Vietnamese History by lse16211


									          Vietnamese History
• Late 1800’s-WWII, _______ rules most of
• 1940 Japanese take control of Vietnam
• ________________- leader of Vietnamese
  independence movement helps create Indo
  Chinese Communist Party
• Formed ___________– organization that aims to
  rid Vietnam of foreign rule
• September 1945, HoChiMinh declares Vietnam
  an ________________ nation
French troops move back into Vietnam
• Regain cities in south
• Asks for US help (US didn’t want French nor
  Communist control)
• 1950, US begins economic aid to _________ to
  stop Communism
  – ________________countries can fall to communism
    like a row of dominoes
• 1954, Vietminh overrun French at Dien Bien
  Phu, France _______________
• Geneva accords divide Vietnam at
  _______parallel (Communists get North)
• Election to unify country called for in 1956
              The US steps in
• Ho Chi Minh is brutal, but popular (due to land
• South Vietnam’s anti-Communist president Ngo
  Dinh Diem refuses _____________
• Diem corrupt, restricts ______________ creates
  strategic hamlet program to fight Vietcong
• _________ (communist opposition group created
  in South) kills officials
• Ho Chi Minh sends arms to Vietcong along
   Kennedy and Vietnam (2 slides)
• JFK backs Diem financially; sends military advisors
• Diem’s popularity plummets from __________
• Diem presses attacks on Buddhism; _________
  burn themselves in protest
• US supported military coup topples government;
  Diem ________________
• Succession of ___________ leaders rule South
  Vietnam; country unstable
• LBJ takes over; thinks US can lose international
  prestige if communists win
  Tonkin Gulf Resolution ( 2 slides)
• Alleged torpedo boats fired on two US destroyers
  in Gulf of Tonkin; LBJ asks for power to repel
• 1964 ____________________gives him broad
  military powers
• 1965 eight _____________ killed, LBJ orders
  sustained bombing of North
• US combat troops sent to South Vietnam to battle
• Majority of public ______________sending
Johnson increases US involvement
• General William ________________ made US
  commander in South Vietnam
• Thinks southern Army of the Republic of Vietnam
  (ARVN) ______________
• Requests increasing numbers; by 1967
  _____________ US troops
• Vietcong use hit-and-run, __________tactics, move
  among civilians
• ________________ help withstand airstrikes, launch
  attacks, connect villages
• Terrain laced with booby traps, land mines laid by both
         Fighting in the Jungle
• Westmoreland tries to destroy Vietcong
  morale through _____________, the gradual
  wearing down of the enemy by continuous
• Vietcong receive supplies from
  ___________________; remain defiant
• US sees war as military struggle; Vietcong as
  battle for _____________
    Battle for “Hearts and Minds”
• US wants to stop Vietcong from winning support
  of __________________ population
• Weapons for exposing tunnels often wound
  ____________, destroy villages
  – __________; gasoline-based bomb that sets fire to
  – _______________; leaf killing, toxic chemical
• Search –and-destroy missions move civilian
  suspects, destroy property
• Villagers go to cities, _________ camps; 1967
  over 3 million refugees
                Sinking Morale
• Guerrilla warfare, jungle conditions, lack of
  progress lower morale
• Many soldiers turn to alcohol, _________, some
  kill superior officers
• Government corruption, instability lead South
  Vietnam to _________________
• Most US soldiers believe in justice of halting
  Fight courageously, take patriotic pride in fulfilling
  their duty
        The Great Society Suffers
• War grows more costly with more troops;
  _______________ rate rising
• LBJ gets _____________ to pay for war, check inflation
• Has to accept ________________ funding cut for Great
• Combat footage on nightly _______________ shows
  stark picture of war
• Critics say __________________ between
  administration reports and events
• Senator J. William Fulbright’s hearings add to doubts
  about war
   The Working Class goes to War
• A “Manipulatable” Draft
• Selective Service System, draft, calls men
  ___________________ to military service
• Thousands look for ways to avoid the draft
• Many- mostly white, affluent- get college
• _________ of US soldiers come from lower
  economic levels
   African Americans in Vietnam
• African Americans serve in disproportionate
  numbers in ground combat
• Defense Department corrects problem by
  instituting _________________ in 1969
• Racial tensions high in many ______________;
  add to low troop morale
• 10,000 women serve, mostly as _____________
  Thousands volunteer; American Red
  Cross, United Services Organization
                The New Left
• _____________- youth movement of
  1960’s, demand sweeping changes
• Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), Free
  Speech Movement (FSM)
  – Criticize big business, government; want greater
    individual freedom
• New Left ideas spread across
• Students protest campus issues, ___________
   The movement grows (2 slides)
• In 1965, protest marches, rallies draw tens of
• 1966 students deferments require good
   – SDS calls for civil __________________; counsels
     students to go abroad
• Small numbers of returning _____________
  protest; protest songs popular
• Anti-war demonstrations, protests increase, some
• Some men burn _______________, some refuse
  to serve, some flee to _________________
         War divides the Nation
• __________ strongly oppose war, believe US
  should withdraw
• ____________ favor sending greater forces to
  win the war
• 1967 majority of Americans ____________
  war, consider ___________ disloyal
• LBJ continues slow _____________, is criticized
  by both hawks and doves
• Combat __________ leads Defense Secretary
  McNamara to ______________
     Tet Offensive Turns the War
• 1968 villagers go to cities to celebrate
  _______( Vietnamese new year)
• Vietcong among crowd attack over _______
  towns, _____ US air bases
• Tet offensive lasts one ___________ before
  US, South Vietnam regain control
• Westmoreland declares attacks are military
  __________ for Vietcong
      Tet Changes Public Opinion
• Before Tet, most Americans ____________, after
  Tet hawks, _________ both 40%
• Mainstream media openly _____________ war
• LBJ appoints Clark Clifford as new Secretary of
• After studying situation, Clifford concludes war is
  LBJ’s popularity drops _____________
  disapprove his handling of the war
     Johnson Withdraws (2 slides)
• Senator Eugene McCarthy runs for
  ____________nomination as dove
• Senator Robert _______________ enters race after
  LBJ’s poor showing in New Hampshire
• LBJ announces will seek _______________, will not run
  for reelection
• Riots rock over 100 cities after _____________ is killed
• Kennedy wins California primary; is fatally shot for
  supporting _______________
• Major demonstrations on over 100 ________________
            Turmoil in Chicago
• Vice-President Hubert Humphrey wins
  Democratic nomination
• Over 10,000 demonstrators go to ___________
• Mayor Richard J. ___________ mobilizes
  police, National Guard
• Protesters try to march to __________, police
  beat them; rioting
• Delegates to convention bitterly debate antiwar
             Nixon Triumphs
• Nixon works for party for years, wins 1968
  Republican nomination
• Campaign promises; restore law and
  order, end war in ____________
• Governor George Wallace is third party
• Champions _______________, states rights;
  attracts protest weary _____________
• Nixon wins presidency
           The Pullout Begins
• New president Richard Nixon finds negotiations
  not progressing
• National Security Adviser Henry _____________-
  works on new plan
• ____________________- US troops
  withdraw, South Vietnam troops take over
• Nixon calls for _________________ to maintain
  US dignity
• Orders bombing of North Vietnam, Vietcong
  hideouts in ____________________
      My Lai Massacre (2 slides)
• __________________- moderate, mainstream
  people who support war
• News breaks that US platoon massacred
  _________________ in My Lai village
• Lt. William Calley Jr. in command is convicted
• 1970, US troops invade _____________ to clear
  out enemy supply centers
• 1.5 million protesting college students close
  down 1,200 campuses
         Violence on Campus
• National Guard kills 4 in confrontation at
• Guardsmen kill 2 during confrontation at Jackson State
  in Mississippi
• 100,000 construction workers rally in NYC to support
• Nixon invades ______________; Congress repeals
  Tonkin Gulf resolution
• ______________ show plans to enter war under LBJ
• Confirm belief of many that government not honest
  about intentions
             “Peace is at Hand”
• 1971_________think US should withdraw from
  Vietnam by end of year
• 1972 N Vietnamese attack; US bombs cities, mines
  Haiphong harbor
• _______________ agrees to complete withdrawal of
  US: “Peace is at Hand”
• ____________ Vietnam rejects Kissinger plan; talks
  break off; bombing resumes
• Congress calls for end to war; peace signed January
• Cease-fire breaks down; South surrenders after North
  invades 1975
         American soldiers return
• ________________ Americans, over 2 million
  North, South Vietnamese die in war
• Returning veterans face indifference, ___________ at
• About 15% develop ____________________
• Communists put 400,000 S. Vietnamese in
  _______________________; 1.5 million flee
• Civil war breaks out in Cambodia; Khmer Rouge seize
• Want to establish peasant society; kill at least 1 million
          Legacy of Vietnam
• Government abolishes military ____________
• 1973 Congress passes ________________
  – President must inform Congress within
    ___________of deploying troops
  – _____________ maximum deployment without
    Congressional approval
• War contributes to cynicism about
  government, political leaders

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