Russian Revolution 1905-1917 by qos48214

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									Russian Revolution 1905-1917
                    Overview
Structural weaknesses within Russia

Revolution of 1905

October Manifesto

Russia 1906-1917

Revolutions of 1917

Civil War
  Economic Weaknesses

                       • Backwards
                         • top 1% controls
                           majority of Land &
                           wealth
Typical Noble Estate     • bottom 85% = peasants
                            • Landless & extremely
                              poor




 Russian Peasants
Economic Weaknesses

                        • Govt. Modernization
                          Program:
                          • Raised taxes
                          • Borrowed money
                          • Hired foreigners to
                            run factories
                          • Workers paid low
Women Textile Workers       wages
                          • extremely poor
                            conditions
  Political Weaknesses

                   • Autocratic ruler
                      • Ignorant to Russia’s
                        problems
                      • No personal freedoms
                      • Govt. opposition not
                        allowed
                      • Political divisions
                         • Intelligentsia
                         • Nobility
                         • Political parties

Tsar Nicholas II
Social Weaknesses

        • Citizens = internally
          divided:
           • Only ½ population =
             Russian
           • Desires:
              • Minorities—
                independence
              • Nobility—gradual reform
              • Intelligentsia—can’t
                agree
              • Workers—better
                conditions
              • Peasants—land reform
Revolution of 1905



       •Causes:
         •Russo-Japanese War 1904-05
         •Worker discontent
Bloody Sunday January 9, 1905

                   • Peaceful demonstration of
                     workers
                   • Demands:
                     • end to war
                     • formation of a constituent
                       assembly
                     • Troops open fire on workers




    Father Gapon
                    Bloody Sunday

                                        • Result:
                                          • widespread riots & strikes
                                            (spring-summer)
                                          • Radicals organize workers
                                            into ‘Soviets’
                                          • October—nation paralyzed
                                            by 10 day strike
                                          • Tsar agrees to make
                                            changes
Demonstration at the winter palace in
St. Petersburg
 October Manifesto

         • Russia’s first constitution
            • Establishes the ‘Duma’
            • Grants some civil liberties
         • Results:
            – Divides opposition
         • October Manifesto in
           practice:
            • Had little power
            • Tsar could veto decisions
              & dismiss members at will
Duma
       Russia 1906-1916
                 •Prime Minister 1906-11
                   • Cracked down on
                     revolutionaries
                   • Introduced agricultural &
                     educational reforms to
                     help peasants
                   • Assassinated
                 •Worker‟s Movement
                   • Strikes waned 1907-1910
                   • Strikes & riots increase
                     1911-1914
Peter Stolypin
World War I

     •Tsar enters war with hope
     of unifying nation
       • Army suffers defeat
         after defeat
       • Morale decreases
       • Desertions increase
World War I

      • 1916 Nicholas II takes
        over Army
         – Weaknesses of govt.
           further exposed
         – War increases suffering &
           discontent
         – Revolution is near
Rasputin

 • Nicholas II leaves country to
   command army
    • Tsarina in charge of gov’t
    • Heavily influence by
      Rasputin, „the Holy Man‟
    – given power to make
      governmental decisions
    • Dislike by nobility—murdered
March Revolution 1917

          • Strikes & bread riots break
            out in Petrograd.
             • Soldiers, sent to restore
               order
             • Ordered to shoot
               rioters, instead, shoot
               the officers and join
               rioters
March Revolution 1917

          • Abdication of Tsar
            Nicholas II
             – Orders the dismissal of
               the Duma
             – Instead the Duma
               forms a Provisional
               government.
             – Next day - March
               15, 1917 abdicates
March Revolution 1917

          • Provisional Government
            • Led by Kerensky – a
              moderate socialist
            • Goal: political not social
              revolution
            • Called for free elections
              to form a constituent
              assembly
            • Allowed freedom
              speech, press, assembly,
              & religion
March Revolution 1917

          • Govt. is weak &
            unorganized
            • opposed by Petrograd Soviet
            • Further weakened by WW I
            • Increased discontent by
              populace
Petrograd Soviet 1917

           • Competes for power
             • Extremely well
               organized & supported
             • Increases power
               w/failures of
               provisional govt.
             • Lenin returns from exile
     April – October 1917

                 • April 23
                    • Lenin calls for power to the
                      soviets
                    • Rallies behind the slogan:
                      ―Peace, Land, Bread”




Lenin‟s Speech
April – October 1917

         • July 3-5, increased
           support from
           sailors, workers, &
           peasants.
         • Lenin—October 24
            • Call to power speech
            • Demands action now
October Revolution 1917

          • Bolsheviks launch successful
            coup
             • Establish the ‘Cheka’
             • Political opposition banned
             • Confiscate church property
             • Treaty of Brest-litovsk
               March 1918
             • Assassination of Tsar & his
               family July 16, 1918
        Civil War
War Communism (1917-1921)
             • Lenin: “Dictatorship of
               the Proletariat”
               • Bolsheviks focus on
                 maintaining power
               • Red Army (Bolsheviks) led
                 by Trotsky vs. the Whites
                 (socialists, nationalist,
                 liberals)
War Communism (1917-1921)

            • Nationalize industry,
              banks, & forbid strikes
            • All men under 50
              drafted
            • Result:
               – famine, worker revolts,
                 political divisions
               – Leaves Russia w/out
                 industry,
                 transportation, &
                 trade.
                    NEP
                    New
                  Economic
                   Policy
                    1921

Goal: increase food production
Introduce incentives:
Small factories, businesses, & farms allowed to return
to private ownership
Large factories, banks, railways, & communication kept
under state control
Result: huge success
Soviet Union (USSR) established 1922

								
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