Russian Revolutions 1905 - 1917 by qos48214

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									The Russian



Revolution
          Russian Revolutions
             1905 - 1917
•Revolutions were actually several protests
(people revolting) against the Czar over a 12 year
span, culminating with the October Revolution of
1917.
•It ended hundreds of years of oppression from the
Czarist Regimes.
•It paved the way for the totalitarian communist
regimes to exist for the next 70 years and created
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (U.S.S.R.)
                 Pre-Revolution
• Russia had been oppressed for centuries by
  autocratic czarist regimes.
• Ended with Nicholas II. From the beginning of
  Nicholas’ reign he failed;
  – Coronation-- hundreds were killed because of poor
    crowd control.
  – Poor harvest in the late 1890’s led to civil unrest,
    Many without adequate food or wages.
  – Ill-equipped for the Japan-Russo war 1904-05.
The Royal Family
     Marxism:
    Due to Russia’s
 economic problems,
   the lower classes
looked for an answer.
      No classes!
Bloody Sunday    • A workers protest led by a priest
                   at the Winter Palace in St
January 5 1905     Petersburg turned violent and
                   left some 200 people killed
                   when the czar’s guards opened
                   fire on the crowd.
                 • Led to a general strike in which
                   400,000 went on to strike in the
                   following months, brought
                   economy to a halt.
                 • Small mutinies in the army and
                   navy.
                 • Result was the October
                   Manifesto and the creation of
                   the Duma (Russian Parliament).
  Bloody Sunday

 Newspaper January 9, 1905
• Czar Nicholas II was
  actually out of town at
  the time and his troops
  mismanaged the whole
  protest.
              Bloody Sunday:
Jan. 1905, workers in St. Petersburg marched
 on the royal palace, the royal guards opened
            fire killing hundreds.
• Grigory Rasputin(Street bumb)       Rasputin Affair
  manipulated his way into the
  lives of Nicholas and
  Alexandra.
• Rasputin was a self proclaimed
  faith healer.
• To find a cure for the son Alexia
  who suffered from hemophilia
  Nicholas and Alexandra became
  desperate.
• This poor judgement of
  Nicholas and Alexandra led to
  the disintegration of support
  among the Russian people,
  especially from upper classes.
Rasputin goes in for a checkup.
          WWI Problems:
Russia was getting beaten by Germany,
 food was running out, jobs were few,
      and the people were mad.
• 3 main causes for                      February
  overthrow:
  – Economic collapse - increase      Revolution 1917
    in strikes shut down
    economy,. Sale of Vodka
    was banned.
  – Military collapse --failures in
    WWI.
  – Political collapse- series of
    errors and growing civil
    unrest finally led to the Czar
    being abdicated.
  The Czar was overthrown on
    February 26, 1917 and forces
    Nicholas and his family to
    flee the country; later to be
    executed.
          The Duma:
Russia’s parliament or governing
     body, like a congress.
   Duma ---> Provisional Government
• Power struggle existed in the political anarchy for the next 6
  months.
• Lenin and Trotsky both jockeying for power of
  revolutionary groups.
• Alexander Kerensky became the leader of the Provisional
  Government.
• WWI trudged on, Death toll continued to rise.
• Economy still in shambles.
• Peasants still without land.
• Workers were unhappy strikes persisted.
• Appeared as though it was democracy, yet still much civil
  unrest to take hold.
  October Revolution October 25 1917
• In a military coup Trotsky’s
   “red army” staged a military
   take-over of the winter palace in
   St Petersburg thus ending the
   Provisional government.
• Lenin seized power immediately
   with Trotsky and Joseph Stalin
   by his side.
• First 2 acts:
   1. to end Russian involvement in
   WWI.
2. Give peasants land. “private
   ownership shall be abolished
   forever”.
• Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov or
  Lenin,.
• Spent time in jail and exile
  1895-1917 for preaching
  against the czar and pro
  Marx (Marxism or
  Communism) and plotting to
  overthrow the Czar.
• Weak Provisional
  Government (Duma) paved
  the way for Lenin to rise to
  power.
• Lenin appealed to the masses
  “ Peace, Land, Bread ”
                                 Lenin
               • Led group known as the
Lenin Cont.,     Bolsheviks (Social Democrats)
                 in the revolution.
               • Person mainly responsible for
                 communism being established
                 in Russia
               • “Red Terror”- Lenin was a
                 radical and ruthless
                 revolutionary calling for the
                 execution of the Czar and his
                 family as well as anyone else
                 opposed to the revolution.
               • He had a stroke in 1922 and was
                 bed -ridden until his death in
                 1924.
Bolshevik Revolution (Nov. 7, 1917):
  Lenin’s popular support from anti-
  Czarists let his people seize gov.
 buildings and arrest officials, taking
           power in Russia.
Lenin’s Body Preserved
• Leon Trotsky founded “Red
  Army”, or MRC (military
  revolutionary council) in 1917.    Leon Trotsky
  This supplied the force to the
  revolution.
• MRC was the group that actually
  facilitated the removal of the
  Duma thus completing the
  revolution.
• Trotsky allowed Lenin to seize
  power in the following years but
  was an vital member of the
  communist government.
• Later he would battle for power
  with Stalin after Lenin’s death.
The Czar could not be allowed to rule again.
So, the Bolsheviks took them to the
basement of their palace, where they
 were prisoners, and shot them all.
Civil War 1918-   • “Reds Vs. Whites”
                  • Reds = Bolsheviks (majority)
      1920        • Whites = Anti-Bolsheviks or
                    people against the communist
                    regime. Actually supported
                    by Western powers including
                    the U.S.
                  • Whites were concerned with
                    the creation of the Communist
                    elite and return to the old
                    order.
                  • Civil War was eventually won
                    by Lenin’s Bolsheviks and the
                    “red army”.
                  • Communist Gov’t, seized
                    church lands and property.
                  • NEP (New Economic Policy)
                    allowed peasants to grow crop
                    for profit.
                  Vs.


               Civil War:
Reds- The communists & Whites -moderate
 socialists, Duma supporters and western
nations: U.S., England, France and Japan.
               The reds win.
    Propaganda:
 Designed to influence
  and control peoples
beliefs and information
 flow. The Bolsheviks
 used it and when they
took over they forced it
 on people everywhere.
Propaganda Trains
           Lenin’s Communist state
• Mass executions used to eliminate opposition to the
  communist state.
• Government assumed full control except for the NEP of
  industry, banks, and foreign trade.
• All political parties were banned, and the government
  controlled all districts within Russia.
• Union of Soviet Socialists Republic (U.S.S.R)
• All Church land and property was seized. Church schools
  were closed. State schools taught that God did not exist
• Government used censorship to silence any unfavorable
  foreign views. Also used propaganda to teach the Marxists
  philosophy.
        The Secret Police:
Terror police whose job it was to kill
 and eliminate all people thought to
      oppose the Communists.
   Poster
  showing
Lenin as the
great leader.
          The U.S.S.R. :
 1922, The Union of Soviet Socialists
   Republic was formed to unite all
Russian people under one government.
Propaganda cable cars
Traveling propaganda acting troop
 mocking the Czar and Rasputin.
                     &
Religious Persecution:                Your
  heart should be given to Lenin and the
 Party not God. God did not exist. Many
    religious leaders were imprisoned.
Two old
“friends”
  Joseph Stalin:
 Lenin dies in 1924
and Stalin fights for
   power. Lenin
  warns Trotsky to
not let him rule. He
    takes power
      anyway.
• Upon Lenin’s death in 1924 Joseph
  Stalin assumed power over Leon                Joseph Stalin
  Trotsky. Lenin biggest fear was that
  Stalin and not Trotsky would assume          “Man of Steel”
  power.
• Stalin was popular with the people and
  his views that it would not take a global
  communists state for communism to
  succeed in the Soviet Union
• Stalin’s first policies were his Five
  Year plans and the Collective farms.
  Appeared to be successful from outside
  but failed, people realized that no matter
  how hard they worked they would all
  benefit the same
“Great Wise
  Father”
  Five Year Plans:
Modernize the Soviet
Union in five years no
matter what the cost.
 It caused massive
    shortages and
  suffering for all.
         Collective Farming:
 All farmers are forced to give up their
own farms and work and farm in groups.
         It was a huge failure.
               Kulaks:
    The prosperous farmers of Russia
became Stalin’s target. “Liquidate them
as a class” he said. Thousands were shot
          or sent to work camps.
     The New Economic Policy:
  A policy of gov. control mixed with
private industry to ease Russia into total
 gov. economic control (Communism).
             Gulags:
  The prison work camps in Siberia
that Stalin’s enemies were sent. Few
             ever returned.
  The Great Purge:
1935-1939 Stalin killed
off any and all political
 rivals. All of the “old
   Communists” were
eliminated. Thousands
were arrested, tried and
        executed.
  Trotsky in Mexico:
Leon Trotsky was hunted
 down by Stalin’s agents
  and killed in his hotel
  room in Mexico City
    with an ice pick.
Totalitarianism:
Total and absolute
     rule, total
 domination of a
people. By 1953
estimates are that
 Stalin killed 80
million of his own
      people.
      Centralized Government:
The Communists moved the capital from
Petrograd to Moscow, The Kremlin. The
    leaders were called the Politburo.
         • He proved to be even more
Stalin     ruthless than Lenin with his
Purges     famous “purges”.
         • Between 1934 an 1938
           some 8 million people were
           convicted of crimes they
           possibly could not have
           committed. Many of the
           convicted were loyal party
           members and 50% were his
           own officers.
         • People were executed or
           worked to death in labor
           camps.
  Eric Blair,     Animal Farm
(George Orwell)      1945

								
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