Types of Foodservice Systems - HACCP by Levone

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									Food Service Systems

 Nancy Brenowitz, MS, RD
•   Menu planning     •Transportation
•   Purchasing        •Regeneration
•   Storage           •Service
•   Pre-preparation   •Dining
•   Production
•   Holding
                      •Storage of leftovers
  Types of Foodservice Systems

• Vary with regard to:
   –   Where food is prepared
   –   What types of food are purchases
   –   How foods are held and for how long
   –   Labor and equipment required
   –   Whether food is transported

• Most foodservice operations use more than one
  type of these systems
  Conventional (Cook to Serve)
• Many restaurants, cafeterias
• Foods are purchased, transformed into final
  products for service and held at serving
  temperature until served
• Production and service occur on same premises
• Many foods purchased raw/unfinished state,
  although some convenience items used
• Menu items prepared as close to service time as
• Traditionally has been the most widely used
  Conventional (Cook to Serve)
• Advantages
  – Food quality can be high (depends upon time
    held—usually only 1-2 hours)
  – Any food can be produced if it can be held as
    serving temp for short time

• Disadvantages
  – Less time flexibility
  – More labor, unevenly distributed work load
  – Limit to how long you can hold the food
       Commissary (Satellite)
• School systems, airline catering
• Foods are purchased and produced in large
  central production kitchen
• Delivered in bulk to satellite/remote serving
  areas for final production and service
  (frozen, chilled or hot)
• Most items completely prepared from raw
  state in central facility
• Best when large volumes are being prepared
       Commissary (Satellite)
• Advantages
  – Cost savings from lower food cost and lack of
    equipment duplication
  – Decreased labor costs
  – Limited peaks and valley is work load
  – Uniform products
  – Do not have to cook at meal time
       Commissary (Satellite)
• Disadvantages
  – Food safety is a concern (holding and
  – Quality can deteriorate during holding; some
    items don’t hold well
  – Reliable transportation method needed
  – Requires a large kitchen; does not pay for itself
    unless preparing large quantities
   Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or
• Many foodservice operations use along with
• Foods are prepared on the premises and then
  chilled or frozen for later use
• May be chilled/frozen in bulk or in individual
• Chilled foods must be used within 102 days;
  frozen foods can last up to several months
• Hot foods undergo two heating periods;
  adjustments in cooking times
  Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or
• Advantages
  – Workload is evened out; can prepare foods
    during down time
  – Variety may be increased with large inventory
    of chilled or frozen items
  – Can transport food easier than hot
  – Can hold foods for longer than hot
 Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or
• Disadvantages
  – Large refrigerators/freezers needed (high
    energy costs)
  – Food safety can be a problem
  – Some foods do not freeze or chill well
  – Quality may suffer during holding
     • Freezer burn
     • Textural changes
     • Separation of emulsions
  – Need reheating equipment
  – If power goes out, a lot of food can be lost
 Convenience (Assembly-Serve)

• Already prepared foods are purchased and
  then assembled, heated and served
• No food production required
• Can be purchased in bulk or individual
• Convenience stores, fast foods, special diets
  in hospitals
 Convenience (Assembly-Serve)

• Advantages
  – Less labor and less skilled labor needed
  – Minimal investment in equipment
  – Can purchase preportioned items for a la carte
  – Portion control easier, less waste
  – Mostly an advantage for small foodservices
 Convenience (Assembly-Serve)

• Disadvantages
  –   Menu items limited by market availability
  –   Food cost substantially higher
  –   Quality may not be equivalent to fresh
  –   A lot of freezer/refrigerator space needed
      Food Delivery Systems
• Centralized Delivery-Service System
  – Prepared foods portioned and assembled for
    individual meals at a central location in or
    adjacent to the main kitchen
  – Completed orders then transported and
    distributed to the customers
  – Fast food, restaurants, banquet services,
    hospitals, long-term care facilities
  – Close supervision, control of food quality and
    portion size, less labor required
  – Span required for service can be excessively
      Food Delivery Systems
• Decentralized Delivery-Service Systems
  – Bulk quantities of prepared foods sent hot or
    cold to serving galleys or ward kitchens located
    throughout the facility
  – Reheating, portioning and meal assembly take
    place in remote locations
  – Dishes returned to central kitchen for washing
  – Facilities where there is a great distance
    between the kitchen and the consumer
  – Foods travel better in bulk than plated
  – Large hospitals, medical centers, school
    districts, hotels
    Choosing a Distribution System
•   Type of foodservice system
•   Kind of foodservice organization
•   Size and physical layout of facility
•   Style of service
•   Skill level of available personnel
•   Economic factors
•   Quality standard to food safety
•   Timing required for meal service
•   Space requirements
•   Energy usage
          Kind of Food Service
•   Number of people?
•   How quickly do they need to be served?
•   Groups served?
•   In what environment?
    Size and Layout of Facility

• High rise or low and highly spread out

• Elevators, conveyor belts

• Equipment available in different areas
                 Style of Service
• Self-service
   – Guest carry own food from place of display to a dining
• Cafeteria style
   – Traditional: employees are stationed behind counter to
     serve guests and encourage them with the selections;
     may be straight line, parallel, zigzag or U shaped;
     customers follow each other
   – Hollow square, free flow or scramble system: separate
     sections of counter provided for various menu groups;
     provides speed and flexibility
             Style of Service
• Machine Vended
  – Often contracted to outside company to keep
    machines filled
  – Drinks, snacks, sandwiches, microwave items,
    frozen foods
  – Supplement to other styles of service
• Buffet
  – Numerous options, eye appeal important
  – Foods should hold up well with long sitting
             Style of Service
• Drive Thru Pick-Up

• Tray Service
  – Airlines, hospitals, nursing homes
  – Delivered to floor pantry by foodservice or
    directly to patient
  – Need cooperation between foodservice and
    nursing; quality and food safety issues
  – Many hospitals turning to style more like
    restaurant service
               Wait Service
• American service
  – Host or hostess greets and seats
  – Servers take orders and serve to customers
  – Each plate prepared individually for each
  – Busers may help with dish removal and checker
    makes sure food taken to customer corresponds
    with order
  – Plates transported by cart, by hand or on trays
  – All guests at one table served before proceeding
    to next table
               Wait Service
• French service
  – Portions of food brought to dining room on
    serving platter and chief server completes at
    table (carving, boning, making a sauce) while
    another server delivers plates to customers
• Russian
  – Food completely prepared and portioned in the
  – Adequate number of servings for each person at
    table placed on serving platter, served to
    individuals at table
  – Banquets
          Economic Factors
• Different amounts of labor and equipment
  needed for various types of service

• Cost of inputs and outputs

• Transporting foods can be expensive

• Duplicating equipment can be expensive
              Food Safety
• Managing time/temperature relationship

• Can you meet standards to temperatures
  with current equipment or should new be

• How long will delivery take?
    Timing Required for Meal
• Does everyone need to be served at once?
  – Banquet, school foodservice,

• What is acceptable time span?
  – 1-2 hours
  – Hospitals, staggered lunch periods
        Meal Delivery Systems
•   Paper menus
•   Paperless
•   Bedside Entry System
•   Roomservice
    How is Food Actually Delivered
             to Patients?
•   Heated cart
•   Covered plates
•   Divided trays
•   Heated surface under plate, covered
•   Variety of systems and costs
•   Quality can be a problem with all
      Delivery Service Equipment
• Fixed or Built In
  –   Planned when facility is built
  –   Automated car transport or monorail
  –   Alternative if power failure
  –   Elevators, manual or power driven conveyors,
    Delivery Service Equipment
• Mobile
  – Delivery trucks for off premises
  – Movable carts for on premises
  – Heated/Refrigerated

• Portable
  – Pans with lids
  – Hand carriers
    Delivery Service Equipment
• Pellet Disc
  – Metal disc is preheated and at mealtime is
    placed in a metal base
  – Individual portions of food plated and placed
    over the base and covered
  – Keeps the meal at serving temp for 40-45
    Delivery Service Equipment
• Insulated Trays with Insulated Covers
  – Dished put on tray and covered
  – Trays generally stack
  – Designed to create ―synergism‖, when stacked
    properly the hot and cold sections work
    together to maintain the proper temperatures
  – No special carts are needed
  – Some foods hold heat better than others
     • Ex. Beef stew better than green beans

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