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  • pg 1
Living                         report on Institutional Support
                               directed to homeless people in
                               Home@Work Partnership

Jana Kupkova
Silesian Diacony; Assistence

Piotr Olech
Pomeranian Forum
in Aid of Getting Out                    Report prepared in
of Homelessness;                        ESF/EQUAL projects
Agenda of Homelessness

Peter Zuidam
CvD; Home Sweet Home
Assisted Living
report on Institutional Support directed to
homeless people in Home@Work Partnership

Draft of the report

Part 1
Enter words ………………………………….….……………………. 3

Part 2
Diagnosis ……………………………………………….……………... 5

   @   Scale and characteristics of homelessness
       at national and regional level ……………………………………. 5

   @   System diagnosis ………………………………….………………... 12

   @   Description of our organisations ……………………………….. 18

Part 3
Assisted Living ………….………………………………………….. 22

   Part 3.1. Complex system ……………………………………………… 22

   Part 3.2. Assisted Living ……………………………………………….. 27

Part 4
Conclusions ……………………………………………………….… 46
               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Part 1. Enter words
The consortium Home@Work comprising of               a longer period. Moreover, education
Partnerships for Development within the              should be realized both in the occupational
EFS/EQUAL projects from Holland, Poland              and social fields. Another area is “Assisted
and Czech works on elaborating and                   Working”. The occupational activisation of
introducing     innovative     methods    of         the homeless as an element of their
supporting the socially excluded, mainly the         occupational inclusion is aimed at obtaining
homeless. In the consortium there are the            and preserving employment enabling
following Partnerships: “Home Sweet                  independent living and functioning. An
Home” administered by the Dutch CvD from             integrated and key part of the reintegration
Rotterdam, “Assistance” administered by              and social integration are activities aimed at
the Czech Silesian Diacony and “Agenda for           work with a view to final coming back to
Homelessness” administered by the Polish             the labour market.          Education and
St. Brother Albert Aid Society in Gdańsk.            psychological help must be supported with
                                                     a practical training of a given job or skill,
With a view to realizing its goals, the              especially in cases when somebody has
consortium has appointed a group of                  been outside the labour market for a longer
experts whose role is to work out a number           time.
of analyses packages of both system
solutions and individual solutions. The              Another area is “Assisted Living”, in other
group of experts hold a meeting twice a              words supported housing based on
year when they share experience in the               accompanying and assisting a homeless
field of the issue they are dealing with and         person in an independent flat outside
the experience and knowledge gained                  institutions providing shelter to numbers of
during the meetings is then summed up in             homeless people. What is more, the
a special report. The first of the problems          assistance is offered in the environment,
discussed from the package is reflected in           which means that the chances for
the report you are holding in your hands             independent living and functioning increase.
now and it refers to “Assisted Living”.              “Assisted               Living”           is
                                                     a certain kind of a stage leading to full
Before we present the report, we would               living independence. At this stage a
first like to explain a few terms we are             homeless person acquires or regains social
going to use in the report. The consortium           skills which are necessary for independent
Home@Work concentrates on several                    functioning.
significant spheres in which the help should
be provided to the homeless. The areas are           “Assisted Living” is a kind of institutional
connected with social and occupational               support, which is embraced by a wider
integration of the homeless; they aim at             process of creating a system supporting the
gaining independence by the homeless in              homeless in their getting out of
many dimensions (economic, psychical,                homelessness        and      gaining     living
administrative, social and housing).                 independence.        Hence,      the    H@W
                                                     consortium plans a certain kind of
One of the spheres is “Assisted                      specialization of institutions with a view to
Learning”. Supported education for the               adjusting the services to the needs and
homeless in the light of their tremendous            capacity of the homeless. Owing to the
educational     shortcomings      leads     to       complex and multiplicity character of
increasing their social competences, which           homelessness, aggravated by many other
in turn leads to their coping with the               problems, the assistance delivered to this
modern                 world                in       social group must be diversified and
a better way. Education calls for elaborating        integrated. Institutional help should be
suitable    methodology      and     didactics       carried out on various levels. The H@W
adjusted to the potential and limitations of         Partnership assumes that there will be a
the homeless who have been unemployed                hierarchisation of institutions providing
for                                                  shelter to the homeless, in brief presenting

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

itself in a formula: “from living rough             report to create, within the scope of this
through a night shelter and shelter to              publication, a homogenous system of
Assisted Living leading to independence”.           solutions in the sphere of institutional
The institutional „ladder‟ being a path to          assistance for the homeless. The reality in
independent living, created by various              Poland, Holland and Czech is different and
specialist institutions, will be presented in       it should be treated respectively. Apart
this report.                                        from this, the aim of the authors of the
The task of the hereby report is to present         report was to present the methods of
three separate concepts of providing                activities of individual institutions and to
institutional help, presented by the                indicate a consistent direction of activities
individual partners as well as to find              providing shelter to the homeless. Special
common elements of the concepts and the             attention was paid to the common elements
differences      between      the   presented       of the selected system solutions with a view
attitudes. The report, apart from a direct          to providing guidelines for possible joint
presentation of the institutional way of            recommendations
coming out of homelessness and gaining              for institutions providing shelter and
independence,                  is          to       solutions in the sphere of independent
a great extent devoted to presenting the            housing.
issue of homelessness itself and presenting
system solutions functioning in the three           The report was created on the basis of the
European countries. A wide scope of the             experiences of the Partners collected on an
problem of homelessness makes it possible           H@W meeting in Rotterdam held on 20th
to place the “Assisted Living” solution in          and 21st October 2005. The experiences
a wider perspective.         The element is         and comments were collected and extended
indispensable in deeper understanding of            in national reports prepared by individual
the subject of the hereby report.                   partners. The final report was coordinated,
                                                    collected and prepared by the “Agenda for
Finally, it should be said that is has not          Homelessness” Partnership.
been the intention of the authors of the

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Part 2. Diagnosis

@ Scale and characteristics of homelessness
        at national and regional level
To a smaller or bigger extent the problem             be     either    the   factors    determining
of homelessness refers to all the European            homelessness or equally well they might be
countries. The issue, however, has many               the results of it. The aftermath of the
faces and its sources are various and                 problem of homelessness, both on an
specific in case of individual countries.             individual level and a structural level; in the
Nevertheless, homelessness almost always              social, economic and political spheres, is
is                                                    tremendous. It is impossible to estimate the
a demonstration of the most visible and               material and non-material effects of
clear social exclusion.1 Homelessness is in           homelessness.
fact, the most outraging examples of
exclusion from social life, though obviously          If we treated the issue of homelessness
the fact that somebody does not possess a             from a wider perspective and took into
flat does not necessarily mean being                  account also the situation of people
excluded.                                             threatened with homelessness (a situation
                                                      of housing deprivation), then undoubtedly
It is also obvious that the size of the               even statistically the problem rises to
population of the homeless in statistically           a fundamental and key social issue beside
not high when compared to the total                   other   significant  social    issues    like
number of inhabitants of a given country.             unemployment, disability, alcohol addiction.
However, as we said before, the problem of
not having a home, i.e. the problem of                The reality shows that homelessness is
homelessness, is the extreme and radical              a process, a kind of a continuum within
exemplification of social exclusion. When             which a person often and fluently changes
analyzed from a „quality‟ perspective, we             his or her place of living; once staying at
must admit that the problem is one of the             friends‟, acquaintances‟ or family‟s, then
most significant and most difficult social            sleeping rough or staying at garden sheds,
problems concerning many countries in the             then staying at a shelter for the homeless,
whole world.                                          later renting a room or a flat and or ending
                                                      up living in basements of blocks of flats.
From an ethical and humanitarian point of             Homelessness in its nature a dynamic
view, the problem of homelessness is                  phenomenon; few are there cases when
unacceptable for modern democratic                    a homeless person has in his history only
societies, cherishing social justice and              one place of permanent staying. Usually,
sustainable development. The issue gain               homelessness in the strict sense of the
additional significance in the context of             word overlaps with situations of being
economic process of societies stratification.         threatened with homelessness.
The problem of homelessness is correlated
with other social issues such as alcoholism,          Since     after   having     analyzed    the
unemployment, poverty, family violence                phenomenon of homelessness in an
and family breakdown. The problems might              individual and structural context, we have
                                                      drawn a conclusion that in fact the problem
                                                      of homelessness is a fundamental issue for
 Bill Edgar, Henk Mert, Joe Doherty Third             the European social policy, then one should
Review of Statistics on Homelessness in Europe,
FEANTSA, Brussels 2004.

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ask whether the issue has been well-                  a physical lack of a house or flat; there are
diagnosed.                                            a     number      of    definitions   treating
                                                      homelessness from an individualistic and
And so, the key and fundamental element               psychological point of view. However, each
of each relation of helping and supporting,           definition, to a lesser or bigger extent,
be it medical or social, is preparing a               misses the point and does not reflect the
reliable empirical diagnosis. It is hard to           reality which is extremely complex.
imagine a doctor who is treating a patient            Definitions, owing to their abstract nature,
with medicines without prior examining and            have such a feature that they only reflect
diagnosing him. Applying inadequate                   the defined phenomena like in a mirror. We
methods of treatment may result in a                  are familiar with such a situation in physics,
disaster.                                             where an object examined by us is no
                                                      longer the same object due to the very fact
Individual help offered to the homeless,              that it is being examined. A certain solution,
without a wider diagnosis referring to the            though only half measure, is conducting a
scale and character of homelessness on                synthesis. Homelessness manifests itself on
a given territory, is in a way obvious and            a number of layers. On the administrative
we are able to understand that it is realized         and legal level, it means no legal title to an
on the basis of an individual diagnosis of            abode; in a physical sense it means lack of
a client. However, creating structural help           a home; in social terms it means an
without a context of empirical examination            inability to establish and maintain proper
and research seems an irrational and neck-            social relationships e.g. within a family or
breaking task. Defining the scale and                 neighborhood3, whereas in psychological
character of homelessness appears to be an            terms it means isolation and exclusion and
indispensable condition of a proper                   a whole compilation of individual problems
programming and planning help and                     resulting from it (alcohol addiction,
support even within the framework of                  homelessness         syndrome,       acquired
activity of several organizations and                 helplessness, etc). We might go as far as to
institutions. It should be remembered that            say that homelessness, owing to its impact
well-planned help will bring definite effects.        on various spheres of human life – physical,
                                                      psychical, social and administrative – is one
                                                      of the most difficult problems to solve as it
Still, on the level of many European                  is one of the most complex social issues. 4
countries there is no agreement as to what
the problem homelessness is. What is                  Homelessness in European countries has
more, in several European countries (e.g. in          got various aspects, which to much extent
Czech) there are no system definitions of             makes it difficult to define its scale. On the
the phenomenon of homelessness. There is              one hand it concerns young people, on the
also no binding definition functioning in             other middle-aged people and the elderly,
Europe.                                               still on the other mothers with children. We
                                                      encounter long term homelessness and
There are many scientific theories and                short term homelessness; hidden and
various definitions of homelessness –                 obvious homelessness.
especially in Europe – resulting in distorting
the issue by addressing it in a                       We encounter homelessness in public
compartmentalized or partial way. There               places not meant for living ( the so called
are definitions referring to the legal and            rough      sleeping);   homelessness      in
administrative regulations concerning the             institutions such as shelters and overnight
problem (lack of abode); common sense
definitions,           referring            to        3
                                                       Piotr Olech; Aktywizacja zawodowa osób
                                                      bezdomnych; Bezrobocie – co robić?
 Maciej Dębski, Piotr Olech; Socjodemograficzny       (Occupational Activisation of the Homeless
Portret Zbiorowości Ludzi Bezdomnych                  People; Unemployment – What to do?) FISE;
Województwa Pomorskiego – raport z badań              Warszawa 2006
(Sociodemographic Portrayal of the Population           Bill Edgar, Henk Mert, Joe Doherty Third
of the Homeless in the Pomeranian Region – a          Review of Statistics on Homelessness in Europe,
survey); Pomost; Gdańsk 2005                          FEANTSA, Brussels 2004.

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shelters or supported flats; we also have a
kind of hidden homelessness in which case
people stay temporarily and not out of their
own will, at friends‟ or acquaintances‟, or
stay in sub-standard accommodation. The
problem is clearly visualized in an
innovative    European       Typology    on
Homelessness and Housing Exclusion
ETHOS5,     constituting   an    operational
definition of the issue of homelessness,
presented below.

 ETHOS worked out by the European
Observatory of Homelessness and Data
Collection Working Group with the FEANTSA.
FEANTSA is an international organisation
associating over 90 non-governmental
organisations dealing with the issue of
homelessness in whole Europe.

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European Typology on Homelessness and Housing Exclusion: Revision of ETHOS

CONCEPTUAL                 OPERATIONAL                         Generic Definition               National
    CATEGORY                 CATEGORY                                                             Sub-
                   1.     People Living          1.1       Rough Sleeping (no access to
ROOFLESS                  Rough                            24-hour accommodation)/ No
                   2.     People staying in a    2.1       Overnight shelter
                          night shelter

                  3.      People in              3.1       Homeless hostel
                          accommodation          3.2       Temporary Accommodation
                          for the homeless
HOUSELESS         4.      People in              4.1       Women‟s shelter
                          Women‟s Shelter                  accommodation
                  5.      People in              5.1       Temporary accommodation /
                          accommodation                    reception centres (asylum)
                          for immigrants         5.2.      Migrant workers
                  6.      People due to be       6.1.      Penal institutions
                          released from          6.2.      Medical institutions
                  7.      People receiving       7.1       Residential care for homeless
                          support (due to                  people
                          homelessness)          7.2       Supported accommodation
                                                 7.3       Transitional accommodation
                                                           with support
                                                 7.4       Accommodation with support

                   8.     People living in       8.1       Temporarily with family/friends
INSECURE                  insecure               8.2       No legal (sub)tenancy
                          accommodation          8.3       Illegal occupation of building
                                                 8.4       Illegal occupation of land
                   9.     People living          9.1       Legal orders enforced (rented)
                          under threat of        9.2       Re-possession orders (owned)
                   10.    People living          10.1.     Police recorded incidents of
                          under threat of                  domestic violence
                   11.     People living in      11.1.     Mobile home / caravan
                          temporary / non-       11.2.     Non-standard building
INADEQUATE                standard               11.3.     Temporary structure
                   12.    People living in       12.1.     Unfit for habitation (under
                          unfit housing                    national legislation; occupied)
                   13.    People living in       13.1.     Highest national norm of
                          extreme                          overcrowding

  The latest version of the definition. Owing to wide-ranging consultations of the definition ETHOS and
their effects, the decision has been to adjust the definition to the needs of individual European states.
Each state may, on the basis of the main operational categories, adjust the ETHOS to local specificity and
character of the issue of homelessness.

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After this general introduction we will               accommodation (dilapidated and also
now have a look at what the issue of                  overcrowded), in social flats etc.
homelessness is like in individual
countries, i.e. Czech, Holland and                 Causes of homelessness
Poland.                                            According to research, the most frequent
                                                   cause of homelessness in the Czech
                                                   republic is:
                                                        loss of occupation (23 %),
                                                        divorce (20 %),
                                                        leaving the family (11 %),
                                                        execution of a punishment (5 %),
                                                        mismanagement (3 %),
                                                        withdrawal from hospital treatment
                                                           (2 %),
                                                        other causes (29 %),
Some general facts and figures on
                                                        voluntary decision (7 %) – but we
Czech Republic
                                                           have to take their psychological
                                                           condition and the others into
The homelessness problem is the theme                      account.
that it has not been spoken and known for
a long time in the Czech Republic. The total       Sociological data about homeless
population of the Czech Republic is rated on       population in the Czech republic
10,2 mln inhabitants The total number of
homeless people has not been known in the          Women comprise 10 – 15 % of homeless
Czech Republic. According to estimation,           people in our republic (in USA and EU it is
there were 100 thousand homeless people            whole 25 %).
in 1998 and it has been increasing 10 %
every year. Presenting of the clients              The age structure of czech homeless people
(homeless people) is duplicating many              looks as follows:
times. Considering that succession of the               4 % of homeless people in age of
asylum care has been missing (there is no                  0 – 18 years
chance to obtain the flat), the clients have            9 % in age of 18 – 25 years
been migrating between the institutions                 19 % in age of 25 – 40 years
offering the social cares.                              28 % in age of 40 – 50 years
                                                        25 % in age of 50 – 62 years
Forms of homelessness
                                                        15 % of homeless people older
                                                           than 62 years.
We could divide the homeless population
into the three parts:
                                                   The highest adjusted education of homeless
a) Obvious homeless – people living in the
                                                       34 % skilled,
   streets,        stations,         seeking
                                                       30 % primary education,
   accommodation in winter reception
                                                       7 % secondary education with
   centres, asylum houses etc.
                                                           leaving examination,
b) Hidden homeless – people without a
                                                       6 % secondary education without
   shelter that do not turn to public or
                                                           leaving examination,
   charitable    services    to   find    an
                                                       1 % higher than secondary
c) Potential homeless – people whose
                                                       1 % unfinished primary education,
   needs have been unknown or partly
                                                       21 % undetected.
   known to authority. People that have
   been living in the uncertain conditions
                                                   Where the homeless people sleeping out:
   of     rentable     flats    (sometimes
                                                       21 % in lodging house, reception
   unwholesome), in houses appointed to
                                                          centre or asylum house,
   demolition,          in        makeshift

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       15 % at the station,                         Estimated rate of cannabis consumers is
       13 % at the acquaintances,                   about 500.000 persons, mostly youngsters.
       2 % at the lodgings,                         The alcohol addiction is estimated on 10 %
       1 % in a squat,                              of the total national population, definition is
       48    %     another,   changeable            8 consumptions on daily scale.
                                                     It is known that the peer groups of
Further information:                                 homeless persons are poly drugs users,
     25 % of czech homeless are                     combined with alcohol consumption.
        persons in disability retirement,            The loss of sustainable housing is
     25 % of homeless have an                       frequently found in the combinations
        experience with children‟s home,             addictive disorders, mental disorders, social
     15 % of homeless have an                       economic problems, divorces or loss of
        experience with mental home.                 significant spouse by death.
                                                     It is also a fact that the de-
                                                     institutionalization of the mental health
                                                     longstay facilities in the mid eighties of the
                                                     20th century caused an increase of the
                                                     influx of mentally ill, mostly psychiatric or
                                                     mental retarded, towards the social
                                                     shelters. For them the last resort.

                                                     Some general facts and figures on
NETHERLANDS                                          Rotterdam.

Some general facts and figures on                    Rotterdam has a population of 596.597
Netherlands                                          inhabitants, is the second larges city in the
                                                     Netherlands. Like any big city in Western
                                                     Europe, Rotterdam is struggling with typical
In 2005 the total population of the                  urban problems. In a socio-economic
Netherlands is rated on 16.258.000                   perspective,     Rotterdam    lags    behind
inhabitants, (source CBS, central bureau of          Amsterdam, Den Haag and Utrecht, the
statistics). The estimated figures for
                                                     other major Dutch cities. This applies for
homeless persons are rated on a variable of          example, the low average levels of
25.000 till 35.000 persons. The explanation          education, employment and household
for these estimated figures is found in the          income.
inability of the National Monitor on                 One of the central problems of the city is
Homelessness to connect the figures on
                                                     the selective nature of migration. In broad
homelessness on the personal identity of             terms many underprivileged and deprived
the clients. The shelter providers report
                                                     people move to the city and stay in the city,
their client related activities to the local         the higher incomes tend to leave the city.
government on a percentage level. There is           Rotterdam has to deal with relatively high
no overview on the presumed mobility of              levels   of    social   deprivation,    social
the client group.                                    segregation, crime and vandalism.
                                                          45,7% of this population is
A research of the Government Audit Office
in 2004 provided the estimated figure of                  (Pre-) school age is 18,5 % of the
3200 till 4700 homeless youngsters. The
age definition for youngster is aged until 25
                                                          The elderly people (> 65 years)
years old. The addiction caretakers provide
                                                             represent 14,6%.
the figures for drug addicts. In 2005 these
                                                          Individuals depending on social
figures are 26.000 persons are known to be
                                                             benefit, 14,4%,
drug addict. In the Netherlands drug
                                                          Employed labour 59 %, with a low
addiction is defined as daily and persistent
                                                             income 55%.
use of the hard drugs heroine and cocaine.
                                                          Unemployed is 14,2% of the
Cannabis is defined as a soft drug and has
a libertine reception in the legal system.

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       13.500 school kids dropout of the             welfare. When we take into account the
        school system on an annual base               area of the biggest occurrence of
    (source COS 2004, center for research             homelessness it may be said that the
    and statistics Rotterdam).                        problem refers mainly to large urban
                                                      communities. Over 50 % of the homeless
Total population of the region Rijnmond is            stay in institutions for the homeless
1.200.000       inhabitants      with  22             (overnight shelters and shelters). The
municipalities. Rotterdam is a center                 remaining part of the homeless are rough
municipality for the region Rijnmond.                 sleepers, or having no permanent abode
                                                      stay at their family‟s or friends‟, live in
The Social Scientific Department of the               garden sheds or huts on company plots of
municipal    government    of Rotterdam               land (POD).7
investigated the presence and needs of
homeless population in 2002(SWA, J.                   Some general facts and figures on the
Maaskant)                                             Pomeranian Region and Gdańsk
The results: about 4500 homeless persons,
of which 1500 rough sleepers.                         The Pomeranian Region is one of the
In 2004 the research of Intraval showed               16 regions in Poland. It is inhabited by over
the figure of 5000 drug addicts of which              2 million people. Gdańsk is the main city in
3000 problematic drug addicts. This last              the region as well as one of the largest
population is an intermittent user of the             cities in Poland. The population of Gdańsk
shelter system.                                       is ca 500 thousand; together with Gdynia
                                                      and Sopot it constitutes an urban area
                                                      called Tricity (population ca 800 thousand
                                                      in total).

                                                      On the basis of a survey conducted by the
                                                      Pomeranian Forum in Aid of Getting out of
                                                      Homelessness from 9th December 20058 we

POLAND                                                7
                                                        (description – Julia Wygnańska, Statistical data
                                                      on homelessness in Poland. Report for the
Some general facts and figures on
                                                      European Observatory of Homelessness
Poland                                                FEANTSA.) POD – a formation dating back to the
                                                      end of the 19th century, reinforced in the
Poland is one of the biggest European                 communist times and which has survived, in
countries, inhabited by over 38 million               better or worse condition, up to day. The
people. Due to a lack of reliable research –          existence of the PODs is regulated by a law and
it is estimated that the population of the            according to the definition included in the act
homeless ranges between 30 and 30                     from 6May 1981 on company plots, a POD is “a
thousand people (data from the Ministry of            plot of arable land divided into individual plots
                                                      meant for cultivation by entitled physical
Labour and Social Policy). The estimates
                                                      persons; the plot has got equipment allowing for
take into account both the homeless                   such cultivation and is
staying in non-standard accommodation                 a place suitable for relaxation.” In compliance
and in shelters. However, due to the                  with the ideology of the socialist Poland, the aim
discrepancies between the definitions of              of the plots was providing people of labour and
homelessness, the figure might not be                 their families with a possibility to actively relax
precise. In the short history of Polish social        and to cultivate the land for their own needs.
welfare, there have also been estimates               The plots are situated in various parts of towns
that there are as many as 500 thousand                and cities, often in close vicinity of the centres,
                                                      or on the outskirts. They are divided into smaller
homeless people.
                                                      plats with usually a small hut or a garden shed.
On the basis of the available data it may be          There water supply to cater for the needs of the
stated that a statistical homeless person is          plot owners and of the plants.
usually a grown-up lonely man at an age of
41-50,     unemployed,       of    vocational         8
                                                        Survey titled “Sociodemographic Portrayal of
education, provided with support by social            the Population of the Homeless in the
                                                      Pomeranian Region” realised within the project

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may state that there are no fewer than                 existence. It seems that the vast
2 853 homeless people in the Pomeranian                majority of the homeless do not work
Region. In Gdańsk alone, there are 807                 (almost 90%), though they do have some
homeless people, whereas in the whole                  qualifications (over 60%) enabling them to
Tricity - 1 275. The figures refer to both             work. There is also a high percentage of
rough sleepers and people staying within               people who are not registered in labour
the accommodation provided by institutions             offices as unemployed or looking for a job
for the homeless (institutional and outside-           (36%). The majority of the homeless, even
institutional homelessness, 2 first ETHOS              if they earn their living, do not have an
categories).                                           employment contract (70%) and they
                                                       declare social benefits obtained from
Generally speaking, a typical homeless                 various institutions or seasonal jobs to
person is a man of vocational                          be their source of income. Most
education, aged 51-60, unemployed,                     homeless people are uneducated – they
disabled, alcohol-addicted, seeking                    completed only primary education (almost
support within the social welfare.                     40%), or vocational education (over 40%).

The survey showed clearly that the problem             There are 24.4% of the homeless at the
of homelessness concerns mainly larger                 initial stage of homelessness (0-2 years); at
urban communities. The homeless living                 the warning stage (2-4 years) – 18.7%,
in Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia account                    adaptative stage (4-6 years) – 19.3%,
for almost half of all the surveyed                    chronic stage (6-10 years) – 21.9% and at
people (45.6%). If we added the                        the stage of permanent homelessness (over
remaining percent in the remaining towns               10 years) – 15.6%. An average period of
of the region (e.g. Słupsk 11.7%) it would             staying homeless is over 6 years. The
occur that more homeless people live in a              homeless are in majority of case single
big city than outside it.                              people 82.2%).
The survey also showed that the ratio
between institutional homelessness (staying            The homeless often have serious health
within the support of institutions for the             problems; over 40% of them have got
homeless)       and       outside-institutional        a medical statement of proven disability/an
homelessness (sleeping rough), was as                  invalid certificate.
60% to 40%.
                                                       It may be stated that the problem of
In institutions for the homeless there is              homelessness is in most cases accompanied
staying over 50% of the whole population               by unemployment, disability and alcohol
of the homeless; in unfit places (e.g. public          addiction. Alcohol was chosen as the most
places like railway stations, heat distribution        significant cause of homelessness (over
centres, parks, shafts, etc) - over 20%, in            40%). A breakdown of a partners‟
garden sheds and POD huts - over 15%;                  relationship is second important cause of
with the remaining part of the population              homelessness (almost 40%). As for the
staying in hospitals or penitentiary                   structural    causes   of   homelessness,
institutions. Last year the majority of the            mentioned by the homeless themselves,
homeless (staying in institutions for the              was eviction and driving them out of
homeless spent over 75% of the time                    homes.
there, whereas outside institutions         the
population of the homeless stayed over                 The population of the homeless is an aging
40% of the time in unfit for living places,            population. In 2001 the predominant age of
and plots of land (over 50%).                          the homeless was ranging between 41 and
                                                       50 for the whole region (including Tricity
Taking social and occupational engagement              and counties outside Tricity); in 2003 it was
of the people we may speak of a lack of                still 41 to 50, whereas in Tricity alone it was
activity in this respect rather than of its            51 to 60. The survey for the year 2005
                                                       shows that the predominant age for the
                                                       whole region is 51 to 60. A comparative
“Agenda for Homelessness” within the                   analysis clearly shows that the tendency is

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

such that the population of the homeless is
getting older.

@         Systems diagnosis

CZECH REPUBLIC                                         NETHERLANDS

There is still missing the basic thing like            System diagnosis – national level
legal definition of “citizen without a shelter”
in the Czech republic. No sector of Ministry           The social and ethical obligation to provide
of Labour and Social Affairs (or other                 shelter and care for the homeless is
relevant authority) is interested in the               prescribed in the Welfare Law. The main
citizens without a shelter. This problem               function of the social shelter system is
should deserve its own separate agenda                 defined as the obligation for every
with regard to its range. The number of                municipality to provide a temporally safety
citizens without a shelter is alarming and             net for the citizens. This safety net is
still increasing in the Czech Republic. We             combined with an active support in problem
can suspect that planning deregulation of              solving and adjustment. In case necessary
rent will rise up their number quickly. One            to refer the client towards the health care
part of Czech Constitution is also                     systems.
Declaration of basic rights and freedoms.              The shelter system has a division for
There are also very interesting and often              battered women and their children and for
breaking laws. There is: “Everyone who                 general shelter needs mostly used for single
lives in material lack has a right to help that        males.This paper is concerning the general
it is necessary to ensure the necessities of           shelter system.
life (contribution 30, article 2)”. It appears
from this that the homeless people do not              The national government selected 43
ask – homeless people have a right.                    center municipalities with a specific
                                                       obligation in providing a regional care and
We can observe now that the big groups of              shelter system. These center municipalities
citizens are disoriented by changes and                receive a special purpose financial support
unclearness in legislation and official                by the ministry of Social Affairs and
procedures and increasing number of                    Employment.
opposing information sometimes. It is                  The Netherlands has a National Action Plan
necessary to provide the complex services              (NAP) that describes the policies on
to citizens and also for homeless people -             prevention and adaptation of homelessness
the first step for it will be the legal                on national and regional level.
determination of homeless people in Czech
law system.                                            System diagnosis – local level

                                                       The night shelter capacity for rough
                                                       sleepers in Rotterdam is 323 beds. This
                                                       a daily competition and shortage in

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

demand. A significant part of the rough                    institution screens the client who
sleepers create a "personal form" of shelter               applies to this law. After establishment
in public space.                                           of the legal claim, the Health Insurance
In Rotterdam there are four institutions                   Company provides the money to the
active on the care and shelter of                          care provider. The care provider is
homelessness.                                              obliged to account for the delivered
The two main institutions are the Salvation                service to the Health Insurance
Army and CVD. Also two confessional                        Company. The client must affirm on a
Calvinist institutions are active on a smaller             quarterly base the delivered service in
scale, de Ontmoeting (day shelter) and                     the care-taking contract. The client has
Paulus Church night and day shelter with                   "ownership" on the provided AWBZ
service center.                                            money. Within the AWBZ law CVD is
Admittance to the services of the shelters is              providing the all the functions except
granted by the municipal service of Social                 medical treatment, this is reserved for
Affairs. Clients report themselves at the                  the medical professionals.
night shelter; there is an intake procedure,
collecting personal data and care needs.               Characteristics of the target group
The shelter reports this client information to         homeless persons shows that it is a mixture
the municipal service of Social Affairs. After         of psychosocial loss in personal and social
sleeping for at least 17 nights a special              competences,        addictive     problems,
social benefit for the homeless is granted to          psychiatric disorders, social economic
the client. Some clients compensate this               problems, caused by poverty, debts and
lack of financial support by cash paying at            financial penalties ordered by the justice
the entrance of the shelter. The general               system.
entrance fee is €3,50. Persons with no                 It is evidence based that a unilateral
residence permits are depending on an                  approach by providing shelter is insufficient
informal form of economy. They are also                for the existential problems of homeless
excluded form the social benefit system.               persons.
And for the follow-up assistance; in fact              Shelter with a focus on passive lodging
they're trapped on shelter level.                      disables the client. It is enhances the
                                                       negative self-esteem and is a force in
The shelter services are funded by two                 demoralization.
main financial streams.
1. The basic funding for the institutions is           Policy issues
   provided by the municipal service of
   Social Affairs, concerning costs for                As stated before in this paper on national
   organization,      (rent    of     building,        and local level there are huge transitions in
   maintenance and food supplies) and                  the Dutch society. Not only in the
   wages of the professional employees.                caretaking and insurance paragraph but
   The professionals are mainly educated               merely in the general vision how the society
   on                                                  must cope with the modern western
   a secondary level in social pedagogic               European issues.
   skills or as social case worker, a tertiary         For example;
   level of professional education.                          The immigration issue, transferring
2. On a client bound level, with the                            the larger cities in multicultural
   restrictions that the client has a health                    environments.
   insurance, there's additional money for                   The level of participation of
   special services and support. These                          citizens in the labour process.
   additional funds is provided by the                       Reforming the labour market and
   General Law on Special Costs of illness                      make it accessible for lower skilled
   (AWBZ) Every Dutch citizen or                                applicants.
   inhabitant pays for this law by the                       Reduction of the large volume of
   general tax system. There is no                              inactive     citizens   and     their
   difference in wage or social benefit.                        dependency on welfare and social
   Every               citizen            pays                  benefits.
   a      remittance.       An    independent

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        The attitude of the citizens toward          school, ethnical youngster with a high
         its civil authority and government           grade of criminality, and other multiple
         often marked as passive and                  criminal offenders. The message is here
         consumptive has to be bending                that the group of vulnerable rough sleepers
         back to an innovative and pro-               were an instrument of governmental
         active citizen that takes its own            experience.
         responsibilities, a withdrawal of
         the State.                                   The effect is also that this governmental
        The (re) construction of a civil             instrument called a chain approach
         society,                                     between police, justice department, city
        Last but not last, due to the global         government and care providing institutions,
         developments, the issue of public            is successful on other social issues like the
         safety.                                      fight against domestic violence. Pro-active
                                                      approaches can prevent homelessness of
Restricting    towards     the    Rotterdam           women and children. And also prevent the
situation, the main policy effects were the           influx of homeless man.
reintegration and activation of the
homeless, but most off all the prevention in
order to decrease the volume of homeless
persons. This has been realized by
interventions in the funding and justification
systems the care proving institutions like
The reform of the Social Welfare Act
(WWB) and Law on Labour Disability (WIA)              “Right to housing is guarantied by The
will also stimulate the improved CVD                  Constitution of Poland:
reintegration activities. CVD has adapted to
this interventions as showed in this paper.           “Public authorities shall pursue policies to
                                                      satisfy the housing needs of the citizens, in
In relation too the existing issue of the             particular     combating      homelessness,
homeless, programs are developed by the               promoting the development of low-income
City Department of Social Affairs to prevent          housing and supporting initiatives aimed at
and avoid evictions caused by debt                    acquisition of a home by each citizen.”
problems. Covenants with social housing
providers, the energy sector and bailiffs,            Implementation of the right to housing is
initiated by the city government is an                still far behind The Constitution. Since over
attempt of early intervention to prevent              fifteen years major service provider for the
housing      eviction     and        reduces          homeless has been non-governmental
homelessness.                                         organizations      (about     80%-90%       of
                                                      services). Naturally, they started to grow in
On the other hand it has to be stated that            niches were social problems were
in the political scenery the measurements             concentrated and addressed neither by
the city government has been taking merely            commercial       institutions    nor    public
focused on the public nuisance the rough              authorities. Most founding came from
sleeping homeless persons cause. How                  private donors and European sources
ever, the legislation that the city                   (PHARE, ACCESS) but organizations claimed
government developed and established via              public financing as in fact what they were
the official democratic trajectory has an             doing      was    one     of   the   statutory
effect on each citizen in this community.             responsibilities of the state. Public
Indeed the effect on the most public                  administration was not eager to accept it
nuisances caused by homeless citizens is              based on argumentation that non profits
positive; reduction of nuisance by them is            are hard to control their services keep no
open to objectification. But the instrument           standards and are too expensive, besides
actually is adapted for new groups causing            they are established for private not public
public nuisance, youngster dropping out of            purposes.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

                                                       basic draft which is probably implemented
It was finally regulated by 2003 Public                in full variety of options. Issue under
Benefit Organizations and Volunteering Act             debate is of equal access to public financing
which introduced definitions of a non-                 for    non-governmental        and      public
governmental organization and public                   administration bodies implementing same
benefit activity. By the Act all organizations         kind of service and the role of local
implementing public benefit tasks are                  budget‟s structure in this process.
partners to public administration and should
receive either full financing or co-financing          Since 2004, each gmina is obliged to
for their implementation. One of public                prepare Local Government and Non-
benefit tasks is „social welfare, including aid        Governmental Organizations Cooperation
offered to families and individuals with               Program (based on 2003 Public Benefit
social problems, and work to offer equal               Organizations and Volunteering Act) and
opportunities to such families and                     Local Strategy for Addressing Social
individuals‟. Since then services for the              Problems (based on 2004 Social Welfare
homeless as well as other activities of NGOs           Act). Both documents have to be based on
have either been financed on contract (pl.             needs assessment and prepared in
zadania zlecone) or project (pl. zadania               cooperation with non-profit sector. It is an
powierzone) basis.                                     opportunity for non-profits to shape local
                                                       policy so that it includes priorities vital for
Financing on project basis is probably most            their clients. In theory, priorities set in both
common in service provision for the                    kinds of programs should be a base for
homeless. Usually on annual basis,                     projecting local government‟s budgets and
although three or five year long financing             spending directives. So far, programs for
agreements are used in some towns, local               each year are created much later than
government publishes calls for proposals               budgets and are considered to be of little
for     non-profit     organizations     for           importance. In 2004 little less than 60% of
implementation of number of priorities.                gminas have passed NGO–administration
Service providers can apply and get a grant            Cooperation Programs.
of 70 to 80 % of total project costs. Grants
are awarded according to criteria set                  Statutory      obligations       of     public
beforehand but it is not uncommon that                 authorities
least expensive projects win.
                                                       Former Social Welfare Act of 1990 was
Financing on contract basis requires                   replaced by a new one in 2004 introducing
administration to cover full service costs             additional instruments to support the
according to service description (most often           homeless. Public authority which is still
by performance measures), access to the                responsible for supporting the homeless is
service (by/without referral) and kinds of             local government and it is gmina‟s, own
clients. Full financing is questionable as             responsibility‟ which means it has to be
rates are usually set by local government              covered from gmina‟s own budget (as
itself and are much lower that cost of the             opposed to “passed responsibilities” that
service as claimed by service providers. In            have to be implemented by gmina but are
fact, local government contracts out                   financed       from     national    budget).
services and provides full financing only by           Homelessness remains one of „difficult life
definition and service providers have to use           situations‟ that oblige the State to provide
additional sources to be able to provide the           welfare. Some changes were made in legal
service of certain quality. It is a trade of           definition of the homeless person.
between      independence      and     stable
financing.                                             By 2004 Social Welfare Act a homeless
                                                       person is defined by three separate criteria.
It has to be mentioned that since providing            To be homeless a person needs to meet
shelter to the homelessness is a                       one of them although it is not clearly stated
responsibility of local government financing           in the Act. According to first one a
strategies vary a lot across the country.              „homeless person is a person not living
Two strategies described above provide                 in housing premises as defined by

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

regulation on protecting rights of
tenants and hosing stock of local                     General rule of social welfare in Poland has
government (gmina)‟. Regulation on                    always been to support a person in her own
protecting rights of tenants and housing              community and place of living. Social
stock of local government defines a premise           Welfare Act states it clearly that gmina is
as a place serving satisfying housing needs           obliged to support each homeless person „in
of people and a place used by artists to do           need‟.
their artistic and cultural work. Temporary
stay facilities like dormitories, hostels,            Major kind of service for the homeless as
tourist accommodation and other places                defined by 2004 Social Welfare Act is right
serving tourist and rest purposes are                 of each person in need to receive
excluded.                                             „shelter/refuge,             meal         and
                                                      indispensable clothing‟. This is gmina‟s
According to second criteria a „homeless              obligation and is fulfilled „by placing people
person is a person nowhere registered                 in need in temporary accommodation like
for permanent stay as defined by                      night shelter, shelter, homeless house and
regulation on people‟s registry and                   other places dedicated to serve this
personal        identification        cards‟.         purpose‟. Terms like temporary, night
Regulation on people‟s registry and                   shelter, shelter homeless house are not
personal identification cards requires each           defined.    As    a      consequence      local
citizen to be registered in certain gmina for         governments struggling with financial
permanent or temporary stay. Adequate                 deficits tend to interpret it as narrow as
address note has to be included in personal           possible and only the most simple services
identification card that each person is               are provided from gminas founding. For
supposed to have. It is possible to be                example, hardly any transitional housing
deregistered and nowhere registered again.            and supported accommodation is covered
To become registered a person needs to                from local governments resources.
provide a legal title for an apartment under
the address he or she wants to be                     New tool was introduced in 2004 Act and it
registered or can be registered by people             is   Individual      Plan     for   Exiting
holding the legal title for that apartment.           Homelessness, which can be designed an
The purpose is to prescribe each person to            implemented      by    social   worker    in
teritotry and administration of specific              cooperation with homeless person. Plan can
gmina. As providing for the homeless and              be designed either by social worker
satisfying housing needs of citizens is a             employed by public welfare centre or by
responsibility    of     local  governments           non-profit organization.
(gminas) this regulation is vital for
awarding support to the homeless. Gminas              Last but not least of local government‟s
developed interesting strategies to deal              obligation it to bury a homeless person.
with homeless clients who dwell on their
territory and are registered somewhere                In terms of access to medical treatment
else. Holding registration is definitely vital        very important regulation was added to
for being recognized by administration. A             2004 Public Health Services Act. Beginning
person can apply for social housing only in           with 2005 homeless people implementing
gmina of permanent stay or in gmina of last           Individual Plan for Exiting Homelessness
permanent stay.                                       are entitled to use medical services
                                                      financed from national budget within the
The third criterion was added in 2004 Act.            national health insurance system. Social
It states that a „homeless person is one              Welfare Center is obliged to pay health
not living in a habitable premise                     insurance fees for clients under Individual
registered for permanent stay in a                    Plan for Exiting Homelessness. Previously,
dwelling in which she or he cannot                    access to medical care for the homeless
live‟. This option was added to include               was regulated by 2004 Social Welfare Act
people who did not meet other criteria and            by gmina‟s obligation „to award and pay
still were obviously homeless for example             benefits to cover cost of health services for
victims of domestic violence.                         the homeless (…) being not able to cover

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

that cost based on health insurance                       Lack of standardisation and
regulations of National Health Fund‟. Till                 specialisation of institutions for the
2005 health institutions were resilient to                 homeless in law
provide treatment to the homeless as it was               Stereotypes connected with the issue of
not granted that welfare centers would                     homelessness (occurring among the
cover the costs. Theoretically, a homeless                 authorities and local communities)
person in need of urgent medical treatment                Economic and financial problems of
would have to go through procedures                        many Polish NGOs
required to receive welfare services (long
record needs to be filled in and social
worker is required to visit a person at home
and evaluate her income), before being

In January 2005 eviction regulations were
changed in order to eliminate „street
eviction‟. Prior to 2005, eviction orders
could have been executed without the
obligation to provide social housing. The
most vulnerable tenants were exempt from
that regulation and it was not possible to
evict pregnant women, the disabled,
families raising a disabled child and the
unemployed etc. Eviction to the street was
always strongly opposed by numerous
interested parties, including homeless
service providers. As a result of this
opposition the regulation was abandoned in
January 2005 a person may only be evicted
provided a social housing apartment or
“substitute apartment” is available. The
regulations are strict on not allowing
eviction to a homeless or night shelter. The
goal of introducing substitute apartments
was to decrease long waiting lists of people
to whom eviction was ordered and could
not have been executed due to lack of
social housing apartments. The standards
of substitute apartments are even lower
those of social housing (e.g. an outside
toilet, 5m2 of usable area per person,
possibility to warm the space up). The
question is whether there will be enough
substitute apartments in gmina‟s housing
stock to make the goal achieved. Activists
still argue that eviction to a substitute
apartment is in fact eviction to the street
due to the fact that, sooner or later, its
victims move into shelters.”9

Policy issues

 Julia Wygnański; Policy Paper for the European
Observatory of Homelessness FEANTSA, 2005.

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

@ Description of our institutions

                                                             REINTEGRA
                                                             RPIC-ViP s.r.o.
                                                             Slezská univerzita v Opavě
                                                             Statutární město Karviná
                                                             Úřad práce Karviná

Silesian Diacony

Silesian Diacony is a non-government non-
profit organization providing its services in
the social and medical area in the process it
puts into practice the Biblical principles of         CvD - NETHERLANDS
love and service to people in need and
distress. In the centre of attention of               CVD description and characterization.
Silesian Diacony are people with disability,          Rehabilitation by forms of activation and
elderly people, the homeless and all those            reintegration is the main ideological
who are facing any difficulties. Among the            motivation and inspiration for CVD in Home
thirty centres there are daily centres for            Sweet Home. It„s also a fact that the
children and youth with disability,                   development of the re-activation en
shelters and hostels for men and women in             reintegration in the labour process in an
distress, homes for senior citizens,                  innovative activities for CVD as a shelter
counselling centres, field services for senior        provider.
citizens and other social and medical                 CVD is making a progressive transition as
services. Centres, in which more than 300             an organization by focusing on the key
employees take care of the clients, are               products, welfare, housing and labour
located throughout the Moravian–Silesian              participation.
region, and in its organization they are
divided into four regions and one                     CVD     is   a   non     confessional     and
specialized section.                                  multifunctional welfare institution located in
The activities, we realize in field of work           CVD‟s main objectives are welfare, housing
with the people without the shelter, are              and working.
financed from several sources:
     subsidies of Ministry of Labour                 Mission statement: “we help people in
        a Social Affairs,                             a way we would like to be helped
     ESF                                             ourselves”.
     benefits of towns,
     client‟s payments for services.                 Ideological CVD opinions
                                                         1. CVD aims at enhancing the
ESF/EQUAL Project "Assistance"                               capacities of the clients so they can
                                                             ensure a manageable position
Partner‟s are:                                               embedded in a social network. This
                                                             can be called as the CVD paradigm
       Silesian Diacony                                     or meta frame of reference.
       AKLUB Centrum poradenství                        2. This also means CVD is focusing on
        a vzdělávání                                         the client as a responsible citizen.
       ANATAS s.r.o.                                        A vulnerable citizen, but still a
       Hospodářská komora okresu                            citizen embedded in the open
        Karviná                                              society with all the rights and
       Moravskoslezský kraj                                 duties Dutch society offers every

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

        civil person. Dialectic to inclusion is        The       changing         agenda          on
        the fact of exclusion, as stated               homelessness.
        before our services are bound and              In the coming year 2006 the transition of
        not fully accessible for persons with          national responsibilities towards the local
        no residence permit.                           government will chance the welfare and
   3.   CVD also adapt the medical                     homelessness agendas. Anticipating on this
        paradigm to its own paradigm, we               transformation the city government of
        deal with clients and not with                 Rotterdam took the following initiatives:
        patients, and we adjust the abilities               Central screening, registration and
        of the client and do not focus on                      clearance of the admittance to the
        the disabilities or malfunction of the                 shelters,
        client.                                             Conditions       for   inclusion    and
   4.   CVD accepts actual level and life                      exclusion terms of the clients,
        style of existence of some of the                   Conditions for the shelter providers,
        clients as being the maximum level                     how to give account of the
        of existence.                                          provided client related services, on
   5.   CVD want to treat homeless                             a personal identified level, with
        persons with respect and let them                      time table and level of adjustment
        experience their dignity.                              on housing skills, based on a
   6.   CVD promotes and demands this                          results agreement.
        standard quality of its staff; “a                   Active support of the client on
        professional, respectful and caring                    social reintegration, e.g. job
        attitude towards our visitors and                      training, skills for the labour
        client, expressing a highly service                    market.
        standard”.                                          Reduction of public nuisance, partly
   7.   CVD does not accept anti-social                        caused by homeless people.
        behaviour as a coping strategy,
        cause of the highly egocentric                 The effect for all the shelter providers,
        attitude that‟s enclosed in such an            including CVD, is an active and professional
        attitude.                                      personal bound approach of the client on
                                                       the subjects of health, housing, economic
CVD aims at enhancing the capacities of the            situation and labour participation.
clients so they can ensure a manageable                In this perspective the cooperation with ESF
position embedded in a social network.                 Home Sweet Home is a logical step ahead.
CVD contains 4 Business Units.                         In the following description of the CVD
1. Shelter: 100 beds for night shelter, 10             assisted living facilities the transformation
nursing beds for homeless, a boarding                  due to the changing agenda on
house with 18 rooms, 150 chairs day                    homelessness in Rotterdam are adapted in
center.                                                the description.
2. Social Boarding: 100 beds, 15 trainee
houses,                                                ESF/EQUAL Project "Home Sweet Home"
3. Flexible Housing, 14 beds trainee
center, 80 supported living houses, 30 beds            Partner‟s are:
stabilization houses.                                      Centrum voor Dienstverlening CVD
4. Social casework: specialized in social                  Gemeente       Rotterdam,  Sociale
casework, Crisis center 12 beds, out-                         Zaken&Werkgelegenheid
reaching and acute social casework.                        Provincie Zuid-Holland
                                                           Roteb
Totally there are 20 working units.                        S.M.E.S. BV Sloop-en Grondwerken
CVD has 526 persons active on contract                     Service Dienst Werk (SDW)
base, what is the equivalent of 460 Full                   Stichting Start Foundation
time jobs on a 36-hour working week scale.

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

St. Brother Albert's Aid Society                     and at that time it was the first shelter for
POLAND                                               the homeless in Tricity.

St. Brother Albert's Aid Society in Gdańsk           Mission
is a part of a nation-wide organization
which has 61 circles in all Poland.                  We work in spirit of our Patron, St. Brother
St. Brother Albert's Aid Society is
a non-governmental catholic charity                  "... give food to the hungry, a place to
organisation. The Society aims at providing          the homeless and clothes to the
help to the homeless and the poor in                 naked. If you cannot give much, give
Poland - according to the spirit of its              a little ...”
Patron, St. Brother Albert. We make efforts
to help homeless people recover from                        We help not making people
homelessness through social work, care of                    addicted to the help
souls and legal help.                                       We treat the clients, who are
                                                             homeless       people       (long-time
We are an organization working on the                        homelessness), people threatened
basis of an act on associations. We                          with        homelessness           and
establish and run shelters, charity points;                  unemployed people in a subjective
we provide help in matters concerning                        way
formalities (e.g. obtaining documents,                      possibly biggest involvement of
medical examination, seeking employment,                     a client into co-creation of all the
contacts with a family, with a therapeutic                   documents, programmes, goals
group). We co-operate with state                             which refer to himself/herself
administration, local authorities and non-                  creating and realising with the
governmental organizations. The society is                   client only those programmes
a non-profit organization, i.e. all the                      which have been accepted by
finances go towards the cause of our                         him/her (also in written form)
statutory activity.                                         teaching the client to become
                                                             a subject and not an object of
The Society was founded in 1981 and has                      his/her own activities
been in operation ever since.    At the                     taking into account the needs and
moment we are running 62 homes in whole                      desires of a client; providing help in
Poland.                                                      pursuing them
                                                            motivating a client to regain living
The Gdańsk Circle of St. Brother Albert's                    independence and to fight with
Aid Society was founded in May 1989 on                       own addictions
the initiative of the citizens of Tricity. We               raising the self-esteem of a client,
obtained an allocation of premises –                         helping him/her to regain trust in
previously a school building in Gdańsk                       himself/herself, teaching a client
Przegalina, from the Municipal Authorities                   how to take responsibility for own
in Gdańsk, where we set up a shelter                         life into own hands, increasing the
(unfortunately the building was in a very                    consciousness of being able to
bad technical condition). The building                       decide about own life and changing
underwent an overhaul financed from the                      the time perspective from the past
money donated by one of the members of                       or present into the future
the Society. In August 1991 the first                       preventing a client from becoming
inhabitants of the shelter moved in. In                      addicted to receiving help and
summer 1992 the building was completed                       support

              Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

      co-operating with other social                Running a secretariat of the
       workers with a view to creating                Pomeranian Forum in Aid of Getting
       possibly the most holistic image of            out of Homelessness
       a given client                                 We are one of the initiators of
      treating a client with due respect             establishing it as well as a leading
      obeying       professional    secret,          organisation in the Pomeranian Forum in
       following professional ethics                  Aid of Getting out of Homelessness (an
      constant          enhancing        of          initiative of meetings since 1997),
       professionalism of own activities              associating over 20 entities from the
      sharing both the successes and                 public sector (Social Welfare Centres) as
       critical moments in own work.                  well as non-governmental organizations
                                                      helping the homeless in the Pomeranian
At present we run:                                    Region.

 St. Brother Albert's Shelter in                   In December 1994 the Gdańsk Circle
  Gdańsk Przegalinie, at               135          received a congratulation letter from the
  Przegalińska st where daily there are             Governor of Gdańsk for “fruitful work for
  on average 33 homeless men                        the benefit of the Gdańsk Region”. In 1998
 St. Brother Albert's Shelter in                   the inhabitants of the shelter won the cup
  Gdańsk       Nowy       Port,    at    3          of the Governor of Gdańsk in soccer. In
  Starowiślna st where daily there are              March 1999 we received Archbishop
  on average 57 homeless people                     Tadeusz      Gocłowski‟s      award     for
 St. Brother Albert's Night Shelter in             “endeavours to help another man” and an
  Gdańsk, at 1 Żaglowa st                           Amber Sword Award distinction for an
  where daily there are on average 40               organization of the year 1998. In 2000 we
  homeless people                                   were also granted the Amber Sword
 St. Brother Albert's Warming Place                Award.
  in Gdańsk (Railway Station:Gdańsk
  Główny) a place for 15 homeless                   In 2002 we received from the Governor
  allowing them to stay overnight and               and the Marshal of the Pomeranian Region
  warm themselves                                   a special award funded by the Regional
 Charity point in Sopot, at 6 Królowa              Centre    Foundation    (RCI)    for  an
  Jadwiga st we collect and give out use            outstanding contribution in building
  clothes, soaps, washing powders and               partnership in the civil sector in the
  the like, small household appliances we           Pomeranian Region. In 2006 we received
  give out coupons for soaps, washing               the Lech Bądkowski Award for the best
  powders and the like, for the homeless            non-governmental organization in Gdańsk.
  staying within the care of         Social
  Welfare Centres in Sopot and Gdynia               ESF/EQUAL     Project       "Agenda      of
 Running a charity point in Gdynia,                Homelessness"
  at 9 M. Reja st we collect and give out
  used clothes, soaps, washing powders              Partner‟s are:
  and the like, small household appliances
 “BARRACKS” project (co-operation                         St. Brother Albert Aid Society,
  with MOPS - Municipal Social                              Gdańsk Circle
  Welfare Centre in Gdańsk)                                Pomeranian Forum in Aid of Getting
  Since 1999 we have been cooperating in                    out of Homelessness
  with two partners: a Danish Institution                  Regional Information and Support
  of Forsorgshjemmet Saxenhøj and Social                    for              Non-governmental
  Welfare Centre in Gdańsk with a view to                   Organisations Centre in Gdańsk
  launching a training flat for the                        Municipal Social Welfare Office in
  homeless prognostically capable of                        Sopot
  independent living (the so called                        University of Gdańsk
  BARACKS Project). In the training flat                   Pomeranian Guild Chamber of
  there are staying 2 people.                               Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Part 3. Assisted Living
Part. 3.1                                           Moreover, due to a large number of the
A complex system of support                         homeless and those threatened with
                                                    homelessness, that is the groups mentioned
for     the   homeless    and                       above when presenting the ETHOS
threatened with homelessness                        typology of homelessness, there should be
                                                    activities undertaken making it possible to
A holistic system of social policy in the           provide real support in the sphere of
sphere of homelessness should deal with             unemployment and housing exclusion.
the issue possibly from a multi-angle               Special attention should be paid mainly to
perspective taking into account all the             people and families living in sub-standard
problems concerning homelessness. One of            conditions (overpopulated flats, places unfit
such areas is prevention, another early             for living) as well as flats occupied illegally
intervention, then crisis intervention,             (plot huts, squats).
social emergency and finally a long-term
target, namely: reaching social and                 Early intervention
occupational integration.
                                                    The activities of the early intervention
The realization of all the points should be         character are of preventive and protective
introduced within the cross-sector co-              nature.
operation of various institutions and               They focus on identifying the groups of
organisations coming from the non-                  particular risk and directing a whole range
governmental sector, self-governmental              of activities towards them with a view to
and governmental sector, employers, health          counteracting the possibility of getting into
care, municipal police and the others, who          homelessness.
may contribute to supporting and helping            What is characteristic for such help is the
the homeless and those threatened with              fact that it is provided in the own
homelessness.                                       environment of the people threatened with
                                                    Referring again to the situation analogous
Counteracting      homelessness      is  an         to prevention, it should be emphasized that
extremely costly activity; both financially         early intervention may seemingly be
and socially. It is a truism to remind that         expensive, though keeping the people
prevention costs significantly less.                threatened with homelessness in their own
                                                    environments and communities, is both
Prevention activities should be directed at         socially and economically fully justified and
a possibly wide range of issues, embracing          beneficial.
first and foremost the housing market
and the labour market. The prevention               Crisis intervention
activities should focus on the fundamental
causes of homelessness and a reduction of           Activities within the area of crisis
the risk of becoming a homeless person.             intervention are based on prompt
The activities should be realized in many           intervention aiming at reducing the period
dimensions and areas such as: legislation           of a given person‟s staying homeless.
and law, political system (system of
social policy, housing system), social              The phenomenon of homelessness referring
(family, local communities), psychological          to the situations when a person is staying
(counteracting exclusion and isolation).            in public places (e.g. railway stations) and
                                                    when the person is staying temporarily at
Homelessness in Europe has a rising                 friends‟ or family or in other places calls for
tendency, as far as the scale of the problem        intervention in case of a critical situations,
is concerned.                                       namely undertaking a number of remedial
                                                    measures preventing the development of

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

the situation or stopping activities and                  homeless it is impossible to act
behaviours harmful from a social point of                 effectively in the sphere of social
view.                                                     inclusion.
The crisis intervention is especially focused
on providing immediate shelter, meal,                    Immediate help points, such as
necessary clothes and medical help to those               diners, charity points, medical
who are in such a need. The activities                    points as well as counselling and
undertaken within the intervention concern                providing up-to-date information is a
the following spheres:                                    crucial element of the crisis intervention
                                                          offered to the socially excluded
   Streetwork. The activity of social                    homeless.
    workers working in the streets of towns
    and cities. Street work makes it                  The support and help offered in the various
    possible to constantly monitor the                forms mentioned above has an ad hoc
    problem of homelessness outside                   character and is usually short-term. Some
    institutions. Moreover, it enables street         of the services presented here may have
    workers to realize the principle of               a form of basic help offered to some of the
    offering support on a regular basis,              homeless for a longer time.
    regardless of the fact whether the
    homeless reject the offer or not; it does         Social Integration
    not exempt us from the duty of
    constant readiness to help. It is also of         The activities within the social integration
    paramount importance that street                  relate to the social inclusion of the
    workers are in permanent contact with             homeless and finally their reaching living
    the homeless, which allows for a kind             independence. The independence may have
    of supervising and monitoring their               various        dimensions          (economic,
    living situation.                                 psychological. Housing, legal) and need not
                                                      necessarily be connected with physically
   Warm Centres and Overnight                        leaving the institution for the homeless.
    Shelters,     as    the    easy-access
    institutions, providing the homeless              The activities within the social and
    with shelter in situations of a crisis.           occupational reintegration are addressed to
    Within the activity of such institutions,         people who first of all declare their
    there is not only shelter provided but            willingness to and indicate the activities
    also meals and clothes. The places are            towards improving their living situation, and
    usually open in the evening and at                who objectively have conditions to realize
    night. The stay there is temporary. The           the process of gaining independence and
    activity of the places has also                   getting out of homelessness. Furthermore,
    preventive value in the sphere of health          the activities aiming at social inclusion are
    and life care and protection, especially          directed mainly to people saying in shelters
    at winter time. Generally, the access to          or training flats, where they have their
    such institutions is unrestricted and             basic needs fulfilled.
    direct (there is no need of an                    The integration activity may also be
    administrative decision)                          addressed to people who due to objective
                                                      reasons have difficulty with returning to the
   Health care is a key element of the               open labour market, owing to either age or
    crisis intervention. Most rough sleepers          disability and it may have a form of
    have got health problems. The                     workshops or social firms.
    problems      result     from  frostbites,
    dermatological       diseases,   coronary         The activities undertaken with a view to
    system diseases or the consequences               social integration of the homeless include:
    of being addicted to psychotropic
    drugs. It is of much importance that                 The specialisation of institutions is
    the homeless get there adequate and                   a crucial element of the long-term
    necessary medical care since without                  support – it is based on adjusting –
    catering for the basic needs of the                   according to the needs, level of

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

    collaboration       and   psycho-physical             the potential and limitations of the
    capacity – an institution adequate to a               homeless who have been unemployed
    given beneficiary. It is obvious that                 for a long time. Moreover, education
    each of the institutions, especially those            should be realized both in the
    of a total character, like overnight                  occupational and social spheres.
    shelters or shelters, institutionalizes,
    with the result that the homeless may                Work.       An indispensable and key
    get addicted to seeking help. The                     element of reintegration and social
    problem       is   aggravated    by    the            integration are the activities focused on
    homogeneity of the institutions, where                work, with a final goal of getting back
    the homeless in objectively different                 on the labour market. The philosophy,
    existential situations are „pushed‟ into a            however correct in its assumptions,
    uniform          system,      encouraging             included in many documents of the
    deindividualisation. Therefore, a key                 European Union and influencing the
    element here is specialization, or even               way the structural funds are spent,
    hierarchisation, of the institutions                  nonetheless requires a co-operation of
    enabling to adjust help to the level of               many organizations and their joint
    progress and engagement in the                        efforts for it to be effective. Education
    process of getting out of homelessness.               and psychological assistance must be
    Undoubtedly, motivation to undertake                  reinforced                             by
    employment or gain independence is                    a practical training of a given job,
    totally different and higher in case of a             reviving the habit of going to work,
    person is staying in an assisted flat,                especially in case when a person has
    where it is necessary to pay the bills                been unemployed for a long time. In
    and gain money to pay for food than                   the long term, two directions may be
    when a homeless person is staying in a                adopted in the sphere of returning to
    shelter, where the responsibility for                 the labour market. One of the possible
    own life automatically diminishes and                 paths is the activity aiming at a direct
    declines. The experience gained in the                contact with the employer or focusing
    course of implementing projects which                 on activity leading to establishing own
    concentrated        on   providing     the            firms.    Those     implementing     such
    homeless with support in areas such as                projects will at first look for friendly
    education and occupational activisation,              firms willing to employ people who
    without the housing component, show                   have been unemployed for a longer
    that the results are short-term and only              time, contributing at the same time to
    illusively effective.                                 disseminating the idea of the open
                                                          labour market. The friendly employers
   Education. The educational training in                will be a kind of a bridge between
    various forms and intensity enable the                assisted employment and employment
    homeless to improve their job                         on the open labour market by regular
    qualifications and the general level of               employers. The activities will be
    education. The training also makes up                 addressed mainly to people who
    for their socializing shortcomings,                   declare willingness to return to the
    directly connected with the low level of              labour market and who undertake
    education, which in turn has influence                activities aiming at improving their
    on how awkwardly the people behave                    living situation and finally who have
    in public institutions. Another element               objective conditions (they have a
    of the training is providing the                      chance to find and keep a job on the
    homeless with communication skills                    open labour market) allowing them to
    indispensable in modern world, which                  gain independence and get out of
    they do not have, and the lack of which               homelessness.
    impairs the effectiveness of their
    functioning      in     various    social             The second path is focusing the activity
    environments. Thus, education requires                on setting up social firms or social co-
    an      elaboration     of    appropriate             operatives, namely social economy
    methodology and didactics adjusted to                 initiatives, by people who have been

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

    out of work for a longer period of time.             individual     diagnosis.     Help     and
    The firms function as any other free                 assistance may be provided, not only
    market companies, with the exception                 by professionals, but also by the group
    that they may apply for subsidies from               of the homeless themselves, forming a
    various funds. At the beginning the                  support group or a kind of a
    structures only bring as much profit as              community. The realization of the
    it is sufficient for own maintenance,                activities in the sphere of occupational
    though the ideal would be for the firms              activisation is bound to fail, if we do not
    or co-operatives to produce 100% of                  activate
    the financial resources that are                     a whole chain of activities within the
    necessary for them to stay on the                    psychological assistance. There are
    market. It is also an interesting idea to            examples of such attempts known in all
    establish open workshops, where the                  Europe and they only added to the
    homeless may combine work with                       frustration of the authors of such
    vocational training in a less systematic             programmes, since the majority of the
    way, in other words, they may from                   target groups handed in a sickness
    time to time participate in the work of              leave after a few days of work.
    other workshops. Such forms of work
    seem to be especially effective in case             User involvment. The key element of
    of people who, owing to various                      the process of mobilising the homeless
    reasons, have limited access to the                  is their actual involvement in solving
    labour market or actually have                       their own problems. Transferring and
    objectively worse conditions for finding             entrusting the responsibility for own
    employment and keeping it up. The                    choice to the professionals is a common
    activity may be addressed to people                  phenomenon in the work on social and
    who due to objective reasons, like for               occupational integration. What is of
    example age or disability have difficulty            much importance here is to make it
    with returning to the open labour                    possible to some extent, to define
    market. Such solutions will in a way                 independently the goals, tasks and
    allow them to enter the labour market                activities undertaken in the future by
    through the „back door‟, which does not              the homeless. Specialists, on the other
    mean that it is a worse entrance. On                 hand, should try to respond as much as
    the contrary, as the experiences from                possible to the demand, sometimes
    the other European countries show,                   making it more realistic. The realization
    these are highly effective and efficient             of such an approach is possible when
    activities.                                          we have many tools to use and we
                                                         have a whole array of activities to
                                                         launch. Imposing patterns of activities
   Assistance        and    psychological               or planning a path of personal or
    support. Psychological support as an                 vocational development without a
    integral part of the integration                     significant engagement of a homeless
    programme enables to counteract                      person is pointless and usually leads to
    addictions     (alcohol,  homelessness               a failure. We are then realising our
    syndrome), to build the basis for                    vision, not responding to the real needs
    personal development and to gain the                 of the beneficiaries. The possibility of
    ability of independent functioning. The              shaping one‟s own fate is an
    key element here is to be able to move               indispensable element of „existential
    various spheres of personal and                      revival‟.
    intimate life. The help should be of
    diverse character and intensity with                Assisting (personal coaching). An
    regard to the goals set jointly with the             important element of the integration
    beneficiary of our services. The tasks               process is the so called assisting
    and activities in this sphere of human               individual people in the course of work
    life must be adjusted to the actual                  in the three spheres, i.e. education,
    potential and resources of a homeless                work and life. By providing individual
    person, in compliance with the                       support we are able to adjust the

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

     support and help to individual needs
     and capacity of our beneficiaries.
     Moreover, we may constantly monitor
     the progress or regress of the
     participants of our projects. „The
     method is based on introducing a
     personal        assistant,     counselor,
     companion, who having assumed that a
     return to the labour market and to the
     community is a process, will step by
     stem accompany his client on this path,
     motivating him/her, supporting and
     monitoring the adequacy of the chosen
     direction, according to the needs of
     the „wanderer‟. 10 The method of
     assisting is used all over Europe.

”Progress in immobility”11

At the end it should be emphasised that
integration activity needs time; one should
not get discouraged, as the effects of the
undertaken activities may take time to pay
dividends. Sometimes the return to the
community may last adequately long in
relation to the length of staying homeless
or unemployed. As the survey revealed the
average period of homelessness is 6 years
and so the time needed for a given person
to get out of homelessness may also be so
long. It may also occur that long-term
attempts to encourage a homeless person
to return to the labour market may be
unsuccessful. However, it should be
stressed that occupational activisation aims
„not only at finding and keeping a job but
also at strengthening contacts and social
bonds as well as generating the feeling of
participation and attachment. Even if the
integration with the labour market is not
achieved, the work on it often prevents
further exclusion and marginalization of a
homeless person. 12.

 Aleksandra Dębska, Assisting and
monitoring a homeless person, preliminary
report, wydawnictwo, miejscowość, 2005.
   The term was created by Gunter Grass
and was used in his book „From a Snail‟s
Diary‟, Gdańsk 1999.
   Assumptions of the programme More
people into work realised within the Danish
National Agenda of Activities for the Sake
of Social Integration. Own translation,
Copenhagen, 2003

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

                                                    of crisis intervention and social
                                                    integration, particularly in the aspect
                                                    of     specialization     of    welfare
                                                    institutions providing support in the
                                                    sphere of housing.

                                                    All the solutions presented here in the
                                                    field of housing for the homeless,
                                                    have a character of a certain ladder, in
                                                    other words, a path that may be
                                                    followed by a homeless person on
                                                    his/her way to gaining independence
Part. 3.2                                           and getting out of homelessness.

                                                    Let us now have a closer look at the
Assisted Living – as an element                     way the institutions, providing shelter
of institutional support for the                    and help in the field of housing for the
homeless                                            homeless, function in the three
                                                    European countries (Czech, Holland
The subject of this report concerns                 and Poland).
mainly the system of support in form

CZECH REPUBLIC                                      Among the services offered to homeless
                                                    people to solve their situation in the field of
Aims and role of Assisted Living in our             living belong night shelters, sheltered
EQUAL project                                       houses, eventually chambers. These
                                                    facilities have been usually running through
In project‟s realization, the progressive           the non-profit organizations, sometimes
complex working system will be created              with the town in which they have been
and verified with the target group of people        situated.
without home. It will be concerned the field
of employment, education and living too.            There have been two accepted forms of
Order and succession of the particular              specific living in support of the assistance
system provides the services in the field of        for endangered groups by the czech
housing (street work →night shelter →               legislation. These are “protected” living and
sheltered houses). We still have missed             “supported” living. Both types of living are
interlink between the living in all day             determined to handicapped people.
shelter and independent living in the Czech         In the spectrum of providing services in the
Republic. The result of user‟s reintegration        field of living for homeless population, the
should be his return to the society. The            service of this character has been missed.
several flats with social assistance will be
created from EQUAL project to fill this             On the basis of multiyear practical
space.                                              experience of Silesian Diacony with the
                                                    services and work for target group and
According to the basic complex homeless             analysis of the segment‟s needs has been
problem, the need of its systematic solution        chosen the method “Living with the
was defined. The logical part of solution           Assistance” as that interlink. The center of
has been the innovating method of housing           this approach has its unsubstitutable place,
for this target group.                              particularly:

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

              stimulation     of     homeless         basic target of this institution has been the
               people to solve their current           reintegration of clients to the common life,
               situation on their own,                 it means the integration of people in
              overcoming                   of         unfavourable social situation to the major
               communication and others                society. The aim of this institution is to help
               barriers,                               in acute crisis, to put up night‟s lodging and
              retrieval of social skills,             to give an opportunity to get a shower etc.
              reacquire or learn to self              Clients can use the assistance of social
               responsibility,                         worker in different matters (papers, dealing
              client‟s      training      and         with the authority etc.). Clients of night
               simulation to gain necessary            shelters have no obligation to work with the
               competences to independent              social worker to solve their problems.
               living and reversion to
               “common life”.                          The night shelter usually runs from 5 p.m.
                                                       to 8 a.m. It could be used by about 20
The towns, where the asylum houses have                people. There are only beds and bedside
been running, will provide rental dwellings            tables in the room. Clients can also buy
to accommodate a few homeless people in                something to eat here. They get a tea or
framework of EQUAL project. The assistant              a coffee and toilet articles. They can take
for living will come here. He will perform             a shower. Then they can watch TV or read
social work with the clients and help them             something in the daily centre. The silent
to estimate the main targets of the project.           hour starts at 10 p.m., so the daily centre is
                                                       closed and everybody has to be quiet. They
Function system of providing social                    pay about 2€ for one night.
                                                       Structure of the employees: chief, social
STREET WORK                                            worker, 3 gatekeepers (they are changing).

In every shelter – specially in the night              DAILY CENTRE
shelter with daily centre – there is a street
worker who searches potential clients on               Daily centre has attended to people living in
the street, gives them information about               a night shelter, shelter or still on the
providing services, offers them a possibility          streets. Everybody could come here, get a
of living in our shelters, helps them with             tea or buy something to eat. Daily centres
their problems, gives them advices or some             are usually full for whole day especially in
kind of help in acute crisis (interview, escort        winter time.
to some center,...).
                                                       If anyone (from a night shelter or a daily
When the homeless comes to us we can                   centre or right from the street) wants to
offer him (her) a wide range of services. At           talk with social worker to gain some advices
first the client with the social worker does           or only for the feeling he needs it, he could.
an incoming interview where they                       But they don‟t have a duty to work together
determine client‟s needs and if he/she is              with the social workers on their individual
interested in our services they make a                 plans.
written contract – The agreement of
providing social service – that regulates              Daily centre and night shelter are closely
relationship between the client and our                linked.
organization, discretion and duties of each
of them. Then, it depends on client‟s needs            SHELTER
we start to provide the appropriate
services.                                              We can offer to client an opportunity to live
                                                       in the all day shelter (in double or triple
NIGHT SHELTER                                          room if it is free) when the client has been
                                                       living in one of our night shelters for
We can say that this is the first stage for            a longer time and his adaptation runs good.
the most of people who come to us. The

                 Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Equipment of the room for each person is:             Structure of the employees: chief, social
a bed, bedside table, wardrobe, table and             worker,     social    services‟  worker,
chair in the room.                                    gatekeepers, care person.

Aim of service                                        LIVING WITH ASSISTANCE
The basic (main) target of this institution
has been the reintegration of users to the            This is consequential link in an overall chain
common life, it means the integration of              of providing services. The rental of flats and
people in unfavourable social situation to            accommodation for a few clients, this
the major society. It should help the clients         programme will be realised by force of the
to solve their problems independently and             assistant of living. That has been the new
to be independent on a social care system             untested way of realization via EQUAL
or to minimize this dependence.                       project “FROM EIGHT TO FOUR” in the
                                                      Czech republic.
The partial goals serve to fulfil of the basic
(main) goal:                                          Motivation schemes and rewarding
    satisfaction of user‟s necessities of            models
        life, it means a provision of short
        time (temporary) accommodation,               If we mean motivation scheme only in
        an opportunity to self hygiene,               connection with Assited living so the the
    users are guided to self-activity and            biggest motivation for people living in the
        responsibility for their life to              streets is clear – accommodation.
        minimize their dependence on a
        social benefits and to learn them to          If they get a place in night shelter we offer
        solve their problems,                         them a possibility to live in all day shelter.
    assistance to retrieval their lost               It depends on size of their participation of
        strength and motivation for further           solving their problems, goodwill for
        life (form of individual and grouped          cooperation and for solving their global
        interview or therapy),                        situation.
    assistance and support in looking
        for a job and housing,                        In EQUAL project we have another stair of
    assistance        in    processing    the        motivation scale – independent living in
        papers, social benefits and dealing           social flat.
        with the authority
    offer        of      further     services        In fact our legal system enabled us to
        (psychologist, physician, guidance            provide any other motivation programs –
        bureau etc.).                                 especially financial motivation is impossible
                                                      due to system of social benefits.
We offer these services:
    temporary accommodation,                         User involvement
    opportunity to make a hygiene,
    chance to wash their clothes,                       Payment for provided services
    minimal legal and consulting                         Clients have to pay for accommodation
       assistance,                                        and others services we provide from
    assistance       in    processing the                their incomes (social benefits, salary,
       papers, social benefits and social                 pensions etc.)
       care services,
    assistance in solving the private                   Participation on housework
       problems,                                          Among their duties belong: keep the
    possibility to take part in various                  house      and    rooms    clean   and
       free time activities,                              participation on another works which
    possibly board or opportunity to                     are needed for running of the house.
       make a meal,
    working therapy.                                    Cooperation with the staff
                                                          Clients have to cooperate with social
                                                          worker and other responsible workers

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

    on their individuals plans and on                  Relations with other activities at
    solution of their situation.                       Assisted Learning and Working level

   Effort of solving their situation by them-         EQUAL project is a complex programme
    selves                                             and the realized activities are closely linked.
    This means specially looking for the               So it is more than desirable to continue and
    job, looking for the other form of                 to share the same principles.
    accommodation, solving problems with
    some      existing   addiction,     solving        The primary motivational element is better
    problems with health, solution of family           level of living for representatives of the
    problems, solving problems with                    target‟s group to enter the complex
    indebtedness.                                      programme of realized project “Living with
                                                       Assistance”. Representatives of the target‟s
The individual plan and the individual                 group are going to be educated and to take
client‟s target serve to fulfil of service‟s           part in work therapy without the right to
target that we have been providing. The                reward.
client has been meeting his key worker                 Cross sector cooperation
when he signed the agreement of providing
social service. The client together with his           The section of shelter is mainly cooperating
key worker has made the individual plan.               with the social services department of the
The client‟s duty has been working on                  cities where we work. Our further partners
agreement‟s fulfilment. We use client‟s                are various governmental institutions
oriented approach when client alone is the             (elderly houses, insane hospitals, hospitals,
solver of his problems with our assistance.            prison houses), police, courts, employment
                                                       office, local governmental office.
The most important thing is to specify
individual targets and the way of target‟s             The level of cooperation is different in the
fulfilling.                                            various areas. It depends on duration of
                                                       each shelter in given city, but we can say
The individual client‟s targets have been              that we have good relationship with each of
rethinking after three months from target‟s            above-mentioned organizations.
specification. Client could change his
individual targets.                                    Cooperation with department of social
Process for creation of the individual
plan:                                                  It is very important in the course of the
                                                       whole helping process. We cooperate with
       Client has a right to participate in           SSD in many directions. The most of our
        creation of the individual plan and            clients are unemployed and dependent on
        to cooperate in process of the                 social benefits. We are not providing free
        individual plan‟s creation.                    services and everyone has to pay for it.
       There have been specifying short-              One of client‟s duty (if they are not
        term and long-term target(s) in the            employed or pensioner) is that they have to
        individual plan.                               be registered by employment office and
       Client has cooperated with the key             social services department.
        worker (tutor) in the individual
        plan‟s creation. Key worker has                We have made agreements with each of
        been allocated to the client. Client           SSD in the given city. There is an appointed
        has a right to choose another key              amount for the night/month that will SSD
        worker.                                        pay us for every client who is an inhabitant
       The individual plan has been                   of this city and fulfil the condition as
        rethinking after three months at               provided by law for receipt social security
        least, client and key worker take              benefits.
        part in this.
                                                       Influencing Policymakers and Public

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

One of EQUAL project partners is Moravia-              Public opinion on target group of homeless
Silesian region (where SD mainly work on)              people is not very positive because of not
as a self-governing unit. As municipality M-           relevant and distorted facts about them.
S region built social policy of region and             One of our goals is to appeal on the public
also can influence globally social policy of           opinion through the promotion in the media
the whole Czech republic. Within realization           and give to people relevant and objective
project “From eight to four” we open very              informations and persuade people that
important topics which are relevant to                 problem of homelessness is the very
target group of homeless people and                    important problem of whole society and it is
discuss them with all partners, which can              necessary to solve it.
be important in making new policy in every

NETHERLANDS                                            guide the client towards and within the
                                                       measurements of the shelter and care
The following part is a description of the             providing systems.
approaches on assisted living.                         The fieldworkers are the most outreachend
CVD has developed a floating scale of living           active workers in the assisted housing
levels, subscribed in 6 levels, called the             system. They frequently are the last resort
Woonladder or in English, the Housing-                 for the drop outs of the shelter system. And
scale. It also describes the institutional path        in fact they are also the last resort for the
too independence living.                               shelter system that lost a specific client.
                                                       It clear the fieldworkers are active on the
THE FIELDWORK,                                         most irregular times and places. The area
IS THE ZERO LEVEL.                                     they cover is the city of Rotterdam,
                                                       inclusive    the    suburbs     and      some
The aim of the fieldworkers is to make                 underground stations. These are known
contact with the rough sleepers who                    locations for the rough sleeper.
doesn‟t or aren‟t able to make use of the
night shelters. These clients have different           The fieldworkers are specialized social
motives to sleep in the public space.                  caseworkers or social nurses.
Although it‟s prohibited by city law, they             Their personal competence is the very
maintain in the public space.                          special ability to make contact and develop
Making contact is also making a map of the             a working relation with the client. It is a
city, where are these clients seeking                  fragile mixture of nearness and distance. If
shelter, what are there motives to reject              the fieldworker makes a promise to the
the shelter facilities, or what is the reason          client, he has to be sure he can deliver.
they can‟t make use of the facilities. What            Non-deliverance will directly influence the
are there needs as a rough sleeper?                    working relations with the client. The
                                                       fieldworkers don‟t have a permission to
The role of the fieldworkers thereby is                deliver direct admittance to the shelters. In
multifunctional, not only in an observing              case of health problems they can guide the
role         (government policy) but also a            client to the health service of the day
client motivational role, to increase the              shelters.
clients acceptance and consumption of the
offered     institutional    services.   The           The fieldworkers have the obligation to
fieldworkers try to affiliate with the needs           report their outreaching activities in the
pronounced by the client. They also try to             general CVD client registration system. The

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personal client file forms the base for the                  CVD de Hille has a night shelter,
follow-up client file.                                        capacity 28 beds, but here it is an
The reports contain the descriptions of the                   integrated part of a multifunctional
encounters with the clients, the delivered                    facility service centre.
activities on health or social economic             CVD shelters are located in buildings that
matters, or guidance towards others social          originally functioned as a primary school
services.                                           ( Havenzicht en van Speyk) or as a convent
These reports are also is the base the given        ( De Hille).
account to the city department of Social            The shelters are scattered over the eastern,
Affairs, the main financier of these field          northern and southern part of the inner city
working activities.                                 of Rotterdam, in neighbourhoods that
                                                    originally were build in the late 19th and
THE NIGHT AND DAY SHELTERS,                         early 20th century. Contemporary mostly
THE FIRST LEVEL.                                    multicultural neighbourhoods with an
                                                    enhanced social economic deprivation. This
The night shelters have the main objective          makes the relation management with the
to deliver a temporally shelter for those           surrounding communities vulnerable and
citizens that are in the need of a night            volatile.
shelter. Main cause of the homelessness             The management continuously invest in this
will be the lack of an adjustable                   relation management for a sufficient
accommodation. The direct social network            operational basis. In fact this is a task for
of the client provides no sustainable               the CVD management of any CVD working
alternative.                                        unit because all of the working units are
It‟s a fact that this formula of the aim and        located in these kinds of neighbourhoods.
role of the night shelter is suitable for at
least 50 % of the CVD night shelter                 The staffs of the night shelters are mostly
population. The use of the night shelter is         skilled as social pedagogic workers. Or they
momentary and occasional, within a range            are skilled in a different profession but
of                                                  employed by the CVD merely based on
1 till 7 nights on a yearly base.                   their commitment with the target group
Otherwise, the consequence of this                  homeless people.
observation is that the other 50% of the            The assumption here is that the staffs has
clients consume the rest of the shelter             the social skills and cognitive capacity to
capacity.                                           encounter with the homeless persons. So
An average of 30 % of the clients lasted            it‟s a mixture of social behaviour and
permanent in the shelter.                           attitude, ideological inspired acting within
This reveals a shelter system on two levels,        the CVD‟s company frame or reference of
short track and endurance.                          respect for the specific identity and
An explanation of this phenomenon can be            personality of the clients.
found in the overall shortage of capacity in
the city shelter system. On the other hand,         On an operational level the staffs are acting
the demand of the client system due too             in a variety of rolls and tasks. Recently
migrating effects is overwhelming.                  a reversion of the employee‟s rolls and
There is no guaranty for shelter access for         tasks has been adjusted. This was an
the client. Each and every evening they             obligation within the references of the
have to „apply‟ for admittance.                     professional standards, caused by the
                                                    Central government.
CVD night shelters offer three forms.               Results are that there has been a division
    CVD Havenzicht is a night shelter,             and specialization of labour.
       capacity 42 beds and closed during           Still, the main concern of the worker is the
       daytime.                                     group of homeless individuals that populate
    CVD van Speyk is a night shelter,              the shelter, but also the specific attention
       capacity 32 beds, during daytime             an attended to the individual is increased.
       this accommodation operates as               On this base the care can be delivered
       day shelter, so it „s continuously           „made to measure‟ towards the individual
       shifting in purpose and function.            needs of the client.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

                                                        compose a client dossier that can cope with
To the City Department of Social Affairs                the actual professional standards.
must be given account for the delivered                 CVD has the obligation and ambition to
service at the same time. Or the Health                 refer at the National Standard Conditions
Insurance Company, both provides the                    for Quality (HKZ) in 2007. This will be the
funding for the activities and wages of the             entrance condition for the continued
employees.                                              funding by the City government and Health
                                                        Insurance Company.
When the client is given access to the
shelter there‟s an intake procedure.                    Complementary to the night shelters are
The intake procedure contents registration              the day shelters.
of the personal data of the client, like date           CVD has two day shelters, CVD van Speyk
of birth, former address and residence, civil           en CVD de Hille.
position, income position, education level.             The capacity of these day shelters are
An assessment of the client needs is also               expressed in chairs, both day shelters have
reported. There is not a formal diagnosis on            75 chairs.
health issues made by the staff, because                The access too the day shelters are
they‟re not allowed to formulate a medical              arranged by entrance passes. After an
diagnosis.                                              intake procedure the client gets an
So the focus is mainly on the abilities and             entrance pass. The intake is similar with the
capacities of the client and secondary the              intake procedure of the night shelters. The
disabilities. Capacity orientation versus the           client can use the day shelter 7 days a
affirmation of dysfunction like in the                  week. The hours of opening are restricted
medical model.                                          in time, for 8 hours a day. There exits a
This perception increases the positive                  moment of non access. This is a necessity
stimuli for the client to cope with is abilities        for the changing of staff and at CVD van
and       opportunities    in    the     given          Speyk especially it‟s needed for the
circumstances.                                          transformation of the day shelter in to a
                                                        night shelter. This shows the lack of space,
Additional to the shelter service CVD                   the day ward will be used as a dormitory.
Havenzicht offers a specialized medical                 But the advantage is that the kitchen
ward for 10 rough sleeping clients. Rough               facilities can be used, as well as the
sleeping is enlarging the health problems               lavatory and bathrooms.
for the client; they are a group at risk for
several contagious diseases (tuberculosis,              Facilitations of the day shelters are also
hepatitis e.g.)                                         used by the rough sleepers who don‟t use
The combination of their addictive and                  the night shelters. They can sign up in the
some times conduct disorders combined                   day shelter for a correspondence address.
with a rejecting approach of general                    This utility gives the client the opportunity
hospitals and immaculate dressed medical                to      receive   correspondence    of   the
staffs doesn‟t make the average rough                   department of Social Affairs.
sleeper fit for hospitalisation.                        This is necessary for their social benefits
So in cooperation with the convalescent                 and health insurance. A possibility for
institution Humanitas CVD is exploiting 10              relation management with family, friends or
special nursing beds for rough sleepers in              acquaintances is also provided.
Havenzicht. A team of general practitioners             The day shelters offer e-mail en internet
gives consultations too the rough sleepers              facilities to the day shelter customers. The
on several evenings and all day and night               rough sleeping homeless have access to all
shelters so the basic medical care and                  relevant information and can correspond on
prevention can be supplied.                             the World Wide Web. In a migrated
                                                        population this is a comprehensive addition.
Progress has been made in the scholarship
of the shelter staff, not only on their                 Beside these opportunities there are an
operational capacity but also on their                  activation programmes.
bureaucratic abilities to give account and              CVD de Hille has a special workshop called
                                                        Sandfort & so. Here the client can express

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

his or her craftsmen skills on furniture or             of homelessness as a rough sleeper has a
timber.                                                 devastating effect on ones cooping
As a form of neighbourhood relation                     mechanism. Orientating in time, capabilities
management there are street sweeping and                to plan and act in a linear state are
cleaning programs at both the day shelters.             diminishing. The focus is narrowing on a
It gives them the opportunity for a small               circular point of view; to adjust on the basic
increase of income, because the labour                  human needs of warmth, food; addictive
shift is paid directly cash.                            substances are having a regressive effect
CVD van Speyk is active on a creative scale,            on the personality of the rough sleeper.
art products like ceramic works and                     The rough sleeper is loosing contact with
paintings, made by the homeless are                     partial elements of reality. Loosing contact
exposed too the public and often sold as                with a meaningful social network like
generous gift for close relations.                      family, friends and labour colleagues and
CVD de Hille is the only CVD day shelter                slipping further into a unilateral network of
with a drugs consuming room, here the                   rough sleeping colleagues.
opiate addicts are permitted to consume
their drugs. This is to avoid public nuisance           The ability to restore the cooping
of      drugs      consumption      in    the           mechanism for a stabilized and durable life
neighbourhoods.                                         in a common household has to be trained.
                                                        This is especially valid for the group of long
The staffs of the day shelter are like the              term rough sleepers that inhabit nigh
staff of the night shelter skilled in the social        shelters. Therefore CVD has two training
pedagogic studies. Social case work is also             facilities with the main objective to train the
provided as well al case management. The                former rough sleeper and move them up to
day shelter is a contact place for other                the housing ladder.
health providers who visit and meet their
clients in the day shelters. The task for the           CVD de Hille boarding-house has a capacity
staff is therefore also a form of relational            of 18 rooms. The client can apply for access
networking on behalf of the client.                     too the pensions rooms by writing a letter
                                                        of motivation. In case of illiterate the staff
Often the mistake is made that the visitors             will help and one of the first (re)integration
of the day shelters strictly are homeless               activities occurs directly learning how to
persons.                                                read and write Dutch.
Internal investigation showed us that many              If there‟s a vacancy the negotiations start
visitors are living in the surrounding of the           immediately, otherwise one is transferred
day shelter, sometimes in a CVD boarding                too the waiting list.
house, or supported living system. Some
are     living    in    depended     in    the          This negotiation contains an assessment on
neighbourhood but visit the day shelter for             goals for the client and also for the
its social climate and deal with loneliness.            assisting counsellor. This is a staff
CVD de Hille allows only persons in the                 employee with a specific task to coach 3 or
night shelter who has been admitted                     5 client in their process of house training. A
enlisted at the day shelter.                            contract is drafted; it contains the results of
                                                        the negotiations and the obligation of both
TRAINING IS THE SECOND LEVEL                            party‟s client and counsellor. Mostly the
                                                        contract focus on restore a normalized life
The next step in the Housing scale are the              style, participation with a day and night
training facilities, like CVD Hille boarding            rhythm, activation or labour reintegration,
house and CVD „ s Gravenhof. It is the                  settlement     of    debts,    reduction     or
second level of the housing ladder.                     adaptation of the substance use, contact
                                                        with significant relations , like family or
The     invaliding   effects   of   durable             children.
homelessness       need     a   preparatory
explanation.                                            Very important is the focus on a
Sociological and psychological research in              representative appearance. Clean clothing
the late 90th proved that the durable effect            and

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

a fresh haircut and daily shaving. And                too progressive. Increasing both fear and
sometimes on indication and personal need             anxiety of failure. The client provokes a
a contact with a mental health institute.             conflict and „flees‟ back on the street.
                                                      Especially when it‟s not clear enough for
The client pays rent for the room and                 the client that the next step will be and
accommodation.                                        how heavy the burden will be to reach that
The maximum period of training in the
facility called CVD de Hille pension is 12            THE SOCIAL BOARDING HOUSES:
months. Then the client has to progress to            THE THIRD LEVEL
the next step on the housing ladder.
                                                      To adjust to that phenomenon CVD has as
CVD„s Gravenhof can be compared and is                follow-up stage a range of boarding houses
identical in its targets and program with             where the main purpose and target will by
CVD de Hille boarding house. The main                 stabilisation of the client physical and
difference is the period of training. The             mental condition. Here the client can get
agreement with the City Department of                 used to the normalized living conditions and
Social Affairs for residing at „s Gravenhof is        daily rhythms of living within a group of
made up at 6 till maximum 7 months.                   companions. These are called the social
The capacity of „s Gravenhof is 14 rooms so           boarding houses and they represent the
on a yearly base it‟s maximized too 28                next third level on the housing ladder.
clients, all former long stay rough sleepers.
The facility is located in the western part of        CVD boarding houses are divided in
the inner city.                                            CVD de Schuilplaats, (= the
The drugs related scene is just around the                    shelter), 32 places
corner and can be tempting.                                CVD de Nok, ( = the ridge), 30
Excessive substance abuse, drugs or                           places,
alcohol, is prohibited in „s Gravenhof. Main               CVD de Zon,(= the sun), 43 places
target is to normalize the consumption                These are symbolic names.
patterns and facilitate the client in its             The boarding houses are located in large
capabilities to control the craving and               buildings, in the eastern, southern and
seductive and persuasive effects of the               northern part of the inner city of
former life style. This also means a change           Rotterdam. The former purposes of these
is social patterns and behaviour. An action           building were group housing. In the early
with                                                  90th CVD was able to purchase these
a high risk profile is getting in contact with        buildings for the special purpose housing
the former „mates‟ on the street level. Here          for groups of psychiatric ill homeless rough
the counsellor focuses on restoring old and           sleepers. They were the most vulnerable
healthy relationships or practice and                 group of rough sleepers who had to
connecting with new relationships. By                 compete with the other rough sleepers,
starting an activation program on a                   mostly substance abusers.
voluntary base; for instance in a completely
different part of the city.                           Boarding house CVD de Zon was a boarding
                                                      house for farmers and cattle salesman
Of course the training program isn‟t                  trading at the nearby cattle market. At the
completed in 6 or 7 months. Within the                time the cattle market was removed there
client contract with the training facility            became a vacant opportunity. CVD
there‟s also a moment of assessment and               inherited with the purchase of the Zon also
evaluation. The advice can be progressive             the responsibility of care for the inhabitants
and positive, towards the next higher levels          of de Zon, a part of the deal. This is the
of the housing ladder. But experience and             origin of the actual population of the Zon. It
scientific research shows us that after a             is
period of progressive and constructive                a boarding house for men with severe
confirmation and affective attention of the           alcohol abuses. Traditionally it isn‟t
client, there occurring a risk of relapse and         prohibited to drink in the Zon. So now de
depression. The existential changes can be            Zon is, as described in the homeless

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

literature, a „wet house‟. Due to its ancient        guidance model for CVD housing appears. A
history de Zon has a logistic structure of           triadic construction, the participants are:
the midst of the 19th century, less or non            the client,
privacy, the men sleep on dormitory wards.            mentor and
                                                      external care system. The external care
The other two boarding houses are                         system can have the identity of a
especially for the homeless, psychiatric,                 medical, social or reintegration care
males and female clients. This is a result of             system.
the deinstitutionalization in the 80th of the        All three parties cooperate to improve the
former century.                                      living conditions of the client. This guidance
The main diagnosis of the inhabitants of de          agreement is formalized in a contract. It
Nok and de Schuilplaats are schizophrenia            guarantees the rights of the client and the
or chronicle psychotic disorders. Being              obligations for the care providers to
homeless they sometimes have developed               evaluate the progress of the program each
a drugs abuse. This is one of the reasons            3 months. These are conditions of national
why they‟re not involved in clinical                 Law on Quality of Care. In case of
caretaking programs of the official mental           discontent by the client there is a possibility
health institutions. Although in the start of        to complain about the quality, directly
the 21 th century a change of policy                 addressed at the care provider. Or
occurred by the mental health institutions.          addressed at a neutral organisation for
The social pressure on these institutions to         Client Involvement and Interest Group.
take there responsibility for these                  Both interests are legally based in national
invalidated and ill persons increased. Both          and European Law.
Central and city governments combined
with     associations     of    families   of        The role and profile of the staffs in the
schizophrenic patients provided a lot of             boarding house can be described as
public and political pressure. Results; the          personal coach and mentor with a task of
Dutch national mental health association             case manager. So the educational level is
made      the     commitment       to    take        social pedagogic or case worker with a
a care taking responsibility for at least 10         special knowledge of mental health
% of this population on a yearly base. The           problems and coping styles of both actors,
estimations of the total client group are            client and worker. The necessary ability for
26.000 in 2005.                                      the staffs to cope with the care systems is
The symbolism in the names of the
boarding houses is as follow:                           CVD de Nok or the ridge is a boarding
        CVD de Schuilplaats (shelter) is                house for the elderly homeless and
indeed a shelter of the streets for this                 mentally ill client. Indeed, they are
group of young ands mentally ill homeless                living on the ridge of their capabilities.
persons. After the episode of training on                It forms a community in it selves.
level 2 or sometimes directly from level                 Stabilized living increases the ability to
one, the inhabitants of the boarding house               extend their social activities and restore
find a place to shelter and settle down. The             their social networks and activities. The
population of de Schuilplaats are young                  methodical approach in CVD de Nok is
homeless and psychiatric patients. The                   identical as in CVD de Schuilplaats.
average age of these clients is 35 years, an
episode in which their mental illness makes          Access to the boarding houses is combined
them extra vulnerable for psychotic                  with an assessment of the Independent
episodes. Therefore a therapeutic relation           Indication Office, in relation with the
with the mental health care is a condition           General Law on Specific Costs of Illness(
for admittance in the boarding house. In             AWBZ), the funding is partial by the Mental
case of a psychopharmacological treatment            Health Insurance , partial by the city
it is also conditioned to consume these              department of Social affairs and partly the
medications. It‟s the basic condition for the        client it selves pays his share. This means
guidance agreement the client and his                that when ever a client make progress on
mentor. Here the contour of the basic                then housing ladder the selection has to be

              Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

made is their a base for AWBZ funding?             has a triadic model for the assisted living.
Merely every client is presented to the            All the basic conditions for client as well all
Independent Indication Office.                     care systems are valid in the WWL model.
                                                   The main difference here is the social
All the CVD boarding houses have extra             economic problems of the clients. Most of
training facilities in the form of small           them have severe debt problems, due to
apartments. These apartments are located           former criminal offences and penalties, or
in the direct neighbourhood of the boarding        as a result of their addictive behaviour and
house. A client can be a candidate for an          acquiring criminality in the purchase of
external training program, living in these         drugs. Positive though is that most of these
apartments.                                        client are having a professional labour
                                                   history and are skilled craftsmen.
The increased responsibility for managing
an own household can be trained. All the           The main targets here are controlling the
basics skills like cleaning up, going              addiction and craving and restore the
shopping, cooking and laundry can be               capabilities to obtain your own household.
exposed here. In the boarding house it             Rehabilitate as an employee and learn to be
selves the clients was started with this           loyal with the agreements you‟re making.
improved independence. The access at the           Restoration of the social network, family or
training house is a reward for their               kids, most of the clients are divorced or
investments.                                       known as procreators of children. The focus
                                                   is on all fronts, take your responsibility for
The working relationship with their mentor         your own live and utilize the opportunities
is continued. The frequency of contact is          and support you‟re offered.
lessened. The boarding house is nearby
and in case of urgency the client can make         Assisted Living: the fifth level
contact. Contact can also be continued on
a social base, because it‟s known that the         The next and fifth level of the housing
client can get isolated and loneliness is          ladder is formed by the project
a destructive emotion. Therefore the               (Z)Onderdak.( Without) a Roof.
embedding in an adjustable social network,         This initiative of cooperation is founded at
with activities that confirms the client in        the end of the 20th century by the following
a constructive and positive attitude is a          stakeholders:
basic condition for success.                            City department of Social Affairs,
HOUSING, WORKING, LIVING:                               The care taking organisations for
THE FOURTH LEVEL                                            the homeless in Rotterdam,( CVD,
                                                            Salvation Army)
Not all the CVD clients have invalidating               Bouman         Mental      Heath   and
components caused by severe mental                          Addictive care provider, Rotterdam,
problems.                                               Maaskoepel, combination of the
We can describe this as the fourth level on                 Rotterdam        social      housing
the housing ladder. Another outflow                         corporations.
opportunity is formed by the units of CVD
WWL. This is an abbreviation of the main           This addition of the adaptation range in
components of the program, Wonen                   rehabilitation of the homeless is focused on
(=housing), Working, Living. This unit is          the assisted or supported living. It is the
partly a boarding house, half way house            basic housing component for a successful
and partly a unit for supported living. The        trajectory.
client group is merely a group of former           In fact it is forms the back-door of the
male rough sleepers, now homeless and              caretaking of the homelessness for rough
their main problems are social economic            sleepers.
and addictive related problems.                    Any successful front service for the
                                                   caretaking of the homeless rough sleepers
Like wise the methodical model of the              is depended on a well organized back-door
boarding houses for mental ill clients, WWL        as for instance the (Z) Onderdak model.

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

The basic notion is embedded in the policy           It is obvious that the routing as described
of all the stakeholders and thereby political        in this paper can offer the client the utmost
and financial guaranteed. Characteristic for         support in realisation of this highly
the Rotterdam housing stock is the high              ambitioned goal. Nevertheless it is not an
percentage, 54,6%, of rental dwellings               instant success formula, not all the rough
exploited by housing corporations.                   sleeping clients are able to rehabilitate
                                                     them selves and conduct a continuously
The housing corporations are acting on the           and stabile life style. Re-housing is an
obligation to invest in social cohesion. With        element in the spectrum, the fulfilling of the
their participation in (Z) Onderdak they             existential needs to act as a full member of
really act, the housing corporations provide         society often is expressed in the
dwellings especially for the target group            professional occupation or labour related
homeless. The City Department of Social              activity one is occupied by. As stated before
Affairs rent and basically furnish these             the existential emptiness of being
houses; the caretaking system provides the           unemployed or unoccupied with meaningful
supported living.                                    activities has devastating effects on identity
The client signs a guidance contract, with           and self esteem.
strict conditions for all participating
partners.                                            Most of the success              stories are
The dwellings are dispersed all over the city        combinations of a solid support program,
of Rotterdam. Typical for the inhabitants of         constructive interaction and cooperation
the dwellings is the fact that the addiction         between the varieties of caretakers
is stabilized and in control. Two persons are        involved. Especially concerning the aspect
allowed to live in the dwelling an opiate            of client related information management.
addictive together with an alcoholic                 The adjustment of client needs on the
addictive.                                           several fields of attention and focus is
                                                     increased by an adequate timing factor.
The social case worker visits the clients on         The element of independent housing is
a weekly base, so the level of                       valuable and a solid connection with the
independence of the client has to be                 domain labour or daily activity is the main
sustained and sufficient. The caseload of            responsibility of the care taking system.
the case worker is 15 clients per case-              Caution for the renewed risk of claims by
worker. The model is evaluated by the city           former debts, so the budget management
Department of Health and is a partly                 and debt solving program must be
success.                                             complementary and adaptive too the phase
                                                     the client is entering.
Partly because the outflow to in depended            Then there is the client itself as an actor in
living of inhabitants is low, due to the             the process, a fully responsible person with
housing market situation and the relapse             its own special qualities and remarkable
frequency of clients. On the other hand, the         identity.
returns on social investment is high
because the cutting cost of institutionalized        A client is not just an object of care in
care, this is representing a much higher             a mechanical or industrial process. In fact,
price level.                                         daily practice teaches us that those clients
                                                     who manage to reach the level of
INDEPENDENT LIVING: THE SIXTH                        independent living in fact adapt the offered
LEVEL                                                care taking system and combine this with a
                                                     successfully exploited personal network.
The last sixth level on the housing ladder           Concerning odd jobs, or temporally
is independent living.                               employment on contract base. Bypasses on
Although the housing market in Rotterdam             the housing market are made through
has its limitations still client and former          creative      and      inventive     relation
rough sleepers can obtain a level of                 management, volatile affective relations as
independent living.                                  a result. Durable success is occurring surely
                                                     for some clients. But mostly we must admit
                                                     that a longitudinal and successful result is

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

an ambition that must motivate and                    approval. CVD board of directors is
stimulate both clients as caretaker. Based            presenting the company policy on a
on empiric figures we must acknowledge                monthly base to the Client Board. Every
that such a lasting existence as a bourgeois          company reorganisation or initiative has to
an idealistic point of view that most of              be approved or advised by the Client Board.
these vulnerable persons only can watch on            In case of rejection the process is
television.                                           stagnating.

Motivation schemes and rewarding                      The national Act of the Right of Complaint
models.                                               offers every client of care taking or care
                                                      providing organisation the possibility to
CVD is allowed to rewards clients who are             make a complaint on the delivered service.
active in activation programs. In the new             The organisation has to report each year
Act on Social Welfare there where                     the volume, the content of the complaint.
restrictions on the volume of financial               The process of complaint solving and the
rewards. In present day CVD is allowed to             adjustment measurements the organisation
increase the reward to €1.500, on a yearly            has made to prevent these complaints have
base.                                                 to be reported in the annual CVD report.
                                                      The National Inspection of Health and the
Clients who participate in voluntary                  Health insurance Company are receiving
activation programs may also be financial             this annual CVD reports.
This extra bonus system is one of the                 Influencing Policymakers and Public
motivation    schemes       CVD    promotes.          opinion.
Together with the methodological programs             CVD is a welfare organisation that supports
CVD presents the client the evidence based            the needs and the social position of the
knowledge that rehabilitation is not only a           vulnerable citizens of Rotterdam. Therefore
matter of material restoration, just housing          it is obliged to manifest this care taking of
alone, but also as prevention of relapse an           public interest on a political level and make
activity whether it is voluntary or labour on         statements too the public and political level
contract base will reduce the risk of                 of city government and city council.
existential problems. This can initiate               Expression of this attitude is the ongoing
depression, excessive substance abuse and             communication with the public and
cyclic movement in and out the shelter                authorities that although homeless and
system.                                               rough sleeping, these people are still
                                                      citizens of Rotterdam and has to be treated
The client is experiencing the progress on            like anyone else. Stage for this expression
the housing ladder as a motivation. The               can be public debates, articles in the
staff is stimulating the client to broaden his        written of visual media.
range of activities. The affirmation of self
esteem by acting in a positive and social             It is clear that the first circle of influence is
role model motivates the client. Respect              the territorial circle in which CVD is
always has to be earned and affirmed                  operating, the cit of Rotterdam. Formal
within the social interaction.                        contacts with the civil servants are very
                                                      common, in case of budget negotiation or
User Involvement                                      evaluations of the results. The informal
                                                      cooperation with the civil servants is also of
In the Netherlands the Act on the Clients             great importance and based on reciprocity.
Advisory     Board     in   Care    systems,          Cooperation in projects or presentations or
participation of clients in the policy of an          congresses on local, national or even
organization is obliged. CVD has a Client             European level is common practice.
Board; participants are clients of all forms
of the housing ladder, even rough sleepers            Another second circle of influence is the
that don‟t use the shelter service. CVD               participation of CVD in national umbrella
Client Board has a right of advisory and              organisations participating on the issue of
also on some issue a dominant right of                homelessness, in the Netherlands the

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Federation Shelter (Federatie Opvang), the              wealth. The Cow Container cleans is up.
Civil Entrepreneurs Group (MO Groep) and                Here the general public is influenced in its
on European level the Feantsa.                          opinion that the homeless, mostly drug
                                                        abusers, are taking care of a clean city.
The third circle of influence for policy                This typical citizen is exposing a
makers is the CVD cooperation with the                  constructive and positive role model, for
research institutions, independent as well              instance.
the Universities. Publications on the issue of
homelessness       are    in     these     form         The street sweeping activities are also well
constructive    methods       of    influencing         known and highly appreciated by the
policymakers and public opinion.                        neighbourhoods. Frequently combined with
And last but not least, a constructive                  civil criticism on the official city service
relationship with the media, a responsibility           that‟s responsible for the brightness of the
for      the    CVD      staff     department           street level. Again, this is a positive role
Communication and Information. This                     model performed by the homeless rough
section of CVD is also responsible for CVD              sleepers.
the               annual                 report,
a representative publication of the CVD                 In case of the Tsunami fund raising, related
activities.                                             with efficient and suitable media attention,
                                                        CVD organized a football tournament with
The Cow Container is a well known                       members of the city council; offering public
phenomenon in the inner city of Rotterdam.              opinion a view on the involvement of the
Whenever there is a large public event, the             Rotterdam homeless with the victims of this
Cow Container appears in the public sight.              natural disaster.
The consuming public is polluting the inner
city in their joyful expression of life and


The institutional support division in St.
Brother Alberta Aid Society embraces                    Intervention – namely undertaking
hierarchised and standardized institutions              a number of remedial measures with a view
as well as “Assisted Living” flats hired on             to stopping or preventing behaviour or
the open market for people at the final                 situations that are harmful from a social
stage of the process of coming out of                   point of view. In particular the following
homelessness, constituting together with                measures will be undertaken: providing
the work of street-workers a consistent                 shelter, food and necessary clothing.
system of help offered to a homeless                    Intervention is an obligation on the side of
person.                                                 each commune. Therefore, there should be
                                                        coalitions established for the sake of co-
Institutions for the homeless hierarchised              operation between the Social Welfare (both
and organized up to the standard are to                 the NGO sector and the public sector), the
support the process of coming out of                    Police, Municipal Police, Railway Security
homelessness by dividing the beneficiaries              Services, Health Care.
who are interested in the process of social
and occupational reintegration from those               Specialist help – namely the realization
who are only looking for a shelter or meal.             of, among other things, hierarchisation and
                                                        specialization of the institutions based on
The help is based on a precise diagnosis                adjusting a given institution to the needs,
and includes:                                           level of engagement on the side of a

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

beneficiary and psycho-physical capacity of                  b) focused on an individual
a     given     homeless     person.    The                      1. improving the quality and aspiring
hierarchisation of the institutions is                              to change attitudes and ways of
significantly increase the effectiveness of                         thinking
the process of getting out of homelessness
which should include the activities within                   The „street worker‟s‟ mission is:
social work described below.
                                                                reaching the homeless and threatened
Due to the individual nature of problems
                                                                 with homelessness,
concerning homeless people it is not
possible to define a uniform model of social
                                                                working with them towards positive
work that is carried out both in the local
                                                                 changes, understood as a willingness to
environment and in specialist institutions. It
                                                                 change the way of living,
is, however, possible to define a general
direction of activities undertaken within the
                                                                co-operating with a person, making use
scope of social welfare in reference to
                                                                 of his/her potential
consecutive stages of work with a homeless
                                                             The street worker‟s tasks
STREETWORK – stage one
                                                        I.      Work with a client
                                                             1. Establishing, keeping in and developing
Beside the system of institutional help there
is also field social workers whose task will is
                                                                a) Contact – assessment of a situation
to monitor places in Tricity where the
                                                                    – need to intervene/work on a
homeless stay – uninhabitable places, the
                                                                    long-term basis
surroundings of the city center, railway
                                                                b) Arousing trust
stations, allotments and heat distribution
                                                                c) Arousing and making aware of the
centers. The task of the street-workers is to
                                                                    needs – a change from „here and
establish contact with the homeless, inform
                                                                    now‟ to prospective thinking
them about the possibilities of getting help,
                                                                d) Joint preparation of an agenda of
provide them with help, monitor the
                                                                    activities on the basis of a given
situation, co-operate with public services
                                                                    person‟s potential against the
and with the Teams for the Homeless at
                                                                    background of the community –
the Municipal Welfare Offices. The street-
                                                                    making the needs real.
workers are undergo supervision during
                                                                e) Motivating for realising the aganda
whole time.
                                                                f) Conveying reliable information on
                                                                    the help system
Definition of street work
                                                             2. Transferring the contact
                                                                a) including a client into the help
Street work is a form of social work, in
which people after special training and
                                                                b) co-operation with the system
preparation seek contacts with and work
                                                             3. Monitoring the situation
with people from the area of social
                                                             4. Gradual decreasing the contact –
exclusion in the local environment.
                                                                becoming       independent     of   the
                                                                streetworker‟s assistance
Aims of street working
                                                  II.           Co-operation       with       appropriate
a) system aims
    1. raising effectiveness and efficiency
                                                             1. exchange and flow of information
       of supporting people from the area
                                                             2. intervention in a critical situation
       of social exclusion
                                                             3. acknowledging and showing a present
                                                                picture of the issue
    2. increasing   the    chances     of
       monitoring    and    counteracting
                                                             WARMING CENTER - stage two
       threats occurring in a given
       community in a given area

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

A warming place is a place where the                  influence of alcohol or other psychotropic
homeless may stay overnight; instead of               drugs.
beds there are only chairs. The place is
open in the evening and at night.                     The night shelter is functioning from
                                                      evening hours till morning hours and in
The addressees of the help are mainly                 extraordinary circumstances it may even be
rough sleepers who wish to spend a night              open 24h. The rooms are shared by
in a warm place, with access to a toilet and          a number of people and the inhabitants of
a possibility to eat a warm meal. The                 the institution are entitled to get one hot
homeless spending a night there may be                meal.
under the influence of alcohol but do not             In the idea of nigh shelter there is no
require medical services‟ intervention.               possibility for the inhabitants in the
However, they cannot be a threat to the               institution to get a permanent sleeping
other people staying there. There is a total          place; each night may be spent in a
ban on drinking alcohol or taking any other           different bed and in a different room; there
psychotropic substances at the place.                 is no possibility for them to leave behind
                                                      any personal belongings on the premises
The idea behind the work of this institution          with a view to making it impossible to get a
is to establish a bridge between the                  feeling of certain stabilization and
homeless, who on a daily basis do not use             identification with the place. But right now
the support and assistance of help                    due to a lack of spaces for homeless people
institutions and who are rough sleepers,              in Gdańsk, the night shelter doesn‟t fulfill
and the support system meant for the                  this standard.
homeless. Its goal is to establish contact
and maintain it with the people who are               In the night shelter there is medical care
basically outside the system of social                provided at least once a week as well as a
welfare.                                              possibility of rehabilitation both within the
                                                      scope of the institution‟s own resources or
The place keeps record of the people                  in co-operation with others.
finding help there (basic data: name,
surname, date of birth)                               Night shelter provides a full-time social
                                                      worker. The personnel consist of people
The warming place is in the centre of                 experienced in working with the homeless.
Gdańsk, at the main railway station.                  There is an obligation for the staff to
                                                      complete first aid course. There is two
There is also an information point at the             people on duty in the shelter at the same
place for the homeless (e.g. where to look            time.
for help and how to get it), medical first-aid
(dressing materials, pain-killers). The staff         The night shelter is co-operating closely
there are usually social workers, trained             with all the public services and institutions
how to provide first aid.                             working in the sphere of helping the
                                                      The support offered to a homeless person
NIGHT SHELTER – stage three                           in such an institution is mainly meant for
                                                      encouraging the client to work on himself
Night shelter is the element of the system            or herself, to show a possible way out of
and it offer the basic standard of services.          the situation, present possibilities of
The homeless are admitted there mainly                change, present the offer of the „Agenda of
with a view to spending the night, washing            Homelessness - Standard of Active Return
or changing clothes.                                  to the Labour Market‟ programme.

The addressees of the services are all the            In crisis situation‟s, in winter periods for
people who accept the regulations of the              example, the homeless will also be able to
institution in compliance with the act on             stay in the shelter during the day in a
social welfare with its later amendments;             common room.
with the exception of people under the

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Social work in night shelter is on basic level.        the  shelter    provides        mass      and
Begins from establishing which commune is              communication media.
applicable in a given situation, getting in
touch with an appropriate social worker,               There is at least one hot meal provided –
generally reconnoitering the reasons of                with an aim of finally providing three meals
homelessness, expectations and needs of a              a day. There is information available on the
given person, assessing the capacity of a              premises about the possibilities of getting
client and qualifying him/her for a given              help, such as: medical care at least once a
institution; in other words conducting an              week, rehabilitation both within the scope
initial diagnosis, completing necessary                of the institution‟s own resources or in co-
documents (identity card, National Health              operation      with    other     institutions,
Care book, military book, insurance book),             psychological care, therapeutic activities,
enabling access to general physician,                  permanent access to a social worker,
motivating to medical treatment            and         specialist help.
therapy; in case of alcohol addiction
refraining     from     drinking,    providing         The shelter conducts extended social work
information       about     conditions     and         with a client on the basis of a diagnosis and
possibilities of using various forms of help           assessment prepared by a team of
and assistance, teaching and executing                 specialists (a social worker, a psychologist,
personal hygiene habits, registering at the            an addictions therapist, a job adviser, a
Labour Office, motivating to starting and              homeless      person‟s     assistant).   Each
continuing medical treatment, collecting               beneficiary staying in a shelter gets an
medical documentation for the needs of the             Individual Programme of Coming out of
Team for Granting Disability Status and the            Homelessness prepared by a social worker
Social Insurance medical commission.                   in co-operation with a psychologist and an
                                                       assistant (personal coach) of a homeless
SHELTER – stage four                                   person.
                                                       The staff consists of people experienced in
A higher position in the hierarchy of                  working with the homeless. There is an
institutions is occupied by a shelter for the          obligation for the staff to complete first aid
homeless. This institution is the main part            course. The shelter co-operate closely with
of the system of institutional assistance              all the public services and institutions
within the „Agenda of Homelessness -                   working in the sphere of helping the
Standard of Active Return to the Labour                homeless.
Market‟ project.
                                                       Social work in the shelter is on high level
The institution admit those people who
have successfully completed the first stage            The basis for this stage is the information
of verification in the night shelter and who           obtained from the night shelter, where the
regularly work in the workshops or undergo             first stage of social work with a client has
a training in a work place and who are also            been completed. In the shelter there is a
determined to undertake any activities that            division of duties as far as realizing social
could help them solve their problems and               work with individual persons is concerned.
get out of homelessness.                               Each worker of the shelter is responsible for
                                                       introducing activities connected with social
The service is addressed to the homeless               work. Once or twice every second week
co-operating with a social worker and the              there is obligatorily organized staff
workers of social welfare with a view to               meetings enabling to monitor and evaluate
improving their living situation after                 work.
accepting the regulations of the institution.
                                                       There is also a diagnosis prepared of social
Shelter is only temporary accommodation.               and living situation of a given person on the
The shelter provides its inhabitants with a            basis of an environmental survey and the
24-hour stay. The rooms are for between                reconnaissance carried out by the
one and four room-mates. There is a                    management of the institution. Then, there
separate room in the shelter for visitors and          is

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

a help plan prepared for individual clients          participating in the activity of Social
as well as an attempt should be made to              Integration Centre; organizing courses and
get in touch with the members of the family          trainings in compliance with the specificity
of a given person. There are individuals             of the region and the needs of the
programmes worked out of getting out of              beneficiaries   themselves;    setting   up
homelessness. It is estimated to what                workshops, e.g. crafts, carpentry and
extent the person may count on his/her               locksmith ones.
family to get help, to get support and re-
establish family bonds. The person should            HOME    FOR    HOMELESS        (Socio-
also be helped as far as obtaining a council         Therapeutic Home) – stage five
flat is concerned or regaining his/her own
lost lodgings, motivating the homeless to            Hierarchically the institution is on the same
„coming out of‟ the institution, taking into         level as the shelter and is characterized by
account their propositions of activities,            a similar standard of services. It is meant
motivating to public benefit work for the            for a temporary stay or long-term stay even
sake of the institution itself and its               permanent.
inhabitants, organizing group and individual
therapy (including self-help groups),                The home is meant for people with alcohol
qualifying people for the next stages of the         addiction, unemployable people, people
programme of coming out of homelessness,             before retirement, retired people, elderly
psycho-therapeutic      help     (concerning         people and disabled people. Those who
homelessness syndrome, alcohol and other             have a lot of difficulties with reintegration
addictions).                                         or doesn‟t have any chance of independent
                                                     living on their own.
Additionally, there is a social         work
carried      out    directed     at    social
                                                     The Socio-Therapeutic Home provides
integration – based on motivating people
                                                     a possibility of day and night stay (24
to change their life style through the
                                                     hours). The rooms are for between one to
realization of concrete projects, e.g.
                                                     four people. There is three meals a day
arousing the need to get employed,
                                                     provided. Through running workshops and
obtaining a permanent source of income,
                                                     offering various activities the Home caters
participating in a therapy offered by a given
                                                     for various needs of the inhabitants.
institution or outside the institution,
                                                     Addicted people will undergo the basic
improving the organization of free time,
                                                     therapeutic process in outside specialist
creating the skills of own money
management, creating hygiene habits,
creating proper interpersonal relationships
                                                     There is information available in the Home
and      socially    acceptable    behaviour,
                                                     about the possibilities of getting help and
participation and access to entertainment
                                                     assistance, medical care – a doctor at least
(e.g. going to the cinema and theatre) co-
                                                     once a week, full-time nurse on the
operation with local communities (e.g. co-
                                                     premises, rehabilitation both within the
organising local fairs), access to mass
                                                     scope of the institution‟s own resources or
communication (the Internet).
                                                     in co-operation with other institutions,
                                                     psychological care, therapeutic activities,
Together with the work focused on social
                                                     permanent assess to a social worker,
integration   there    is   social   work
                                                     specialist help. Not each beneficiary gets an
undertaken focused on occupational
                                                     Individual Programme of Coming out of
integration – establishing labour clubs,
making it easier to contact prospective
                                                     The staff consists of people experienced in
employers and to have access to job offers,
                                                     working with the homeless. There is an
setting up workshops and working teams
                                                     obligation for the staff to complete first aid
providing services outside the institution
                                                     course. The Home co-operates closely with
                                                     all the public services and institutions
a preliminary stage of setting up a Social
                                                     working in the sphere of helping the
Firm), e.g. a repair and building team,
printing team, tailoring team; establishing
social firms and employing the homeless;

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Social work is closely adjusted to the                 workshops depending on the interests and
needs of a client                                      hobbies, self-help activities.

      in reference to the sick and                    TRAINING FLATS (assisted living) –
       elderly it means:                               stage six
motivating      them to undertake and
continue medical treatment; collecting                 For the people at the final stage of the
documentation for the needs of the Team                process of coming out of homelessness
for Granting Disability Status and the Social          there is an offer of training flats – individual
Insurance medical commission; collecting               lodgings rented on the free market enabling
documents          concerning        previous          to acquire and regain the skills of social co-
employment; supporting the clients in                  existence.
contacts with public offices and institutions,
and moreover: collecting documentation                 The period to be spent in such a flat should
for social welfare homes, establishing                 not exceed 6 months. There is between 5
contacts with family members, finding out              and 10 homeless people at the final stage
what pension schemes a given client is                 of the programme of coming out of
entitled to, checking what support from the            homelessness participating in the sheltered
family a client may count on, renewing                 flats programme.
family relationships, help in matters                  The programme is addressed to people or
concerning obtaining a council flat or                 families motivated and determined to
regaining a lost flat.                                 change their life style, people waiting for
                                                       council flats or aiming at obtaining their
     in reference to addicts it       is              own lodgings. A condition for a person to
      additionally combined with therapy,              be included in the programme will be
      contacts with a psychologist –                   realising the Individual Programme of
      therapist, participation in support              Coming out of Homelessness. The
      groups.                                          beneficiaries using the trainig flats are
                                                       partially participate in the costs of their
Social work focused on social integration –            maintenance. Each person signs a contract
motivating to change life style through                defining the rules of using the flat. People
realizing concrete projects, e.g. reviving the         staying in the flats are monitored by a
need to get employed,            obtaining a           personal coach (assistant) and social
permanent source of income, participating              workers
in therapy offered by a given institution or
outside the institution, improving the                 The participants of this stage should be
organization of free time, creating the skills         employed and should have own income.
of own money management, creating                      The employment may be realized on the
hygiene      habits,     creating       proper         open labour market or in other forms –
interpersonal relationships and socially               a training in a work place, vocational
acceptable behaviour, participation        and         preparation.
access to entertainment (e.g. going to the
cinema and theatre), motivating the                    Social work starts with signing a contract.
homeless to get out of the institutions and            The client in a training flat is monitored and
taking into account their propositions and             evaluated; the punctuality of his/her
activities,   co-operation      with      local        payments (e.g. a rent) is checked; the
communities, providing access to mass                  client is provided with help in planning a
communication (the Internet), motivating               domestic budget, organizing a day,
to public benefit work for the sake of the             adapting                                    to
institution itself and its inhabitants,                a new environment, psychological and
organizing group and individual therapy,               therapeutic problems (concerning the
psycho-therapeutic help (concerning the                syndrome of homelessness, alcohol and
syndrome of homelessness, alcohol and                  other addictions). In justified cases there is
other addictions), engaging in voluntary               also assistance provided in other spheres.
work, animating interest clubs, circles and
                                                       INDEPENDENT LIVING – stage seven

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

                                                     Influencing Policymakers and Public
Motivation schemes and rewarding                     opinion
                                                        Co-operation with the representatives
   Diagnosis and analysis of each                       of central administration and self-
    homeless person                                      government         – proposing system
   Individual Agenda for Getting out of                 solutions in the field
    Homelessness – an ordered path to                   Co-operation with the mass-media
    independence                                         (programmes on homelessness)
   Participation in working out an                     Membership in umbrella organizations
    Individual Programme (Agenda)                        (federations) – FEANTSA
   Home – real chances to obtain own flat              Co-operation with local communities –
   Boredom – overcoming boredom                         football    matches,     picnics,    fairs,
   Money – through work                                 informational posters on the institutions
   Education – possibilities of raising own            Campaigning on the possibility of
    qualifications                                       transferring 1% of the annual income
   Technologies – access to new                         tax for the benefit of our organisation
    technologies, e.g. computers                        Carrying out social research
   Friendly atmosphere – homeless people               National and international co-operation
    surrounded by care and understanding
   Assistants – combining the formal and
    informal roles in contacts with the
    homeless (a friend, a guardian angel of
    a homeless person) homeless person)

Part 4. Conclusions

The aim of this report is certainly not to           potential and limitations of the homeless.
create a uniform catalogue of services in            The institutional chain presented by the
the field of providing the homeless with             individual partners of the Home@Work
shelters and housing that could be used all          theoretically leads the homeless from
over Europe. The authors of the survey               homelessness     to    independence      and
tried to present quite an adequate picture           independent living. The partners associated
of the system of institutional support as far        within the H@W share the view that there
as housing for the homeless is concerned in          is no homogeneity or heterogeneity in the
their native countries.                              population of the homeless in the whole
                                                     Europe,                               hence
The picture emerging from the survey                 a     wide    spectrum     of   institutions
points to mainly the similarities of                 indispensable in order for the system to
solutions and systems and shows a                    meet the diverse needs of the homeless.
consistent philosophy behind help provision
demonstrating      itself  in    a   certain         The philosophy of support proposed by
hierarchisation of help delivered to socially        the all partners is based on a permanent
excluded people.                                     and complex adjustment of help to the
                                                     needs of the target group. In this way the
The hierarchisation has a form of         an         support is provided continuously. In its
institutions ladder, on whose rungs      the         core, the system responds to the needs of
homeless ascend or descend. Each of      the         the citizens, regardless of the evaluation of
rungs responds to specific needs of      the         those needs. There are needs taken into
target group, adjusting the help to      the         account which are generally not accepted

              Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

or which are perceived as destructive, e.g.        housing     integration  may      prove
extremely asocial attitudes or addictions.         inefficient       and      ineffective.
                                                   Occupational and social integration of
To conclude the previous part of the report        the homeless is a much wider notion
we may divide the areas of help in the form        than the housing integration itself.
of shelters and housing for the homeless
into:                                              Apart from the similarities, there are
                                                   also differences that we would like
Area 1.                                            to present in the report in the
Field work, Streetwork                             solutions functioning in Czech, Holland
                                                   and Poland. The differences between
Area 2.                                            the solutions applied in these three
Warm centers, Night shelters                       European countries come mainly from
                                                   the specificity of the individual
Area 3.1.      Stabilization,    training,         countries. Different social realities in
working                                            the countries in question have impact
Shelters                                           on the regulations and system
                                                   solutions functioning there. The factor
Area 3.2. Stabilization,         training,         differentiating the way the support is
working                                            delivered to those in need is certainly
The Social Boarding Houses,                        the character of the issue of
Homes for Homeless                                 homelessness which is different in the
                                                   countries from central and eastern
Area 4.                                            Europe and from western Europe.
Assisted Living – training facilities,
supported accommodation                            Homelessness in Czech and Poland is
                                                   correlated to a significant degree with
Area 5.                                            the problem of alcohol addiction,
Independent Living                                 which means that the institutions
                                                   providing the homeless with support
The philosophy behind the scheme                   and shelter must take it into account.
means that the effectiveness and                   On the other hand, homelessness in
quality of services in the field of                Holland is correlated to a much bigger
helping the homeless are increased.                degree than in Poland and Czech with
The more so, that the methods                      drug addiction. It is only one of the
included in the scheme are combined                many differences which must be
with a thorough diagnosis of a person,             reflected in the individualization and
participation, education, occupational             differentiation of the system of
activisation, individual work of e.g.              support.
assistants. The whole is an integrated
quality, making it possible for the                A factor which is further differing the
homeless to integrate in the psychical,            countries included in the report are the
health,     social,    housing     and             issues connected with the legal regulations
administration spheres.                            obliging in each of the countries. Holland
                                                   has got a number of legislative regulations
The model of Institutional support                 concerning the problem of homelessness; it
for the homeless, due to the                       is also the richest of the three countries. In
overlapping of many problems, must                 comparison with Czech, which does not
always be a part of a wider model of               even have an official definition of a
social and occupational integration of             homeless person, Holland appears to be a
the ‘roofless’ people, which embraces              country of a precisely defined and
many      aspects     seemingly    not             systemically       ordered       notion     of
connected       with     homelessness.             homelessness.
Without taking into account the wide
spectrum of activities in the field of             Although the philosophy and methodology
homelessness, e.g. an autonomous                   presented by Czech, Poland and Holland

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

are fairly similar, the quality and standard         common for all the organizations which
of the services and support in the sphere of         assume that self-defining by a homeless
housing and shelter available to the target          person of „what the path to independence‟
group in the individual countries differ             should be in his/her case, brings best
significantly. The further difference is the         results in their activity. The participation
standard of the realization of individual            of the services users is realized also on the
services. Holland has got the most precise           level of the management of organizations
standards of functioning of the institutions         and projects, e.g. in Holland there are
for the homeless. It is also the country             homeless people‟s councils established in
allocating most financial support for the            compliance with legal regulations, whose
provision of support for the homeless. One           aim and task is to represent the interests of
should not wonder then, that the support             this social group.
and help delivered to the homeless by the
Dutch is really professional and        truly        In conclusion, regardless of the cultural
complex. Poland and Czech are at present             diversification and different economic
trying to verify and introduce the best of           conditions in the individual countries
the functioning solutions. What is the               presented in the report, homelessness in
strength on their side is the flexibility of         Europe has a fairly similar character. The
activity (not restricted by too many legal           problem of being „roofless‟, no matter
regulations) and engagement in the mission           where it occurs, is always an example of an
of helping and supporting the homeless.              extreme social exclusion, aggravated by
                                                     additional problems of both individual and
All the Home@Work organizations function             structural nature. The philosophy of support
in a certain social and political reality. As        and help as well as the methodology of
non-governmental organizations they try to           work stemming from it are quite similar in
influence policymakers and public                    Czech, Holland and Poland. What unites
opinion on homelessness issue and                    them is a holistic approach to a homeless
methods to fight with his problem.                   person, taking into consideration his/her
                                                     diverse deprivations. The organizations
The activities are carried out through               associated in the Home@Work Partnership
a wide cross-sector co-operation with both           see a necessity of integrating various
the representatives of the public sector,            activities in various spheres of social life
non-governmental sector and the private              with a view to achieving success in helping
sector. The H@W partners also co-operate             the homeless.
with the representatives of the national,
regional and local authorities. They also
have close contacts and co-operate with
the representatives of the mass media.
Very interesting are the initiatives aimed at
keeping in contact with inhabitants,
neighbours and local communities. All the
organizations      embraced        by     the
Home@Work partnership are associated in
umbrella organisations, associating similar
subjects. It allows for a broader
dissemination of their activities and
increases their significance on the political
and social arena, not only on a national
level but also on a European level.

The fact should be emphasised that the
target groups of the services get
involved in the activities undertaken by
the H@W, which is an indispensable and
necessary condition of work with the
socially excluded people. The feature is


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