MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT

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					                         “Green Star” Project




MONGOLIAN NATURE
 AND ENVIRONMENT
      ASSESSMENT
     Fall 2006 & Spring 2007 Parliamentary Sessions




 Ulaanbaatar,2008
                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

Editorial note                                                                    1

1.   OBJECTIVES

2.   MONGOLIA S MINISTRY OF NATURE AND
     THE ENVIRONMENT: SMALL BUDGET, BIG PROBLEMS                                  2

     I.    Mongolia’s environmental problems
     II.   Saving the environment with limited resources

3.   THE BEST AND THE WORST OF 2007                                               8

     The Best Events of 2007:                                                     8
     III. Parliamentary “Green Group” takes action over river
          contamination
     IV. Member of Parliament L. Gundalai calls for an end
          to investment agreements
     V. The Responsible Mining Initiative for Sustainable Development

     The Worst Events of 2007:                                                    12
     I. The contamination of Khongor soum
     II. Lake Khuvsgul in danger again

4.   THREE LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPROVED DURING
     THE 2006 FALL SESSION OF THE MONGOLIAN PARLIAMENT                            16

     I.   Regional policies needed to ensure future environmental protection
     II.  Is the Mongolian state budget for 2007 aligned to the environmental
          objectives set forth in the Main Directions resolution, and
          is it sufficient to achieve these objectives?
     III. Mineral deposits of strategic importance: government responsibilities

5.   THREE LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPROVED DURING
     THE 2007 SPRING SESSION OF PARLIAMENT:                                       24

     I. Community ownership of forests
     II. MNT 50 billion to be spent on reducing air pollution
     III. Biosafety on the government agenda

6.   MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT           RECORD OF
     EVIRONMENTAL VOTES                                                           28

7.   VOTERS: GET INVOLVED! WHAT YOU CAN DO                                        32
                                        EDITORIAL NOTE
It is well known that the heart of any democratic society is the proactive and conscious
involvement of citizens in the government’s decision-making processes; and that its soul
and spirit is the ability of we, ordinary people, to exercise our influence through the power
of the vote. Our right as voters is also our responsibility. We must evaluate the legislative
record of the Members of Parliament whom we elect, and assess whether they are forming
public policy for the benefit of Mongolia. Based on this evaluation, we must cast our votes
to hold them accountable by re-electing them, or by removing them from office.


Mongolians have a growing interest in the notion of the social responsibility of citizens to
directly demand accountability from government officials, by making citizens’ voices
louder, and by building their capacity. Accountability, that is based upon citizens’
involvement, is an efficient and effective tool to complement government oversight and
monitoring, the enforcement of laws and regulations, and institutional strengthening
among law-enforcement agencies like the courts and the police, and through special
independent agencies.


Thomas Jefferson said: “I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society,
but the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their
control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from them, but to inform
their discretion.”


It is said that an enlightened public is always strong and easy to lead, and difficult to
oppress. Such enlightened, organized, knowledgeable and creative people are the heart and
spirit of democracy. The proactive involvement of citizens in government policy and
decision-making - by assessing and evaluating, and holding government officials
accountable - should instill in the country a system of social accountability, and support an
elected body of representatives who are accountable to their constituents.


Therefore, the Mongolian Nature Protection Coalition (MNPC) will monitor, assess,
evaluate and draw conclusions based upon legislators’ voting records, the attention that
government officials pay to acute environmental problems, and the efforts that they make
to resolve them. We will then draw attention to those who hinder environmental protection,
and hold them accountable to the people of Mongolia. We will support and encourage
“heroes” who are champions for Mongolia’s environment, and will collaborate with them in
their legislative work, and support them when they run for reelection.




 D. Dayan
 Executive Director, MNPC
1. OBJECTIVES

WHO WE SUPPORT?

Champions of the environment
The MNPC draws the public’s attention to acute environmental problems and supports
elected officials who consistently strive to address such problems. Identifying environmental
champions among candidates allows MNPC, other NGOs, voters and competing candidates
themselves to inform constituents of their work on behalf of Mongolia’s nature and
environment. MNPC will mobilize resources and focus efforts on electing, or re-electing,
environmental champions to Parliament. The Green Star provides the electorate with factual
and reliable information to help in making wise decisions at the polls.



WHAT WE STAND FOR?

The adoption of environmentally sound legislation
The Green Star focuses on all draft laws related to nature and the environment that are
considered by the Parliament. MNPC advocates for the enactment of environmentally
friendly laws. We work through the Green Star, we address letters and meet with Members
of Parliament to encourage environmentally responsible law-making, and we participate in
public forums to ensure that citizens’ voices are heard in the halls of Parliament on
environmental issues.



WHAT WE DO?

Empowering citizens to make informed voting decisions
MNPC will publish the Green Star annually, and record each environmental vote of that is
cast by each Member of Parliament. An environmental score will be calculated for each MP
based on their voting record. Such an evaluation of Members of Parliament serves as an
important instrument to monitor government officials, and to hold them accountable.

 The Green Star is distributed nationwide through local, national and international NGOs
working around the country, providing constituents with data and information on their
elected representatives’ environmental voting records. Such information equips and
empowers citizens to develop and enforce a rigorous system of social and environmental
responsibility and accountabilty. The Green Star applauds and reinforces positive behavior
among MPs who champion Mongolia’s nature and environment, and empowers citizens to
make informed voting decisions when they go to the polls.

                                                       MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
                                                                2. MONGOLIA’S
                                                                          MINISTRY
                                                           OF NATURE AND
                                                              ENVIRONMENT:
                                                            SMALL BUDGET,
                                                               BIG PROBLEMS

I. Mongolia’s environmental                        forests covered 11 percent of the entire
problems                                           territory; by 1990 that figure had shrunk
                                                   to 7.8 percent; in 2000 it was 8.5 percent,
Efforts to promote sustainable development         and in 2006 it fell to 7.7 percent.
in Mongolia encounter substantial hurdles
each year, and threaten the future of the        3. Land degradation and rangeland
environment, the country’s vast natural             overgrazing: Eighty-five percent of
resources and human health.. Mongolia’s             Mongolian territory has been degraded.
harsh climate, its fragile ecosystems, the          Over 40 years, soil fertility has dropped
limited rehabilitative capacity of the land,        two to three times, and more than 70
the impact of climate change and                    percent of all rangeland has been
desertification, the loss of forests and water      overgrazed.
resources, and the effects of human
activities including mining, herding, logging,   4. Desertification: In the past decade,
unregulated urban development and                   Mongolia’s semi-arid area has increased
inefficient water-management practices              3.4 percent, and areas of heavy
contribute to the nation’s ecological               desertification have grown 1.8 percent.
challenges. We must take action now or              As of 2006, about 80 percent of the
Mongolia’s environment will suffer long-            country was affected by desertification.
term, irreversible and irrevocable damage.
                                                 5. Air pollution: In Ulaanbaatar, air pollution
1. Loss of water resources: The 2003 water          has worsened dramatically, with levels of
   census found that 372 rivers and streams,        carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide tripling
   1158 springs and water sources and 537           in recent years. In 2006, 30 percent of all
   lakes and ponds had dried up.                    air samples exceeded air pollution
                                                    standards. In October 2007, at a western
2. Loss of forests:       Over 30 years,            crossroads in Ulaanbaatar, the level of
   Mongolia’s forest area has been reduced          nitrous oxide in the air was 21 times
   by 1.4 million hectares. Before 1990,            higher than the air quality standard; in the
      13th district it was 26 times higher. In               Populations of such wildlife as the
      January 2007, there was only one day                   northern beaver, jackal, snow leopard,
      when the level of carbon dioxide and                   Siberian elk, ibex, musk ox and wild ass -
      nitrous oxide were at allowable levels.                all of which are included in the
      This poses a significant risk to present and           International and Mongolian Red Books –
      future generations, but the government                 have been reduced dramatically, and their
      has yet to implement any efficient                     habitats are disappearing. Despite this,
      pollution-reduction policies or measures               the Ministry of Nature and the
      to alleviate the situation.                            Environment (MNE) continues to issue
                                                             licenses to hunt rare and endangered
6. Flora, fauna and biodiversity: Mongolia’s                 wildlife.
   fauna and flora are also under threat.




      Rare and endangered animals whose numbers are decreasing and
                      whose habitats are being lost
         Rare and                   Census year and counted number
 №       very rare                                                                                   Comments
         animals     Mid 1980s      1997        2001        2003          2004        2006

         Mongolian
                     2,000,000                1,000,000
 1.      antelope

                                                                                                Within 18 years the
           Maral                                                         8000-
                      140,000                                                                       population
 2.        deer                                                          10,000
                                                                                                decreased by 92%

                                                           33,000
                                                          musk-deer
                                                            glands
         Musk deer    44,000                                                          300
 3.                                                       were sent
                                                          across the
                                                            border

                                                                                                Within 16 years the
          Argali                              13,000-
                      60,000                                                                        population
 4.       Sheep                               15,000
                                                                                                decreased by 75%

          Marmot     13,000,000   9,000,000
 5.
                                                           18,000-
         Wild ass     25,000
 6.                                                        20,000

           Snow
                                  1000
 7.       leopard




                                                                   MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
Some of the rare and endangered plant           component of Mongolia’s long-term
species included in the Mongolian Red Book,     development. The government must
and currently being harvested in large          strengthen its administrative, legislative and
quantities and sold commercially, include       regulatory frameworks, and be accountable
the Altai wild onion, and the Siberian          to its citizens to ensure the preservation of
mountain ash. These and other species are       its natural resources for future generations.
being pushed to the brink of extinction.
Other plants, such as        golden cups,
gentians, dog roses, steppe white               II. Saving the environment with
mushrooms and peonies, are also being           limited resources
harvested in large quantities. Food plants
such as blueberries, blackcurrant,              Mongolia has enacted more than 30 laws
blackberries and red berries are over-          and 220 regulations pertaining to
harvested, making it impossible for them to     environmental protection. It has initiated 10
regenerate or sustain animals who depend        specific environmental programs, and is
upon them.                                      party to 14 international conventions.
                                                However, legislative enforcement is largely
Associated with the deterioration of the        ineffective because of a lack of civic
natural environment, an average of 25-30        engagement, poor government
natural disasters causing MNT 5-7 billion       transparency, inefficiency and bureaucracy,
worth of damage occur every year in             weak regulatory frameworks, shallow
Mongolia.        One-third of these are         administrative capacity, little or no
considered catastrophic. In the first 10        collaboration with nongovernmental
months of 2007 alone, there were 2,602          organizations, and inadequate MNE budget
natural disasters and accidents that claimed    funding.
179 lives and 12,900 livestock, destroyed
1,246 homes and 1.3 million hectares of land,   The annual budget allocated each year to
and cost a total of MNT 19.63 billion.          the MNE is the smallest of all ministry
                                                budgets. In 2007, the MNE was
Droughts and dust storms contribute to          appropriated only MNT8.8 million, a little
Mongolia’s environmental woes. Droughts         more than US$9.0 million, or approximately
affecting 25 percent of the country strike      6.2 percent of the entire state budget. By
every two to three years, with more severe      contrast, MNT 139.7 was allocated to the
conditions affecting 50 percent of the          MNE from the state budget in 2007 for
country every four to five years. Increased     investment purposes, only MNT 662 million,
desertification has brought with it more        or 0.47 percent, was disbursed. Ninety-eight
frequent dust storms. Since 1960, the           percent of those funds were spent on
number of days in which there were dust         construction, repair works and the buying of
storms has more than tripled.                   equipment. Simultaneously, of the MNT
                                                164.2 billion designated by the “Mongolia
Environmental protection is an integral         Development Fund” for construction
                                                                                         The MNPC
                                                                                         will carefully
                                                                                         observe
                                                                                         Parliament’s
                                                                                         2008 budget
                                                                                         allocation
                                                                                         for
                                                                                         environmental
                                                                                         issues.




projects in 2007, the MNE’s share was just        climatologists have warned that if
MNT 750 million, or 0.45%. The funding            temperatures rise by +3C, there will be
imbalance illustrates the low level of priority   radical environmental changes. According to
given to environmental protection, and            current calculations, by 2100 the average air
explains why the MNE is widely known as           temperature will have risen by up to +5C. It
“The Least Favored Ministry”.                     is crucial that environmental issues are given
                                                  a higher priority and that people and
Climate change data gathered over the past        resources are mobilized to deal with the
64 years indicates that Mongolia’s annual         challenges ahead. To do this, the
average air temperature has increased by          government must provide solid leadership
+2C, nd the impacts are apparent on the           and guidance.
country’s fragile ecology. Scientists and l




                                                         MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
        3. THE BEST AND THE WORST OF 2007


        THE BEST EVENTS OF 2007




I. Parliamentary “Green Group”                  contaminated with toxic chemicals directly
takes action over river                         into the Tuul River.         However, the
contamination                                   Metropolitan Court ruled that nobody could
                                                be charged over the pollution.
The Tuul River in central Mongolia, which
was once referred to as “Queen Tuul”            When the extent of the contamination was
because of its clean and clear water, has       revealed, the public demanded that the
almost ceased to flow, and its waters are       government clean up the river, but no action
becoming increasingly polluted. Nowadays it     has yet been taken. Instead, government
is known locally as “Poisonous Tuul.”           representatives   stated   that:   “Flowing
                                                riverwater fully self-cleans within 18-20
On July 2, 2007, 2.3 tonnes of dead fish        days, and the river will become clean after
washed up along a 40km stretch of the river     flowing for 30-40km.”
between     the   Khan-Uul      district   of
Ulaanbaatar and Altanbulag soum in Tuv          The government’s indifference prompted
aimag. Toxins, including mineral nitrogen       parliamentary Green Group members S.
and sludge released over four days from         Oyun, M. Zorig, R. Amarjargal, S. Batbold,
three   Ulaanbaatar     refineries   severely   A. Bakey and Y. Sanjmyatav to question U.
depleted the river’s oxygen regime and          Khurelsukh, the Minister in charge of the
caused the fish kill. It was subsequently       Professional Inspection Agency, and E.
found that five leather factories were also     Erdenebaatar, the Minister for Nature and
regularly dumping waste water                   Environment Protection. The MPs
demanded that these government officials        Mongolia       has     signed        a    number        of
identify and charge those responsible for       agreements to help govern mining activities
the   contamination.    They    also   urged    in the country, including Tsairt Mineral,
Government to take action before crises         1987; Boroo Gold, 1998; Bumbat, 2003; and
occurred, rather than reacting after the        Chin-Hua-MAK-Naryyn-Suhait,                          2005.
damage had already been done.                   However, the amended Minerals Law,
                                                enacted in 2006, changed the stability
Member of Parliament S. Oyun said: “The         agreements to “investment agreements”
contamination of the Tuul River reached         with foreign mining companies that invest
disaster levels. Pitifully, several thousand    US $2 million or more, in order to promote
fish suffered, and died and no one has          foreign investment and clarify the tax
assumed    any   responsibility.   We,   the    environment in which they would operate.
Members of Parliament who are present           During the first five years firms are exempt
here, will not leave this problem alone until   from paying taxes; for the following five
the cause is determined and the guilty ones     years they are given a 50 percent tax break.
are charged.”
                                                The investment agreements have met with
II. Member of Parliament L.                     public criticism on the grounds that they give
Gundalai calls for an end to                    unfair advantages to foreign companies and
investment agreements                           enable them to extract substantial resources
                                                within a short period of time, and thus avoid
In the past 20 years, the Government of         paying taxes. The National Tax Authority

                                                       MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
determined that Boroo Gold, which has            with the government, we go to London to
about 36 tonnes of gold reserves, extracted      settle them. When will we stop it? Similar
eight tonnes tons of gold in 2004 worth          provisions are still included in the proposed
more than MNT 120 billion, of which the          agreements with Tavan Tolgoi and Oyu
company paid just 2.5% in taxation. To           Tolgoi.”
compound the situation, the government
owes Boroo Gold MNT 2.7 billion as               III. The Responsible Mining
compensation for overpaid Value-Added            Initiative for Sustainable
Tax (VAT).                                       Development

MP L. Gundalai has demanded that the             In    December     2007,    a   new     non-
government       annul    all    investment      governmental organization, the Responsible
agreements as they are not beneficial for        Mining     Initiative    for    Sustainable
Mongolia.    According   to     him,   foreign   Development (RMI), was registered with the
companies investing in the Mongolian             State Registration Agency. The mission of
mining sector enjoy a tax “paradise” in which    the RMI is to create a common framework
they can export valuable Mongolian mineral       of understanding of responsible mining in
resources, which are the people’s property,      Mongolia for the public, government,
without any benefit to Mongolia, and at the      industry and investors, to promote open and
same time cause irrecovable damage to the        transperant information-sharing, and to
environment.                                     secure equal participation in the minerals-
                                                 sector Multi-Stakeholder Forum which is
Member of Parliament Z. Enkhbold also            facilitated by The Asia Foundation’s Securing
criticized the government for stipulating        Our Future program.
that any disputes that arose in the
investment agreements should be settled by       The RMI represents a mutually endorsed
the International Arbitration Court. He said     code of practice that provides guidelines for
the dispute provision was wrong and              future mining activities within Mongolia,
unfavorable for Mongolia practice. “The          and ensures the development of sustainable
resources are in Mongolia, minerals are          and    environmentally     sound   operating
explored by economic entities registered in      practices that benefit all Mongolians. In June
Mongolia, but when it comes to disputes          2007, members of the Multi-Stakeholder
Forum representing the public, private
and non-governmental sectors signed
the landmark Declaration of Responsible
Mining. The declaration provides the
foundation for future collaboration and
cooperation that engages a range of
diverse      interests     to   advance       such
national objectives as economic growth
and job creation.                                    Principles of Responsible Mining:


The     RMI    is    cooperating      with     the   • Ensure multi-stakeholder engagement
government          to    develop    responsible     • Transparency and openness
mining       throughout         Mongolia,       to   • Uphold law and its enforcement
evaluate      Mongolia’s        current      legal   • Responsibility for the safety of people
system, to advance policy that will help               and the environment
to    successfully       develop     responsible     • Investment in future development
mining in Mongolia, to update related                • Ensure fruitful productivity and efficiency
laws and regulations, and to reveal and              • Humane and ethical
eliminate failures.                                  • Based       on     advanced           and          modern
                                                       technology
Definition of Responsible Mining:
                                                     Among those parliamentarians who are
Responsible Mining is a complete set of              contributing greatly to the Multi-Stakeholder
activities     in    the    minerals      sector,    Forum and to the development of state
respecting the rights of all stakeholders            policy in regard to responsible mining are Z.
including        local          communities;         Enkhbold, A. Bakey and Ts. Damiran.
environmentally          friendly;   having    no    Members of Parliament Y. Sanjmyatav, B.
negative effects on human health;                    Munkhtuya, R. Raash, Ch. Radnaa, G.
open;     based      on     international     best   Zandanshatar,        B.     Erdenesuren              and   B.
experiences; respecting the rule of law;             Tserenbaljir are also active forum supporters
and which contributes sustainably to the             and are providing much advice and ongoing
benefit of the nation.                               assistance.


                                                            MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
THE WORST EVENTS OF




I. The contamination of Khongor                 of contaminated dirt and waste to Boroo
soum                                            Gold’s tailing pool, cleaning Mich’s facility
                                                and neutralizing 18.5 tonnes of sodium
In April 2007 in Khongor soum, Darkhan-Uul      cyanide solution and draining local wells. On
                                                the basis of these efforts and a subsequent
aimag, two cows and a sheep died of
                                                environmental analysis, the government
poisoning after drinking contaminated
                                                concluded that soil and water were
water. As a result, a joint working group was
                                                decontaminated. Similarly, local people who
formed, comprised of representatives from
                                                had been poisoned had been treated and
the MNE, the State Emergency Agency, the        were deemed to have been cured. As a
State Specialized Inspection Agency and the     result, they were not relocated to another
Central Intelligence Agency. They found that    area.
the water supply was contaminated with
mercury and sodium cyanide that emanated        However, soum residents reported that:
from an illegal gold-processing operation on    ‘’The impact of contamination by hazardous
the premises of the Mich Company.               chemicals still persists, its scope has been
                                                expanding, and since the environmental
Water and soil analysis found that the          pollution was not fully eliminated, more and
                                                more people are being contaminated. But
sodium cyanide content exceeded the
                                                the government does not pay any attention
standard level by 100-1,025 times. In the
                                                to people’s health, lives and their future.”
industrial waste water, sodium cyanide
exceeded the permissible level by 3,738
                                                This has led to ongoing disputes between
times and mercury by 900 times. The level of    soum residents and the government, which
cyanide in the local wells was 26 times         has issued contradictory statements. Such
higher than the standard.                       statements have fuelled confusion among
                                                the broader public. In order to clarify the
In May 2007, the working group began to         situation, we have compared statements
detoxify the area, transferring 1,192 tonnes    made by both sides.
             Soum residents’ statements                                                          stry, SPIA statements
                                                                             MNE, SEA, Health Mini

  Khongor soum soil was polluted with                                      Mercury and sodium cyanide were only
  mercury and sodium cyanide. The                                          found in the soil on Mich premises.
  analysis carried out in July 2007
  revealed that the content of mercury
  in the soil was 1,000ml/gr. Residents
  assert that instead of removing the
  contaminated soil, the ground surface
  was simply watered, which the
  working group called “neutralizing”.

  Eight deep wells, nine ordinary wells                                    Neither sodium cyanide nor mercury were
  and one mining well were                                                 detected in the manually operated wells,
  contaminated. Sodium cyanide was                                         nor was any detected in the centralized
  found in the soum’s central water                                        clean-water pipes.
  supply installation.

  The content of mercury in the air in                                     According to the September analysis, the
  Khongor soum is much more than the                                       daily average content of mercury in the air
  permissible standard level.                                              was less than the standard level.

  67.4% of the people who underwent a                                      312 persons were suspected to have been
  medical check suffered from stomach                                      contaminated by sodium cyanide and
  inflammation, diarrhea and allergic                                      mercury. The majority of the soum residents
  swelling all over their bodies. 61.3% of                                 suffered from stomach and gallbladder
  the soum center’s 1,132 residents                                        inflammation. 134 cases of infectious and
  showed symptoms of contamination.                                        parasitic diseases were registered, and 111
                                                                           cases of scabies.

  Because the environmental                                                Dermatologists treated people suffering
  contamination was not totally                                            from scabies. Of those, 11 were
  eliminated, people with chronic                                          hospitalized, 471 were given an oil
  symptoms could not be fully healed.                                      treatment, 80 had their skin bandaged, and
  Ongoing symptoms included rashes,                                        313 underwent skin peels. In all, 2,032kg of
  especially after rain, and diarrhea,                                     clothing and medical instruments were
  particularly when it was hot.                                            sterilized.

  12 people exhibited symptoms of                                          Blood and urine samples from 12 people
  chronic contamination, including                                         were sent to South Korea and China for
  shivering, shaking and nose-bleeds.                                      testing. The results did not indicate any

1. Source:
                  Zuunii medee, 2007.09.13, № 218, “Information from official sources about Khongor soum cast doubt on truth”
                  Zuunii medee, 2007.09.28, № 233, “Is there any guarantee for not worrying?”
                  Zuunii medee, 2007.09.28, № 233, “D. Batbaatar, Head of State Specialized Inspection Agency: “Destroying contaminated vegetables is not my job.”
                  Daily news, 2007.09.05, № 211 “67.4% of the residents were poisoned by cyanide and mercury.”
                  Zuunii medee, 2007.09.18, № 223 “Incidents of cyanide and mercury contamination shall be considered as a crime against mankind.”

2. Source:        Response from the Prime Minister of Mongolia to the question raised by the Members of Parliament, namely S. Oyun.
                  Ministry of Nature and Environment of Mongolia 2007.10.10, № 1/3024. Minister I. Erdenebaatar

                                                                                              MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
      Soum residents’ statements                             s
                                         MNE, SEA, Health Mini try, SPIA statements

                                        contamination and the subjects were
                                        deemed healthy.

One woman delivered a baby              As of September 29, 2007, 53 women in the
suffering from birth defects. Another   soum delivered babies safely and 10
pregnant woman was diagnosed as         pregnant women were under medical
having an abnormal embryo. A            supervision.
number of pregnant women suffered
miscarriages.

Two cows miscarried.                    The miscarriages were caused by brain
                                        tumors. Two more cows had brucellosis.

A calf suffering severe birth defects   The defects were a result of livestock
was born.                               inbreeding.

A hairless animal with two heads was    Test results showed this was due to
born.                                   brucellosis.

The soum’s potatoes and other           A total of 253 samples were taken of 11
vegetables were found to be             types of vegetables, and a locally grown
contaminated.                           berry. Vegetables from seven residents’
                                        plots of land were found to contain less
                                        than 0.02mg/kg of mercury. The mercury
                                        content in turnips and cabbages was found
                                        to be 0.0003-0.0017 mg/kg, which is 10-67
                                        times less than Russian health requirements.


                                        In light of the ongoing controversy, it is evident
                                        that the government has not adequately
                                        addressed the concerns of the Khongor soum
                                        residents, nor provided consistent information
                                        on the effects of the contamination. For the
                                        affected community, the following questions
                                                    remain: When will the area be totally
                                                         rehabilitated? What
                                                           compensation will be paid to
                                                             those affected? Who is
                                                              ultimately going to take
                                                               responsibility at the
                                                               government level? Who
                                                               will be charged over the
                                                               contamination?
II. Lake Khuvsgul in danger again                two percent of world’s freshwater resources
                                                 and 93.8% of Mongolia’s freshwater
In November 2006, a ship called the              resources. They also urged the government
Dybovski belonging to the Nature Use             to rehabilitate the affected environment,
Institute of the Siberian branch of the          and to pay compensation. In response, the
Russian Academy of Sciences sank in Lake         MNE and the State Emergency Agency made
Khuvsgul at Khankh soum in Khuvsgul              a number of statements refuting both the
aimag. The ship’s diesel fuel spilled into the   sinking itself, and the subsequent pollution,
lake, covering an area of 50m2, polluting        including: “This is disinformation”, “The ship
both the lake and the surrounding                did not sink”, “There was no oil leakage into
environment.                                     the lake” and “The oil was pumped out of
                                                 the fuel tanker”.
Tests conducted at the Mongolian Nature
and Environment Metrology Laboratory on          As a result, the residents of Khankh soum
water samples taken at one meter from the        and the Khuvsgul Lake Owners movement
ship, and 50-100m southeast of the ship,         filed suit against the government in the
showed fuel contamination exceeded the           Administrative Court, alleging that the
level of contamination allowed by MNS-           government had failed to uphold its
4586-98, the Mongolian surface water             obligations as stipulated in Articles 38.2 and
quality standards. According to the results,     19.1 of the Constitution of Mongolia, Article
the level of water contamination was Grade       5.1 of the Law on Protecting Nature and
5, or heavily contaminated, according to the     Environment, Article 26.3 of the Law on
“surface water purity grade classification”      Specially Protected Areas, and Article 10.1.3
approved by joint order № 143/à/352 in           of the Law on Waters.
1997, and jointly enacted by the MNE and
the Ministry for Health and Social Welfare.      In June 2007, the ship was removed from
                                                 the lake. However, the MNE refused to
In the seven months following the oil spill,     undertake any further clean-up of the
the Khuvsgul Lake Owners movement                water, saying that: “Since the water
demanded that the government properly            contamination does not exceed the allowed
clean up the lake’s water - which represents     limits of the water standard, there is no need
                                                 to clean the lake again.”
                                                        MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
     4. THREE LAWS AND
     REGULATIONS APPROVED BY
     THE 2006 FALL SESSION OF
     THE MONGOLIAN PARLIAMENT
The regular fall session of Parliament in       implementation and enforcement of policies
                                                and legislation. Compounding the situation
2006 began on October 2 and continued
                                                is the government’s inaction in developing a
until February 8, 2007. During this period,
                                                comprehensive set of regional
54 laws and 48 resolutions were approved.       environmental policies and programs. As
There were five draft laws at the final         part of our environmental evaluations, we
discussion stage, 14 at the commencement        are analyzing all policy documents issued by
stage of discussion, 25 draft laws for which    the government and assessing whether
discussion had not begun, and a range of        environmental objectives are a
other draft decisions pending discussion. Of    consideration, and if so, evaluating whether
the 102 laws and resolutions approved in this   they are realistic and feasible. We are also
session, four related to nature and the         monitoring the implementation of policies
environment: the “Law on Amendments to          and programs. Because the “Main Directions
the Nature and Environment Protection           of the Socio-Economic Development of
Law”, the “Law on the Budget of Mongolia        Mongolia” is the basic policy document of a
for 2007”, the resolution on the “Main          particular year, the objectives in the field of
Directions of the Socio-Economic                nature and the environment contained
Development of Mongolia in 2007”, and the       within it are being used as the main criteria
                                                for evaluating annual performance.
resolution on “Adding Particular Mineral
Deposits to the List of Mineral Deposits of
                                                The resolution on the “Main Directions of
Strategic Importance”.                          the Socio-Economic Development of
                                                Mongolia in 2007” approved on November
I. Regional policies needed to                  23, 2006, advanced the following 10
ensure future environmental                     objectives:
protection
                                                To reduce air pollution:
In order to protect the natural environment,
successive governments in Mongolia have         • To expand the use of low-pollution fuels
made commitments to environmental                 in the ger districts during the winter
protection, and have attempted to integrate       months;
environmental policies and legislation into     • To implement a project to turn
their development agendas. However,               Ulaanbaatar into a city free of smog by
despite a pro-environmental stance, there         reducing air pollution and increasing the
has been limited success in the actual            use of timed electricity meters by 25%.
To reduce land deterioration and hard or        • To conduct a water survey and study in
liquid waste disposal:                            regional centers like Darkhan, Choibalsan
                                                  and Erdenet cities, and in the free
• To develop and implement a program              economic zones, including Zamiin-Uud,
  targeted at reducing the level of pollution     Tsagaan Nuur and Altanbulag, and to
  caused by the Erdenet mining company’s          develop a comprehensive water-resource
  waste and dust.                                 management plan by undertaking a water
                                                  census;
To protect against rangeland                    • To build two engineer-designed wells in
overgrazing the movement of sand and              all bags within two years: a total of 1,280
desertification:                                  wells;
                                                • To create a system in which herders and
• To create conditions for automated rain-        people in bags, soums and aimags are
  making in order to improve Gobi and             offered financial encouragement to dig
  steppe zone rangeland grass harvests, and       manual wells to water pastureland.
  to improve programs aimed at preventing
  desertification;                              To increase forest resources:
• To conduct a study on how to stop the
  movement of sand.                             • To increase the area under reforestation
                                                  by 10,000 hectares.
To improve the water supply:
                                                While well-intentioned, these moves will not
• To conduct a survey and study of drinking     have any substantial effect on offsetting the
  water and pastureland water resources;        effects of climate change. This is an area the


                                                       MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
government needs to focus its attention on
and, in conjunction with neighbouring
countries, develop a comprehensive regional
policy to prevent future environmental
degradation.


II. Is the Mongolian state budget
for 2007 aligned to the
environmental objectives set forth
in the Main Directions resolution,
and is it sufficient to achieve
these objectives?

In the “Main Directions of the Socio-
Economic Development of Mongolia in
2007” resolution approved by Parliament, 10
objectives   related   to   nature     and   the
environment. We have analyzed the “Law on
the Budget of Mongolia for 2007”, approved
on November 30, 2006, paying special
attention to whether there are sufficient
financial resources allocated to achieve
those objectives and whether the budget is
consistent with the resolution, as well as
assessing the implementation of those
objectives in the first nine months.
     Comparision of the Main Directions and their first 9 months’
               implementation with 2007 year budget

      Objectives reflected in the   Report on the implementation of the first             Funds allocated in
      “Main Directions of the       nine months of the resolution                         the 2007 state
      Socio-Economic                                                                      budget
№
      Development of Mongolia
      in 2007” resolution

      Expand the use of low-        Government agrees with the European Bank              MNT 500.0 million for
      pollution fuels in the ger    for Reconstruction and Development to                 funding the
      districts during the winter   provide soft loans to 19 businesses engaged           production of ovens
      months                        in the production of pressed fuel briquettes          for making pressed
                                                                                          briquettes

                                                                                          In a revision of the
1.
                                                                                          2007 budget, MNT
                                                                                          418 million was
                                                                                          approved for
                                                                                          supplying 11,000
                                                                                          households with
                                                                                          briquettes

                                                                                          MNT 360.0 million for
                                                                                          establishing a
                                                                                          laboratory for
                                                                                          coal/gas research

      Implement a project to        Technical and technological reconstruction
      turn Ulaanbaatar into a       of the city’s 18 water boilers has been
      city free of smog by          undertaken
      reducing air pollution and
      increasing the use of timed   A schedule for undertaking a feasibility study
      electricity meters by 25%     into converting 56 low-pressure furnaces into
                                    electric heaters in 2007-2008 has been
                                    prepared
2.
                                    A draft resolution provides for the supply of
                                    timed electricity meters to 10,000 households
                                    in 2007

      Develop and implement a       Research is being conducted to identify the
      program targeted at           spreading of dust
      reducing the level of
      pollution caused by the       Surface and sub-soil water analyses are
      Erdenet mining company’s      carried out every month
      waste and dust
                                    A 700m x 18-54m dam was built in the
                                    northern part of the tailing pool
3.
                                    An 800m irrigation system is now functioning
                                    and MNT 22 million is being spent on
                                    watering a 10 hectare dust area




                                                               MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
     Objectives reflected in the   Report on the implementation of the first       Funds allocated in
     “Main Directions of the       nine months of the resolution                   the 2007 state
     Socio-Economic                                                                budget
№
     Development of Mongolia
     in 2007” resolution

                                   MNT 15 million has been used to cover a 20
                                   hectare area with soil

                                   MNT 51 million was spent to reduce dust

     Create conditions for         The program “Undertaking Activities for
     automated rain-making in      Intentional Impacts on the Weather up to
     order to improve Gobi and     2015” was approved
     steppe zone rangeland
     grass harvests, and to
     improve programs aimed
4.   at preventing
                                   In 2007, MNT 105.8 million was allocated        MNT 350.0 million was
                                   from government reserve funds to take           spent on buying
     desertification
                                   measures to increase rain in Umnugovi,          equipment to seed
                                   Dundgovi, Bayankhongor and Govi-Altai           clouds to cause rain
                                   aimags

                                   A total of 25 cloud seeding rockets were
                                   launched in order to increase crop yields,
                                   extinguish fires and increase precipitation.

     Conduct a study on how        The dynamics and trends of the
     to stop the movement of       desertification process have been studied,
     sand                          the factors influencing desertification have
                                   been assessed, and further trends have
                                   been identified

                                   A Mongolian desertification М1:2500000
5.                                 scale map was developed

                                   Recommendations on a “Combating
                                   Mongolian Desertification Strategy and
                                   Tactics” have been prepared

                                   A yellow dust storm observation station was
                                   established in Ulaanbaatar

     Conduct a survey and          Government has received two water-              MNT 400.0 million for
     study of drinking water and   prospecting research reports and is verifying   water prospecting
     pastureland water             potentially viable resources                    research
     resources
                                   Water purifying equipment has been
                                   installed in 30 soums of 10 aimags

6.                                 New water-point prospecting work was
                                   carried out in 11 areas of six soums

                                   More than 800 new wells were selected for
                                   construction in 2007

     Conduct a water survey        Five companies studied six regional drinking-
     and study in regional         water sources and their quality and
7.   centers like Darkhan,         prepared follow-up reports, of which five
      Objectives reflected in the     Report on the implementation of the first             Funds allocated in
      “Main Directions of the         nine months of the resolution have been               the 2007 state
      Socio-Economic                  approved                                              budget
№
      Development of Mongolia
      in 2007” resolution

      Choibalsan and Erdenet          MNT 140 million was allocated to conduct a
      cities and in the free          surface water census
      economic zones, including
      Zamiin-Uud, Tsagaan Nuur
      and Altanbulag, and to
      develop a comprehensive
      water-resource
      management plan by
      undertaking a water
      census

      Build two engineer-             A decision was made to allocate MNT 7.7               MNT 6 billion to
      designed wells in all bags      billion to construct ne w wells in 1664 bags          construct wells in
      within two years: a total of    and 856 khoroos; tender bidding has taken             each bag
      1,280 wells                     place

                                      A decision was made to allocate MNT 1.5
8.                                    billion for the repair of 429 wells

                                      Six companies were contracted to build new
                                      deep wells in 15 soums as part of an Asian
                                      Development Bank loan

      Create a system in which        The terms and conditions for a “Manual Well
      herders and people in           - 2007” competition for soums, bags and
      bags, soums and aimags          herders are under development. MNT 20.0
      are offered financial           million from the “Livestock Protection Fund”
9.
      encouragement to dig            has been allocated to finance the event
      manual wells to water
      pastureland

      Increase the area under         According to preliminary figures,                     MNT 13.0 million for
      reforestation by 10,000         reforestation was carried out on an area of           planting a Tui River
      hectares                        about 4,880 hectares during the spring                willow protection
10.                                   planting season; green belts in a 261 hectare         strip
                                      area were established as part of the “Green
                                      Wall” program

      (This is not reflected in the                                                         MNT 139.0 million for
      resolution)                                                                           constructing and
                                                                                            repairing
                                                                                            meteorological
11.
                                                                                            stations and nature
                                                                                            and environment
                                                                                            service buildings;
                                                                                            MNT 510.0 million for
                                                                                            buying equipment




                                                                 MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
This table illustrates that the 2007 state       on the best international practices, respect
budget has yet to be sufficiently                the rule of law, and generate revenue for the
coordinated with the objectives outlined in      country as a whole. The Parliament’s
the “Main Directions of the Socio-Economic       resolution on “Adding Particular Mineral
Development of Mongolia in 2007”                 Deposits to the List of Mineral Deposits of
resolution. However, it is important to note     Strategic Importance”, approved on
that the budget did make provision for the       February 6, 2007, states that mineral
following additional funding: MNT 70 billion     deposits having an impact on national
for supplying at least 50,000 thousand           security and regional socio-economic
herder households with solar energy, and         development, or ones meeting the criteria of
MNT 350.0 million for the purchase of radar      producing or having the potential to produce
equipment to enable cloud-seeding.               more than five percent of the annual gross
                                                 domestic product, qualify as mineral
The pressing issues impacting Mongolia’s         deposits of strategic importance.
environment can only be properly addressed
if there is an appropriate allocation of funds   We expect the government to fulfil its
from the annual state budget to meet the         responsibilities and ensure adherence to
desired objectives. To help achieve this, we     the following:
are actively involved in budget formulation
and administration, and assessment.              • The Law on Minerals states that
                                                   government participation is mandatory in
                                                   exploiting mineral deposits considered to
III. Mineral deposits of strategic                 be of strategic importance, and that its
importance: government                             level of participation should be up to 50
responsibilities                                   percent if a geological survey has been
                                                   carried out with funding from the state
It is essential that Mongolia’s mining             budget; if not, its level of participation
activities respect the rights of local             should be 34 percent. This ensures that
communities, are environmentally friendly,         high-concentration deposits will not be
do no impact on people’s health, are based         exhausted in a short period of time, and
that vast tracts of land are not destroyed in   and open to subjective interpretation. For
   the process. It also enables resources to    example: 1) In the context of further growth
   be utilized more efficiently and leads to    of the gross domestic product, the output of
   the development of long-term policies        a mine may be less than five percent; if so,
   that guarantee a share for future            should such a deposit should be still
   generations. This also makes the             considered strategically important? 2)
   government responsible for enhancing         Should all deposits that have some effect on
   the terms and conditions for the             regional socio-economic development,
   exploration of mineral deposits with the     regardless of their size, be considered
   participation of foreign companies.          strategically important?

• To ensure that the distribution of the        It is important to ensure the definition is fully
  revenue generated from the minerals           clarified, taking into account the experiences
  sector is beneficial for Mongolia.            of other countries when including
                                                strategically important deposits mineral
• To allocate revenue derived from the          resources, grouped by their size and specific
  sector for the socio-economic                 mineral types, on the list.
  development of the nation.

• To report transparently to the public on
  the actual spending of such financial
  allocations.

There are calls from the government and
non-governmental sectors to revise the
current definition of “strategically
important”, which they claim is inconsistent



                                                       MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
5. THREE LAWS AND
REGULATIONS APPROVED
DURING THE 2007 SPRING
SESSION OF PARLIAMENT
          The 2007 spring session of Parliament ran
          from April 5 to September 27. During this
          period, 67 laws and 38 resolutions were
          approved. There was one draft law at the
          final stage of discussion, 28 at the first stage
          of discussion, 41 for which discussion had
          not begun, and a range of other draft
          decisions pending discussion. Out of 195
          laws and regulations approved during the
          2007 spring session, three related to nature
          and the environment: the “Law on Forests”,
          the “Law on Modified Living Organisms” and
          the resolution on “Some Measures to
          Implement to Reduce Air Pollution”.


          I. Community ownership of forests


          In the past 30 years, fire has destroyed
          89,000 hectares of forest land in Mongolia.
          At the same time, 179,700 hectares of forest
          were harvested, both commercially and
          illegally. This resulted in a 1.4 million hectare
reduction in total forest land. Violations of      assume ownership of the forests, and they
forest regulations make up 30-40 percent           are empowered with their protection, proper
of all environmental legislation violations.       use and rehabilitation. Fines for violations
Under the original Law on Forests, individual      have also increased to MNT 100,000 for
perpetrators could be fined MNT 300-               individuals,      and       MNT        200,000       for
10,000, and businesses MNT 50,000-                 businesses and other organizations. The
75,000.   However,        the   penalties   were   concept of community custodianship of the
criticised as being too lenient, and not           forests is a positive step forward in the
serving as a deterrent.                            protection and management of national
                                                   forest resources.
As a result, a revision of the Law on Forests
was approved – a move initiated by MPs Ch.         II. MNT 50 billion to be spent on
Radnaa, G. Adiya, T. Badamjunai, A. Bakey,         reducing air pollution
S. Batbold, B. Bat-Erdene, J. Surragchaa, Ts.
Damiran, D. Dondog, G. Zandanshatar, R.            Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar is at a critical
Nyamsuren,        Y.      Sanjmyatav,       Ch.    level, and according to current estimates, if
Sodnomtseren and B. Erdenesuren. As part           there is no significant reduction by 2015,
of the revision, local communities may             42,000 residents will suffer from respiratory


                                                          MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
diseases and MNT 5 billion will be needed to      constructing houses in the city’s ger districts,
fund associated medical treatment. The            producing ecologically clean fuel, supplying
main causes of air pollution in the city are      thermo-electric     power     stations    with
ger district households which rely on coal        equipment to filter smoke and pollutants, to
and wood for heating and cooking, low-            undertake the technological reconstruction
pressure     heating   furnaces,   the   city’s   of low-pressure kilns, to reduce vehicle
thermo-electric power stations, and vehicle       emissions, to increase the use of natural gas,
emissions.                                        and to improve air-quality monitoring. MNT
On June 2, 2007, a parliamentary resolution       50 billion has been allocated in the state
entitled “Some Measures to Implement to           budget to implement these measures.
Reduce Air Pollution”, was initiated MPs D.
Lundeejantsan, A. Bakey, Y. Sanjmyatav, G.        III. Biosafety on the government
Batkhuu, B. Munkhtuya, Ch. Radnaa, B.             agenda
Tserenbaljir and R. Amarjargal. It outlines a
broad   set    of   measures   designed     to    Biotechnology, genetic engineering, and the
substantially reduce air pollution, including     extraction and transfer of genetic material
from animals and plants is leading to the      be allowed to cross the country’s borders, it
growth of new and modified types of            does not provide sufficient protection

organisms that are disease-resistant and       mechanisms or risk assessment. To curb the

impervious to heat and cold, which poses a     potential spread of harmful organisms into
                                               the environment, the law stipulates that
threat to human safety.
                                               modified organisms must be grown under
                                               special    conditions          or     in    designated
Mongolia imports 70 percent of its food
                                               laboratories or greenhouses. A national
products, making it vulnerable to the
                                               committee will be established to oversee the
introduction of such harmful organisms. On
                                               implementation and enforcement of the
June 28, 2007, the Law on Modified Living
                                               law.
Organisms was approved, and while it
stipulates that only licensed organisms will




      The 2006 fall and 2007 spring sessions of Parliament:
      Evaluation List Table for Members of Parliament

                    Supported
                    Unable to attend session
                    Rejected
                    Did not attend




                                                      MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
                                                                    6. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT
                                                             The 2006 fall and 2007 spring sessions of Parliament:




                                               Laws and regulations approved at the 2006 fall session of Parliament
                                       Resolution on the “Main     Law on the Budget of Mongolia       Resolution on “Adding
      Names of Members
                                       Directions for the socio-              for 2007              Particular Mineral Deposits
        of Parliament
                                      economic development of                                           to the List of Mineral
                                          Mongolia in 2007”                                             Deposits of Strategic
                                                                                                             Importance”
  Supported
  Rejected
1.    Ch.Àvdai
2.    G.Àdiya
3.    R.Àmarjargal
4.    D.Àrvin
5.    R.Badamdamdin
6.    Ò.Badamjunai
7.    À.Bakey
8.    Ts.Bataa
9.    B.Batbaatar
10.   B.Batbayar
11.   N.Batbayar
12.   Su. Batbold
13.   Su. Batbold
14.   H.Battulga
15.   J.Batkhuyag
16.   G.Batkhuu
17.   E.Bat-Uul
18.   B.Bat-Erdene
19.   D.Bat-Erdene
20.   Ts.Bayarsaikhan
21.   N.Bayartsaikhan
22.   S.Bayartsogt
23.   R.Bud
24.   Ò.Gandi
25.   L.Gansukh
26.   L.Gantumur
27.   D.Gankhuyag
28.   R.Gonchigdorj
29.   J.Gurragchaa
30.   L.Gundalai
31.   Ts.Damiran
32.   D.Dondog
33.   D.Demberel

         NB:   The consolidated vote percentage of the Members of Parliament and the Members who were absent from the session are not included in this
               scorecard. In future, scorecards will summarize and evaluate these.
EVALUATION LIST
Evaluation List Table for Members of Parliament
                            Supported                               Rejected
                            Unable to attend session                Did not attend


          Laws and regulations approved at the 2007 spring session of Parliament

    Law on Forests          Resolution on “Some
                          Measures to Implement to      Law on Modified Living
                            Reduce Air Pollution”            Organisms


                                                                                       Evaluation            Evaluation




                                                                         MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
34.   Ts.Jargal
35.   B.Jargalsaikhan
36.   G.Zandanshatar
37.   D.Idevkhten
38.   Ì.Zorigt
39.   S.Lambaa
40.   D.Lundeejantsan
41.   À.Ìurat
42.   Ts.Ìunkh-Îrgil
43.   B.Munkhtuya
44.   J.Narantsatsralt
45.   R.Nyamsuren
46.   Ts.Nyamdorj
47.   S.Îtgonbayar
48.   D.Îdbayar
49.   L.Îdonchimed
50.   D.Îdkhuu
51.   S.Îyun
52.   Ò.Îchirkhuu
53.   Purevdorj
54.   Ch.Radnaa
55.   R.Raash
56.   Ê.Sairan
57.   Y.Sanjmyatav
58.   Ì.Sodnompil
59.   Ch.Sodnomtseren
60.   Ts.Sukhbaatar
61.   D.Òuya
62.   D.Òerbishdagva
63.   Ch.Ulaan
64.   U.Khurelsukh
65.   À.Tsanjid
66.   B.Tserenbaljir
67.   Ts.Tsengel
68.   Ts.Sharavdorj
69.   Z.Enkhbold
70.   Ì.Enkhbold
71.   N.Enkhbold
72.   Ì.Enkhsaikhan
73.   U.Ekhtuvshin
74.   B.Erdenebat
75.   R.Erdeneburen
76.   B.Erdenesuren
MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
7. A REMINDER
FOR CITIZENS


Let your elected official know                 Mongolia’s environment. But we can win
you’re watching every                          only with your support. If you share our
environmental vote                             views, join our coalition. If any additional
                                               information is needed about membership,
The classic method of influencing how your     use the envelope enclosed in this Green Star
elected representative votes is to keep in     or visit our website at www.mnm-
touch with him or her, and to maintain         coalition.org. When you join our coalition
regular relations. If the representative       and become a member, your voice and
elected from your region is graded as          opinions on protecting the environment join
“nature unfriendly”, hold him or her           with those of a nationwide network.
accountable. If your representative is
graded as “nature friendly”, show them you     Stay in touch with your elected
care by saying “thank you”.                    representative

Support a “nature friendly”                    If you wish to inform your elected
candidate                                      government officials about their grade in the
                                               Green Star, or want to share your opinions
Our “Green Star Scorecard” will help you to    and views, you can meet them personally,
choose from among the 2008 election            make a telephone call or send a letter. You
candidates. This scorecard helps ensure that   can also contact your elected legislator by
representatives elected to Parliament are      sending a fax or e-mail. The most effective
focused on protecting and preserving           tactic to make your voice heard is to be polite
Mongolia’s environment for future              and respectful. Pay attention to how the
generations.                                   official addresses problems related to nature
                                               and the environment. But most importantly,
Join MNPC                                      let him or her know that you track their votes
                                               and evaluate their actions, and that you will
MNPC covers 14 aimags and includes 11          vote accordingly in the next election.
movements, all working together to protect
Please contact your Member of Parliament member using the following addresses:
№        List of Members   Room   Telephones                mail
                                                           E‐ address                                        Assistant
         of Parliament            Office       Cellphone                                       Name                  Cellphone


    1.   Ch.Аvdai          227    262992       91911486    avdai@mail.parl.gov.mn              D.Tsengel             99169020
    2.   G.Аdiya           421    261058       99096185    adiya@mail.parl.gov.mn              D.Bulgantsogt         92008787
                                                                                                                     99868787
    3.   R.Аmarjargal      211    260127       99119387    arinchin@mail.parl.gov.mn           Regzedmaa             99136626
    4.   D.Аrvin           418    263802       99119791    arvin@parliament.mn                 R.Bolormaa            92001065
                                                                                               Erdenebulgan          99269294

    5.   R.Badamdamdin     468    265326       99114609    badamdamdin@mail.parl.gov.mn        Tungaa
    6.   Т.Badamjunai      455в   262287       99116037    badamjunai@mail.parl.gov.mn         Erdenesaikhan         91916038
                                               91916037
    7.   А.Bakey           401    263143       99097582    abakey@mail.parl.gov.mn             Jolbaris              99874001
                                                                                                                     99084000
    8.   Ts.Bataa          434    262623       91918189    bataa@mail.parl.gov.mn              Guivaa                99233965
    9.   B.Batbaatar       318    264205       99114375    batbaatar_b@mail.parl.gov.mn        Аltankhuyag           99110945
    10. B.Batbayar         310    260883       99088903    batbayar_b@mail.parl.gov.mn         Ts.Rentsentogtok      99265607
                                                                                               h
    11. N.Batbayar         218    261883       99112539    batbayar_n@mail.parl.gov.mn         Ts.Batbayar           99086480
    12. Su. Batbold        261    263501       99117130    batbold@parliament.mn               B.Bilegt              99197890
                                               92007130                                        E.BatIder
                                                                                                   ‐                 99747595

    13. Su. Batbold        121    261175       99118779    batbold_s@mail.parl.gov.mn          А.Batkhuyag           88116799
    14. H.Battulga         441    263249       99116118    battulga_kh@mail.parl.gov.mn        Ganzorig              99230595
    15. J.Batkhuyag        409    262974       99119749    batkhuyag@mail.parl.gov.mn          B.Erdene              99095612
    16. G.Batkhuu          219    260890       99114403    batkhuu@mail.parl.gov.mn            Oyuntsetseg           99153337
                                               91911960                                                              92003337
                                               92006602
    17. E.Bat-Uul          432    262246       99090446    batuul@mail.parl.gov.mn             D.Batmunkh            99279803


            ‐
    18. B.Bat Erdene       455б   266268       91919828    baterdene_b@mail.parl.gov.mn        H.Enebish             99269310
                                               99119828
                                               92009310
    19. D.Bat-Erdene       405    260555       99115585    baterdene_d@mail.parl.gov.mn        L.Urtnasan            96650080
                                               99095585
    20. Ts.Bayarsaikhan    218    265978       99114090    bayarsaikhan_ts@mail.parl.gov.mn    Munkhmaa              99156191
                                                                                               Khastsetseg           99148436

    21. N.Bayartsaikhan    453    262155       99112990    bayartsaikhan@parliament.mn         Odontungalag          99295731
                                               92002342                                        Gerelmaa              92000438
    22. S.Bayartsogt       315    262527       99113884    bayartsogt@mail.parl.gov.mn         B.Tsolmontuya         99712442
                                               91913884
    23. R.Bud              109    263414       99116241    bud@mail.parl.gov.mn                Batmunkh              96667480
                                                                                                                     88112202
    24. Т.Gandi            205    262583       99113701    gandhi@parliament.mn                Аriunjargal           91913701
                                               92003701                                        Delgermaa             99191757

    25. L.Gansukh          437    261467       91914330    gansukh@mail.parl.gov.mn            H.Kherlen             91926664
    26. L.Gantumur         305    267522       99115948    gantumur@mail.parl.gov.mn           Tsooj                 99832312
                                               92000020
    27. D.Gankhuyag        316    262439       99114463    gankhuyag@parliament.mn             D.Delgermaa           99191010




                                                                       MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
Please contact your Member of Parliament member using the following addresses:
   28. R.Gonchigdorj      415   266735   99112703    gonchigdorj@parliament.mn       L.Otgonbayar   99190907
                                         92009151
   29. J.Gurragchaa       407   262528   9909399     gurragchaa@parliament.mn        Аdilbish       99269299
                                         92003999
   30. L.Gundalai         406   262727   99114140    gundalai@mail.parl.gov.mn       Otgondavaa     91144343
                                                                                     Saranchimeg    99081152
   31. Ts.Damiran         439   262569   99112203    damiran@mail.parl.gov.mn        Davaakhuu      99745109
                                         92002200                                    Bolorsuvd      99180123

   32. D.Dondog           419   267156   99115103    dondog@mail.parl.gov.mn         Lundeg         99891131
                                         92005103                                    Uranchimeg     91717434

   33. D.Demberel         308   265889   99113703    demberel@mail.parl.gov.mn       Batdorj        96669464
   34. Ts.Jargal          303   262777   99114434    jargal@mail.parl.gov.mn         Davgasuren     88004884
                                         92002777
   35. B.Jargalsaikhan    459   323771   99112610    jagaa@mail.parl.gov.mn          Nyamsuren      99130905
                                         91912610                                    Regzedmaa      99198871
                                         92000009
   36. G.Zandanshatar     464   265172   999115136   zandanshatar@mail.parl.gov.mn   Gantogtokh     99818302

   37. D.Idevkhten        213   260429   99114952    idevkhten@ mail.parl.gov.mn     Zandanbal      99164099

   38. М.Zorigt           207   260640   99112442    zorigt@mail.parl.gov.mn         Dashravdan     91911224
                                         91912023
   39. S.Lambaa           354   327097   99115782    lambaa@mail.parl.gov.mn         Khosjargal     99176964

   40. D.Lundeejantsan    201   261255   99113704    lundee@chinggis.com             Khosbayar      99127045
                                         92007887                                    Bayarbaatar    96655519

   41. А.Мurat            115   264678   99119860    murat@mail.parl.gov.mn          Khairatbek     99426901
                                         92009119
   42. Ts.Мunkh-Оrgil     203   262687   99113829    munkhorgil@mail.parl.gov.mn     Naidanbayar    88113143
                                         92007589                                    Аltanzagas     99262957
                                                                                                    91912957
   43. B.Munkhtuya        443   261345   99119710    munkhtuya@mail.parl.gov.mn      Enkhmaa        99835536
   44. J.Narantsatsralt   317   263526   99118166    narantsatsralt@parliament.mn    Oyuntugs       99885654
                                         92007166
   45. R.Nyamsuren        422   265635   99118100    nyamsuren@mail.parl.gov.mn      Chinbat        99083216
                                         92008100
   46. Ts.Nyamdorj        III   266452   99111150    nyamdorj@parliament.mn          Purevsuren     99199837
                                         99115834
   47. S.Оtgonbayar       111   267302   99112170    otgonbayar@mail.parl.gov.mn     Аriunzul       99191539
                                         99840903                                    Аmarmend       92000508
                                         92002170                                                   99184871
   48. D.Оdbayar          403   262905   99111967    odbayar_d@mail.parl.gov.mn      Khasarkhuu     99585555
                                         99581201
   49. L.Оdonchimed       225   262979   99113883    odonchimed@mail.parl.gov.mn     Batmunkh       99277990
   50. D.Оdkhuu           463   267006   91917640    odkhuu@mail.parl.gov.mn         Demberel       99092640
                                         91918684
   51. S.Оyun             212   323645   91913964    oyuna@mail.parl.gov.mn          Galtsog        92003645
                                         99114264                                    Munkhtsetseg   99136017
                                         92003645                                                   99131222
   52. Т.Оchirkhuu        323   261333   99115059    ochirkhuu@mail.parl.gov.mn      Аriunzul       91915059
Please contact your Member of Parliament member using the following addresses:
                                        92002059
   53. Purevdorj        105    263019   99113013   lpurevdorj@mail.parl.gov.mn         Erdenekhishig         99176390
                                        99113873
   54. Ch.Radnaa        223    266972   99117345   radnaa@mail.parl.gov.mn             Tsengel               99923056
   55. R.Raash          319    319      261041     rash@mail.parl.gov.mn               Аriunbold             99119505
   56. К.Sairan         417    260361   99119560   shlars@mail.parl.gov.mn             Nurgul                99246390
   57. Y.Sanjmyatav     474    267568   99119135   sanjmyatav@mail.parl.gov.mn         Jamiyansuren          99866995
                                        91919135
   58. М.Sodnompil      413    262269   99111476   sonompil@mail.parl.gov.mn           Dejid                 99094733
                                        92004408                                                             92004733
   59. Ch.Sodnomtsere   207    260426   99116231   sodnomtseren@mail.parl.gov.mn       Munkhtuya             99234555
       n
   60. Ts.Sukhbaatar    221    262165   99112858   sukhbaatar@mail.parl.gov.mn         Dunjidmaa             99125874
   61. D.Тuya           206    262213   99112116   tuya@mail.parl.gov.mn               Munkhbayar            99080231
                                                                                                             92009999
   62. D.Тerbishdagva   411    263344   99114212   terbishdagva@mail.parl.gov.mn       Erdenet               99794242
                                                                                                             96657470
   63. Ch.Ulaan         276    262346   99113804   ulaan@mail.parl.gov.mn              Delgermaa             99178366
                                        92009000                                                             92009000
   64. U.Khurelsukh     321    260260   99113937   khurelsukh@mail.parl.gov.mn         Enkhbaatar            99096612
   65. А.Tsanjid        435    265206   99110205   tsanjid@mail.parl.gov.mn            Munkhuu               92000110
   66. B.Tserenbaljir   423    263988   92005155   tserenbaljir@mail.parl.gov.mn       Аltansukh             96654889
   67. Ts.Tsengel       107    265010   99112224   tsengel@mail.parl.gov.mn            Tserenbaatar          99095668
                                        92003910
   68. Ts.Sharavdorj    306    260360   99113702   sharavdorj@mail.parl.gov.mn         Аltanbaatar           99169994
                                        92008888
   69. B.Erdenebat      307    263146   99113209   erdenebat@mail.parl.gov.mn          Bulgan                99754198
                                                                                       Mijiddorj             99166885

   70. R.Erdeneburen    428    261503   99117131   burnee@mail.parl.gov.mn             Khulan                99091625
   71. B.Erdenesuren    208    266457   99113468   erdenesuren@mail.parl.gov.mn        Saruulzaya            99135883
   72. Z.Enkhbold       420    262241   91912703   enkhboldz@parliament.mn             Batsaikhan            96669636
                                        92002703
   73. М.Enkhbold       II              99115451   Enkhbold_m@mail.parl.gov.mn         Sukhbaatar            92003262
                                                                                       Burenjargal           99146868

   74. N.Enkhbold       455А   262740   99117220   enkhbold@mail.parl.gov.mn           Munkhmaral            91699499
                                        92007220                                                             95252625
   75. М.Enkhsaikhan    IV     260979   99144238   enkhsaikhan@mail.parl.gov.mn        Javzansuren           99684608
   76. U.Ekhtuvshin                                enkhtuvshin@parliament.mn           Enkhtuya




                                                               MONGOLIAN NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
Acknowledgement

We would like to express our deep gratitude to the following organizations and
individuals who provided assistance in our efforts to instill in Mongolia a system of
social and political responsibility, and a platform from which to be able to preserve our
environment for generations to come.

Mongolian Parliament:                  MP À. Bakey
                                       MP Z. Enkhbold
                                       MP B. Ìunkhtuya - Chair of the Standing
                                       Committee on Foreign Policy and Security

The Àsia Foundation:                   William Infante – Mongolia Representative
                                       D.Kherlen - Public Policy Coordinator
                                       Rebecca Darling – Securing Our Future Program
                                       Manager
                                       Pete Price – Price Consulting Director
                                       Ts. Yanjmaa - Translator
                                       M.Delgermaa - Translator

California League of Conservation Voters:
                                   Susan Smart - Executive Director
                                   Rico Mashrodonato - North California Director
                                   Sarah Rose - Political Director

MNPC movements:                        1. Àngir Nuden Munduukhei
                                       2. Ardiin Elch
                                       3. Àriun Suvraga
                                       4. Onggi River
                                       5. Înon-Ulz
                                       6. Salkhin Sandag
                                       7. Òoson Zaamar
                                       8. Uuguul
                                       9. Khongor Nutgiin Duudlaga
                                       10. Khuvsgul Dalain Ezed
                                       11. Eg-Uul Ekh Nutag
                                      References

1.    Consolidated introduction about activities of the Fall 2006 Parliamentary session.

2.    Questions posed by the Members of Parliament, Prime Minister’s information,
      oral questions and answers related to and during the Fall 2006 session.

3.    The fundamental direction to develop Mongolian economy and society in 2007.

4.    Law of Mongolia on Budget, 2007.

5.    Parliamentary Resolution #27 based on Article 8.1.4 of the Minerals Law of
      Mongolia to include certain deposits in the strategic minerals deposits.

6.    Minutes of the Fall 2006 Parliamentary session.

7.    Consolidated introduction of the activities of the Spring 2007 Parliamentary
      session.

8.    Questions posed by the Members of Parliament, Prime Minister’s information,
      oral questions and answers related to and during the Spring 2007 session.

9.    Forest Law of Mongolia.

10.   Parliamentary resolution on some measures to reduce air pollution.

11.   Law on Living Modified Organisms.

12.   Minutes of the Spring 2007 Parliamentary session.

13.   Brief introduction of the implementation report of the Parliamentary resolution as
      of 2nd Quarter of 2007. Tasked to the Government.

14.   Fulfillment of the plan to implement the fundamental direction to develop
      Mongolian economy and society in 2007, as of first nine months of 2007.

15.   Brief introduction of the budget execution of Mongolia in the first nine months
      of 2007.

16.   Response from the Prime Minister of Mongolia to the question about the
      situation in the center of Khongor soum of Darkhan-Uul aimag raised by the
      Mps, namely S. Oyun.