Chinese Dynasties and History by fgl12588

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									Chinese Dynasties and History
 Dynasties (over 30 dynasties, 829
  emperors) 21st Century B.C.-1911
 Republic Era 1912-1949, 1949-present
 PRC 1949-present, Communism
 Great Wall, etc.
 Religions

   Time span of the dynasties
    – 21st century B.C. thru
    – 1911 A.D.
    – Almost 4000 years
 Over 30 different dynasties
 Present the most important ones.
          Chronology of Chinese History
   c. 6000 BC: Prehistory           (belief in life after death; bone divination) -
    legendary Xia (Hsia) Dynasty (c. 1994-1500 BC)
   c. 1500-1040 BC: Shang Dynasty                     (polytheism; spiritism;
    ancestor veneration; bone & shell divination)
   1040-256 BC: Zhou (Chou) Dynasty                        (feudal era & classical
    age; rise of Shang-Ti & “Mandate of Heaven;” ancestor veneration &
    divination practices; continued belief in spiritism; interest in life-prolongation
    & immortality; 8th-5th centuries BC - period of disorder; emergence of
    classical Chinese philosophies: Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism,
    etc.) - Era of Warring States (475-221 BC)
   221-207 BC: Qin (Ch’in) Dynasty (“The Burning of the Books”
    in 213 BC) - Legalism enthroned; Confucianism attacked
        Chronology, continued
   206 BC-25 AD: Former Han Dynasty
    (beginnings of official state Confucianism)
   25-220 AD: Later Han Dynasty (rise of
    Chinese Empire; imperial state religion;
    Confucianism officially established; the coming of
   220-280 AD: The Three Kingdoms - Wei
    (220-266); Shu (221-263); Wu (222-280)
    (decline of Confucianism; rise of Taoism &
        Chronology, continued
 266-316 AD: Jin (Chin) Dynasty
 316-589 AD: Era of North-South Division
  - 16 Northern Kingdoms (301-439); 5 Southern
    Kingdoms (317-589) (rise of Taoist religion;
    continued spread of Buddhism)
 581-618 AD: Sui Dynasty
 618-907 AD: Tang Dynasty             (high point for
    Buddhism & Taoism; 9th century Confucian reaction
    against Buddhism)
                      Chronology, continued
   907-960 AD: Five Northern Dynasties; 10th-13th
    Ten Southern Kingdoms                centuries AD:
   960-1127 AD: Northern Sung (Song) Rise of Neo-
   1127-1279 AD: Southern Sung (Song)
   1264-1368 AD: Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty
    (established by Kublai Khan) (development of popular
    religious sects)                                Anti-Confucian policy
   1368-1644 AD: Ming Dynasty               (Mongols out,
    Chinese emperors in; Confucianism reestablished; Roman
    Catholicism arrives)
            Chronology, continued

   1644-1911 AD: Qing (Ch’ing)
    (Manchu) Dynasty - peak of Confucian
    (bureaucratic) authority; increasing influence
    of the West
   1911-1912 AD: Chinese Revolution
-----------------------Dynasties Ended---------------
                                                        in decline
   Republic of China (1912-1949
    [mainland]; 1949-present [Taiwan])
   People’s Republic of China
    (Communism) (1949-present)
       Chinese Dynasties (Simplified)
                   From beginning to end…
                       (829 Emperors)
   Xia Dynasty 1994 BCE - 1766 BCE (228 years)
   Shang Dynasty 1766 BCE - 1027 BCE (739 years)
   Zhou Dynasty 1122 BCE -256 BCE (866 years)
   Disunion for 35 Years
   Qin Dynasty 221 BCE - 206 BCE (15 years) (Qin call him the First Emperor)
   Han Dynasty 206 BCE - 220 AD (426 years)
   Disunion for 45 Years
   Jin Dynasty 265 AD – 420 AD (155 years)
   Disunion for 169 years
   Sui Dynasty 589 AD - 618 AD (29 years)
   Tang Dynasty 618 AD - 907 AD (289 years)
   Disunion for 62 Years
   Sung Dynasty 969 AD - 1279 AD (310 years)
   Yuan Dynasty 1279 AD - 1368 AD (89 years)
   Ming Dynasty 1368 AD - 1644 AD (276 years)
   Manchu or Qing Dynasty 1644 AD - 1912 AD (168 years) (Last Emperor)
   Non-Dynasty: Republican Era – 1912 AD – 1949 AD (37 years)
   Non-Dynasty: PRC (Mao Zedong, Communism) – 1949 AD - present
 Let’s Sing the Chinese Dynasties!
      (Melody: Frere Jacques; or Are You Sleeping)

Shang, Zhou (Chou), Qin (Chin), Han
Shang, Zhou (Chou), Qin (Chin), Han

Jin, Sui, Tang, Song
Jin, Sui, Tang, Song

Yuan, Ming, Qing (Ching), Republic
Yuan, Ming, Qing (Ching), Republic

Mao Ze-dong, Mao Ze-dong
  First Emperor               Last Emperor
Chin Shih Huang Ti            Name: Pu Yee

                     2000 years
                     408 Emperors
                     18 Dynasties
           How Dynasties Change

                                       Civil War, time to change

             1st     2nd   3rd   4th
           Emperor Emperor
How Dynasties Change: Example: From Qin to Han
                                            Civil War, End of Qin
                                            Han Dynasty Took

                       Qin Dynasty Lasted                           Han Dynasty Lasted

                       for 15 Years                                 For 426 Years

           Qin’s 1st        2nd         3rd             Han’s 1st 2nd
           Emperor        Emperor                       Emperor Emperor
           Founder                                      Founder
Mandate of Heaven
                                     Xia Dynasty
                                    (21st until 16th B.C.)

   First prehistoric dynasty
   Excavations made at Anyang, Henan in 1928
   Evolutionary stage between:
     – Late Neolithic culture
        Hunter gatherers
        Stone tools
    – Chinese civilization
        Agricultural communities
        Silk and pottery
                        Shang Dynasty
                     (17st until 11th B.C.)

   Cradle of Chinese civilization
    – Based on agriculture
    – Developed a writing system
    – High level of civilization: bronze
   Ruled by kings
    – Cities were centers of glittering court life
    – Court rituals honoring ancestors
    – Slaves buried alive in royal tombs
                                    Zhou Dynasty
                                 10th until 2nd century

   Capital at Hao (near Xi’an) in Wei Valley
   Ruled much of China north of Yangtze river
   Extended Shang culture
   Early rule: Feudal
     – Decentralized; control based on family ties
   Later: City States
     – Central control over local governments
     – Impersonal political and economic institutions
     – Culture: philosophy, poetry and prose
Declare the First
Chin Shih Huang Ti
United China
                                       (221 until 207 B.C.)

   centralized the government- rid of feudal lords
   Achievements:
    –   Standardized language & Writing
    –   Standardized currency
    –   Standardized measurements
    –   Public Works
          Great Wall
          Roads & Irrigation canals
   Leader: Shi Huang Ti
   Weapons and fortifications were made illegal
   Monumental architecture – Great Wall, Royal Tombs
Great Wall
Watchtowers (Signal Towers)
                 Tomb of Shih Huang Ti
   Shih Huang Ti began building
    his tomb as soon as he became
     – The project took 36 years and
       was worked on by 700,000
     – The architects of the tomb
       conceived of it as a miniature
     – The burial tomb, called Mount
       Li, was at one time 150 feet
       tall, and the total complex
       covered 500 acres.
   The tomb was booby-trapped to
    prevent looters
       Han Dynasty 202BCE-220
          CE(Roman Times)
   Similar: built cities, officials to carry out edicts, heavy
    taxes collapsed under invasions and internal revolts
   contact along the Silk Road, Buddhist Missionaries to
   combination of Confucius and legalism
   advanced in science and literature
   invented rudder, paper, magnetic compass, acupuncture
   Short period of Civil War- Sui Dynasty connected two
    rivers with canal- over extended
    Sui Dynasty (589-618CE)

   Established by
    – Lowered taxes
    – Established
      granaries – stable,
      cheap food supply
           Tang Dynasty (618-907)

High point of Chinese
  civilization (comparable to
  Han Dynasty)
Golden age of literature and
 India and Middle-East
  relations stimulated
 Buddhism (from India) was
  widely promoted
  (Confucius era)
 Block printing was
       Tang Dynasty (618-907) Cont’d
Better government system
 Civil service examination and
   other competitive entrance
   procedures (why?)
 Independent from aristocracy
   and warlords (why? How?)
 “Scholar-officials” (who? duty
   and privileges?)
Fragmentation of China (5 north
   dynasties, 10 south
 Economic, politic, societal
   reasons + Arab wars
 North invaders
           Song Dynasty (960-1279)
2 Phases: Northern (960-1127) and
Southern Song (1127-1279)
Centralized bureaucracy (more power on
(regional governors  centrally appointed
City developments (admin., trade, industry,
   maritime commerce)
Mercantile class
 Printing and education spread
 Private trade grew
 Market network grew
The Neo Confucius Philosophy (by Zhu Xi) 
   inhibited pre modern societal development
    Legacies – Tang and Song
   Grand Canal – under Yangdi (Sui) and other canals continue
   Commercial Expansion – Silk Road, maritime trade,
    increased urban centers
   Agricultural Production – continued to increase
   Family – male-dominated households continue and increase
    with Song (note foot-binding), Neo-Confucianism
    contributed to deterioration of status of women
   Technology – tools, weapons, paper money, compass,
    paper, printing
   Art – artwork, poetry (Li Bo) – celebrating the natural world
   Bureaucracy was re-established
Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
     Mongolian Rule
           Kublai Khan
           Established the Yuan
            dynasty (1279-1368
           Moves Capital to Bejing
           Marco Polo visits Bejing
           Drama and novels are
       Ming Dynasty (1368 -1644)

Construction of the Forbidden City
Completion of the Great Wall
Ocean voyages as far as Africa by Zheng He
Ch’ing Dynasty (1644 – 1911)

              Expansion and
               Opium Wars
              Boxer Rebellion
    The Boxer Uprising in 1900
 Peasants in Northern China
 support from high officials of Qing court
 destruction of anything foreign
 siege of the legation quarter in Beijing
Warlords (1913-28)
   1911-10-10, Wuchang Uprising
    – Qing dynasty was overthrown
   1912-01-01, China became a republic
     Which Way to Go?

                 Use Western Style
Republic   ?
               Copy Russia Style
          New political parties
   Nationalist Party (GMD) was established
    – Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925
    – Chiang Kai-Shek was the military leader
   Communist Party was established in 1921
    – Mao ZeDong was one of its founding
      (Sun Zhongshan)Sun YatSen
             (1866 - 1925)
   1st President of the Republic of China
   founder of the Nationalist Party (GMD)
   Father of the Republic
   Nationalism and Communism Cooperation
   Died at 59 Years Old
   The Three Principles of the People
    – nationalism
    – people’s rights
    – people’s livelihood
Memorial Hall of Song
  Nanjing, China
Statue of SUN Zhongshan
           Which Way to Go?
Nationalism?            Marxism?
Use Western Style       Copy Russia Style

                Civil War

 Jiang Jieshi                 Mao Zedong
                           Communism          Mao Zedong
                                                            Deng Xiaoping
                                                                            And so on

Republican Era             Communism
Sun Zhongshan   Jiang Jieshi

                                Civil War

                                             Jiang Jieshi   Jiang Jingguo

                               Nationalism                                  And so on
                               Taiwan                                       ……..
    Republic of China, Taiwan

Jiang Jieshi   Jiang Jingguo

                               And so on
China under Mao Zedong
      1949 - 1976
            Lin Biao (1969-71)
   the putative successor to Mao Zedong
    – the cult of personality around Mao
   In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed
    – to assassinate Mao
    – to flee to Soviet Union (“9.13”)
   “9.13” eroded the credibility
    – of the entire leadership
    – of the Cultural Revolution
Deng Xiaoping 1978-1997

                Deng Xiaoping

   Hu Yaobang   Zhao Ziyang
         Post Deng

Jiang Zeming   Hu Jingtao
               Hu is the president.
               Who is the president?
Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim
1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%

 Born in 551 B.C.
 died in 479 B.C.
Counting (continue)
Tian An Men, Beijing, China
Chinese Martial Arts, Kung Fu

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