, then flush avoiding air
     injection
   – Keep ports capped to avoid air embolus
  – The operator flushes the line him/herself
• Dress Line
• Chest roentgenogram

				
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