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									Process Mapping Training

•   This MAPSS Project is one of the Demonstrator projects funded
    by the Department of Health‟s Information for Social Care (IfSC)

•   The project would also like to thank Deloitte & Touche for their
    contributions in the training materials.
Goals and Objectives

•   Introduction to the project

•   To understand why organisations are modelling Business Processes

•   To develop a common understanding of process mapping tools and

•   To understand that process mapping is a skill that will support on-
    going initiatives

•   To gain some experience of writing process maps

•   To analyse and develop concrete suggestions for improvement and to
    create a basis for future change initiatives

•   Name

•   Where you work

•   Current Role

•   Your view of Process Mapping

•   Expectations

09:30 – 10:00 Workshop opening & Introductions

10:00 – 11:00 Module 1

11:00 – 11:15 Break

11:15 – 12:45 Module 2

12:45 – 13:00 Summary

13:00 – 14:00 Lunch
MAPSS Project - overview

•   This project is one of 2 process mapping projects being supported by the Department of
    Health across England.

•   The   objectives of the project are to:
      –    To deliver as set of agreed symbols for mapping social care
      –    Produce a public domain user guide for process mapping
      –    Develop public domain training materials
      –    Produce a range of „As is‟ and „To be‟ process maps
      –    To map cross-agency flows, inc. data flows for Caldicott purposes
      –    Develop a business case for national co-ordination roll out and to
      –    Explore options for future repository support, possibilities include SCIE, Dept of
           Health and ADSS IMG. Thereby establishing a shared knowledge base.
•   The project will help to address the requirements set out in the DoH guidance note
    „Information for Social Care‟ as will as helping CSSRs across London to develop best
    practice approaches and benchmarking capabilities for delivering customer focussed
    social services.
The project plan

                   Phase 1                                               Phase 2
     agree PID


      Prepare         Refine manual

                 Trainin              Prepare           Trainin                Prepare
                 g Day             process maps         g Day               process maps

                    Explore repository options                Develop preferred option for repository

      Oct                  Nov                    Dec   Jan                 Feb                    Mar
Links with other projects

•   There are 2 process mapping pathfinder projects being undertaken:
     – This one
     – Stockton on Tees Consortium which will concentrate on the Integrated MH
       Services, mapping the „As is‟ and „As if‟ processes from referral to Discharge

•   The relationship between the two is the agreement to share all the
    deliverables and lessons learnt from the process mapping

•   Lessons learnt and findings will be disseminated and shared via the
    DoH Website.

•   We are linking with LEAP and IDEA to build on investments already
Course Outline

          Module 1          Module 2     Module 3       Module 4

         Introduction to                 Building
                             Tools &                     Uses &
             Process                     Process
                           Techniques                  Applications
            Mapping                       Maps

                           Practical 1   Practical 3

                           Practical 2
Module 1
Introduction to Process Mapping
 Module 1          Module 2     Module 3        Module 4

Introduction to                 Building
                    Tools &                     Uses &
    Process                     Process
                  Techniques                  Applications
   Mapping                       Maps

                  Practical 1   Practical 3

                  Practical 2
What is a Business Process?

A process is...
   A series of related activities that “flow” through an organisation
   Not limited to a single function or department
   Something that can be viewed from end to end

        Trigger                Policy development       Value-Added
           Input                                           Output
                                Customer Service
                                Order Fulfilment
                              Application Procedure

Functional View v Process View

   Functional orientation

                                 Process orientation
Problems with Functional working

•   Bottlenecks
•   Repetition
•   Bureaucracy
•   No ownership
•   Management frustration
•   Too many steps
•   Customer forgotten
•   Opportunities for error or even corruption
From Functional to Process View

Successful re-engineering requires a shift from function to process

       Stage 1              Stage 2                       Stage 3

   P                   P
         R                    R                    Requisition to Payment   C
   u                   u
         e       P            e       P                                     u
   r                   r
         c       a            c       a                                     s
   c                   c
         e       y            e       y               Contact to Cash       t
   h                   h
         i       m            i       m                                     o
   a                   a
         v       e            v       e                                     m
   s                   s
         i       n            i       n               Recruit to Retire     e
   i                   i
         n       t            n       t                                     r
   n                   n
         g                    g                                             s
   g                   g

 Functions drive     Processes are acknowledged,    Processes drive the
  the business          but Functions dominate          business
What is Process Mapping?

•   Process mapping is a tool that is used to understand, analyse
    and document processes and activities in an organisation and
    assist in identifying opportunities for improvement

•   A process map displays the sequential steps involved in
    converting a specific input into the required output
Why Process Map?

Typical reasons for conducting process mapping include:

•   To improve a process, you must understand the process

•   Complexity of processes and lack of understanding constrains
    management‟s attempts to improve processes

•   Analytical skills and process mapping skills allow us to
    understand and communicate processes to management, staff
    and users

•   Identifies efficiency issues and where systems can support
Advantages of Process Mapping

Process mapping can be extremely valuable
because it can identify improvements in a number of
aspects in the work place, including:

•   Increases understanding of the work process

•   Provides understanding of resource allocation

•   Documents training procedures

•   Tracks workflow

•   Increases staff awareness
The Process Framework

                          Continuous Improvement

 Identify and
                                 Analyse &   TO-BE Design
 understand      AS-IS Design                               Implementation
Best Practices

                    BPI                            BT

               Turn TV On

                Does picture                  Is TV
                                                                                                                                                                      An action plan for implementation
                                                                                                                                                                       containing identified and prioritised
                 come on?                  plugged in?


                                                                                                                                                                       suggestions for improvement.
                                           Plug in TV

                 Is picture                Does picture        Call TV repair
                               Yes                        No
                   good?                    come on?                man


                                                                                                                                                                       Documented differences between existing

                                            Is picture
               Adjust knobs                   good?


                                                                                                                                                                       work flow and Best Practices.

                                                                                                                                                                      Identified problem areas using root cause

                                                                                                                                                                      Documented existing work flow with
                                                                                                                                                                       highlighted problems.
                                           Problem                           Causes
                                                                                                               Best Practices vs. existing workflow
                                                                           PROCESS                                                                    5                                                Suggestion for improvement - Quick Fix
   Cross-functional process map                                                         Best Practice 1   1.                                                                                 Problem           Solution               Due date                      Effect
                                                                                        GAP:              2.
                                                                                                                                                                        Prioritised suggestions for improvement                                                 Prioritised Action plans
                                                                           TECHNOLOGY                     3.                                                                                                        ----------   -------
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ---------    -------                                                       Quick Fix   Project
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ---------    -------
                                                                                                          4.                                                              x                                                      -------

                                                                           PEOPLE                                                                                              x         x         x                ---------
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    --------     --------
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Automate..........                                          
                                                                                        Best Practice 2   5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ---------------------------------------     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Simplify........                                            
                                                                                        GAP:                                                                                                                                                         ---------------------------------------
                                                                                                          6.                                                                                 x x
                                                                                                                                                                               x                                                            3. Eliminate.......                                            
                                                                                                                                                                                    x                                                                ---------------------------------------               
                                                                                                                                                                                             x x                                                     ---------------------------------------

Process mapping symbols

                                 System Activity

                                 Direction of Flow

               Start or End      Document

                                On Page Connector

                                Off Page Connector
  Required information for process mapping

      We need to understand the following in order to process map:

    RESPONSIBILITIES                    ACTIVITIES                    INPUTS
    The key responsibilities of         The key activities of         The main sources of
    the process area                    the process area              data input for each activity

OUTPUTS              CUSTOMERS                        PIs                     VOLUMES
The key             Recipients of the          Key Performance Indicators      Key volumes related to
deliverables of     outputs of each activity   e.g. cycle time for process    an activity of
each activity       (internal & external)                                    items produced per day

• Use standard flowchart symbols
• Flow from top left to bottom right
• Bring people together who know the process to prepare

• Use group facilitated sessions with process owners
• Use individual interviews where appropriate
• Document process and technology opportunities for
   improvement as you go
• Understand cost, quality and time (processing time and elapsed
   time) implications as you go
Questions to ask about a processes‟ activities

•   Who are the customers of the process?
•   Who performs each activity?
•   What generates the process/task?
•   What forms and reports are used?
•   What computer systems and files are used?
•   How do we do it? Why do we do it?
•   What decisions are made in the process?
•   What happens next? What sequence are the activities performed in?
•   Who reviews it and when?
•   How long does it take?
•   What is the nature, frequency and cause of errors/problems?
•   How are errors/problems/exceptions handled?
•   What is the output? How many?
•   Where does the output go?
Summary - Module 1

•   A Business Process is a collection of linked tasks that consume inputs,
    add value, and produce an output of value to an internal or external

•   Business processes span multiple functions or departments

•   Process Mapping aims to make the process visible

•   To improve a process, you must understand the process

•   The continuous improvement framework helps create a value-added

•   The deliverables of process mapping are essential for identifying
Module 2
Process Mapping Tools & Techniques
 Module 1          Module 2     Module 3       Module 4

Introduction to                 Building
                    Tools &                     Uses &
    Process                     Process
                  Techniques                  Applications
   Mapping                       Maps

                  Practical 1   Practical 3

                  Practical 2
„As-Is‟ Process Design

  Process mapping is a process...

                  Plan and
                  schedule                           Document “As-Is”
   Select a      resources               Select         process and        Core team
   process     (process owners,        Technique     opportunities for   reviews output
              rooms, dates, times,
               materials, agendas,                     improvement

                                                                           to redesign/
                                     Conduct focus                           phase if
                                     group mapping                          applicable
Modeling Techniques for „As-Is‟ Process Design

•   Workflow and Process Dependency Modelling

•   Flowcharting

•   Cross-Functional Flowcharts
Workflow/Dependency Diagram

    Activity                       Dept A   Dept B   Person C
    1. Set New Account Critieria
    2. Accept New Account                                       dependency
    3.Determine Requirements
    4. Allocate Manpower
    5. Allocate Supplies

    6. Sell Lottery tickets                                      Repetitive
    7. Select Winning Ticket

    8. Announce Winning Ticket

    9. Accept Credit Information                                  Optional
    10. Accept Personal
    11. Approve/Reject Loan
 Module 1          Module 2     Module 3        Module 4

Introduction to                 Building
                    Tools &                     Uses &
    Process                     Process
                  Techniques                  Applications
    Mapping                      Maps

                  Practical 1   Practical 3

                  Practical 2
Workflow Modelling Exercise

Case Management Process

Look at the handout

•   Work individually for 10 minutes

•   Simplify the process using the Workflow Modelling Technique

•   In the columns, add departments, customer, specific people

•   In the rows, specify the activities
     – Don‟t afraid to be descriptive
     – Keep to high level activities/processes

•   Add the boxes in the appropriate columns and flows between them
Case Management Process
1st Draft

                                                            Statement of Need
                                                             Statement of Services to meet
                                             Care          need
             Screen                          Planning
 Contact                                                    Statement of services
                                                           Unmet needs

                           Fixed criteria      Care Plan   Arrange
             Referral     service                          Services

           Initial       Emergency          Ongoing        Services                 Provider       EVENT
           Assessment    Service            case-work      Provided                 Monitor
                                            intervention                            Services

            Assessment                                      Purchaser

Advantages of Workflow Modelling

•   Simple to understand

•   Identifies Processes

•   Identifies dependencies

•   Highlights the number of „hand-offs‟

•   Finds „black holes‟

•   Easy to document metrics

•   Can show by person, department, geographical location etc.

                         Turn TV On

                          Does picture                  Is TV
                           come on?                  plugged in?

        Decision                                         No

                                                     Plug in TV

                           Is picture                Does picture        Call TV repair
                                         Yes                        No
                             good?                    come on?                man


                                                      Is picture
                         Adjust knobs                   good?

Cross-Functional Flowcharts - „Swim Lanes‟
  Publication Process

  Publication Process

                                                                                    Order received



                  to be      Printing Process
              published is

                                                  The printed
                                                material is stuck

                                                  and bound

                                                 Spelling checks

                                                                      Ready for

                                                for grammar and
                                                 spelling are run

Cross-Functional Flowcharts - „Swim Lanes‟


•   Use workshops / focus groups

•   Keep things moving

•   Encourage everyone to join in

•   Energise, share and build

•   Use Paper / „Brown Paper Technique‟ / White Board / Flipcharts
    / PC based tool (e.g. Microsoft VISIO)
Suggested steps in process mapping

•   Start with a high-level flow (Context Diagram) and then drop to
    the next level of detail if necessary (i.e. sub processes)
•   Define the beginning and end of each sub process (stay
•   Define key inputs and outputs
•   Walk through each key sub process step by step
•   Don't waste time: If you get bogged down, take a break or
    move on to another area
•   Identify process and technology opportunities for improvement
    as you go or at the end of each sub process
•   Verify the accuracy of the flow
Process mapping “DOs” and “DON‟Ts”

•   DO map the process as it actually     •   DON‟T map the process as you
    happens                                   think it happens or as you think it
•   DO think about the process across         ought to happen
    the entire organisation               •   DON‟T restrict your process map to
•   DO talk to the other people who are       the activities in your own
    involved in the process                   department

•   DO define the beginning and end of    •   DON‟T work in a vacuum
    the process before you start          •   DON‟T attempt to process map
•   DO the process map at a high level        before you identify a beginning and
                                              an end
•   DO ask questions
                                          •   DON‟T get bogged down with too
                                              much detail
                                          •   DON‟T struggle on your own
Expected results

Re-check the process by looking at the following:

•   Start, end points and customers should be clear

•   Inputs and outputs should be identified

•   Indicate title of person / area responsible for each task

•   A person not familiar with the process should be able to easily
    understand the flow without any explanation

•   The level of detail should be adequate to describe inefficiencies
 Module 1          Module 2     Module 3        Module 4

Introduction to                 Building
                    Tools &                     Uses &
    Process                     Process
                  Techniques                  Applications
   Mapping                       Maps

                  Practical 1   Practical 3

                  Practical 2
A basic process mapping example - sending a fax

•   In teams, spend 15 minutes drafting a process map for sending
    a fax

•   Use the Brown Paper Technique
     –   Write activities on Post-it notes
     –   Stick them to the brown paper (or nominate someone to do this)
     –   Move Post-its around until activities have been properly sequenced
     –   Add other model components (function, resource, etc.)
     –   Remember to use „swim lanes‟ where necessary
     –   Run through process checking for accuracy
A basic process mapping example - sending a fax -
Example answer

                                                                         Depicts a                                                       Depicts an
                                                 Depicts a                                                                               action
     Sender                                                              decision point -
                            Depicts the          step taken                                                                               generated by or
                                                                         always has yes/                  Yes goes right
                            start of the         by the                                                                                  related to the
                                                                         no outputs
                            process              actionee                                                                                system

                                                              Do you want to
                  Start                fax on                                                       Yes
                                                               save a copy?                                                 Save copy of
                                                                                                                           fax to database
                                                                             No goes down

                                                                                       readable data
                                                                                       such as
                                                                                       printed output
                                                                 Print fax
                                                                                                                                         Refers reader
                                                                                                                                         to a follow-on
                                                                                                                                         process map
                                           Defines area of
                                            for actionee                                                                        See
                                                               Send fax to             Send a copy
                 Depicts a
                                                                                                                  Yes         Process
                                                                recipient               to CEO?
                 functional area                                                                                               no.2
                 or actionee e.g.
                                                               receives fax                   End

                                                                                            Depicts the
                                                                                            end point
                                                                                            of the
Adding Metrics

 What do we want to measure?
 •  Time - value, cycle, waiting, Keep In View (KIV), productive / non-productive
 •  Volumes - transactions/day, units/hour, %
 •  Rates or Costs - computed, fixed, per unit
 •  Equipment Used - cost
 •  Value Added - real value, business value, no-value

Advantages of using Metrics
•  Illustrates contribution or non-contribution of the activity
•  Shows bottlenecks, idle time, productive time
•  Basis for measuring success
Adding Metrics - an example

An Insurance Company‟s Metrics for their Claims Process:
        Process/KPI                       Time Taken   Add. Costs   Delays   %
                                            (mins)        (£)       (days)

        Deal with call                        5
        Deal with Call Back Slip             10
        Transfer to Supervisor                1
        Update Client File                    5
        Send Claim Form                      20           20          2
        Reimburse Client                     30           50         20
        Average Claim Value                               74
        Non-rejected claims                                                  72
        Cycle Times
             Non-Investigated                                        13
             Investigated/Assessed (5%)                              29
        Processing Costs per claim
             Non-Investigated                              80        13
             Investigated/Assessed                        400        29

       Analyse the results
Summary - Module 2

•   The As-Is process design is the most important part of the
    process improvement exercise

•   Modelling Techniques
     – Workflow and Process Dependency
     – Flowcharting
     – Cross-Functional Flowcharts /Swim Lane Modelling

•   Always re-check the process

•   Ask lots of questions to ensure a correct design

•   Metrics and PIs are used as a basis for measuring success

14:00 – 14:30 Introduction to module 3

14:30 - 15:30 case study

15:30 – 15:45 Break

15:45 – 16:15 case study continued

16:15 – 16:40 Module 4

16:40 – 17:00 Summary and Next Steps
Module 3
Building Process Maps
 Module 1          Module 2     Module 3       Module 4

Introduction to                 Building
                    Tools &                     Uses &
    Process                     Process
                  Techniques                  Applications
   Mapping                       Maps

                  Practical 1   Practical 3

                  Practical 2
Using Microsoft VISIO 2000

•   An automated process mapping tool

•   Templates
     – Basic Flowcharts
     – Cross-Functional Diagram (Swim Lanes)
     – Cause & Effect Diagram (Fishbone)

•   Use Help files
Visio - Cross-Functional Flowchart Template
 Module 1          Module 2     Module 3        Module 4

Introduction to                 Building
                    Tools &                     Uses &
    Process                     Process
                  Techniques                  Applications
    Mapping                      Maps

                  Practical 1   Practical 3

                  Practical 2
Your task ...

•   Choose a process you are familiar with in the workplace

•   Map the process using the Cross-Functional Flowchart Method
    (Swim Lanes)

•   Re-check the process

•   Analyse the results

•   List some problems and improvements
Using VISIO 2000

•   Use the process you have mapped by hand

•   Transfer this process into a Visio document

•   Use the Cross-Functional Flowchart template
Summary - Module 3

•   Microsoft VISIO 2000 is a valuable tool for automating and
    documenting various design techniques

•   Process Mapping takes practice

•   The process maps act as a basis for the Analysis and
    Evaluation phase
Module 4
Uses and Applications of Process Maps
 Module 1          Module 2     Module 3        Module 4

Introduction to                 Building
                    Tools &                     Uses &
    Process                     Process
                  Techniques                  Applications
   Mapping                       Maps

                  Practical 1   Practical 3

                  Practical 2
Identify opportunities for improvement

During process mapping we should go beyond
understanding the current flow to identifying areas for
improvement, such as:

•   Process opportunities

•   Technology opportunities and issues

•   Short-term fixes or urgent action items
Identify opportunities for improvement
Process opportunities

Once we have our process maps, we can begin to analyse them for
process opportunities for improvement.
Specifically, we can improve the work flow by using the following
analysis techniques:

 •   Value Chain Analysis

 •   Why-Why Diagram

 •   Cause and Effect Diagram

 •   Critical Analysis
Value Chain Analysis

                                                      Real value added
          The „value‟ that is                               (RAV)
        added to the required                       Business value added
         deliverable by each                               (BAV)

        stage of the process.                         Non value added
Verbs which are likely to have no business value:
       – Copying                    – Checking
       – Collating                  – Approving
       – Counting                   – Storing
       – Preparing                  – Filing
       – Searching                  – Retrieving
       – Accumulating               – Moving
       – Revising                   – Inspecting
       – Editing                    – Rework
Value Chain Analysis - „Red Flag‟

•   Loops
•   Hand-offs
•   Repetition/Duplication of effort (within a process or across divisions)
•   Black holes
•   Unused data stores
•   Temporary data stores                                               WHY?
•   Overlapping processes
•   Processes which have many steps
•   Sequential steps which could be done in parallel
•   Omission of critical steps
•   Unnecessary paperwork
•   Unnecessary delays
•   Insufficient linkages between other processes, divisions,
    customers or suppliers
Why-Why Diagram
                                                   Bad quality milk       Why?
                                                    Bad quality milk
                       Milk gone off                                             Fridge Cold
                        Milk gone off                                             Fridge Cold
                                                    Milk gone off
                                                     Milk gone off
              Why?                                Local store closed
                                                   Local store closed
                      Can't go to store
                       Can't go to store
                                                  Large store too far
                                                   Large store too far
 No Milk in Fridge
  No Milk in Fridge
                                                    To eat cereal
                       Housemates                    To eat cereal
                       finished milk
                         finished milk               To feed cat
                                                      To feed cat

                                                    Rent too high
                      No Money to buy                Rent too high
                       No Money to buy
                            milk                   Too many debts
                                                    Too many debts

                                                  Insufficient Salary
                                                    Insufficient Salary
Cause and Effect Diagram

                      Influences                                              Quality
                                                                                           Cheap Milk
 finished milk                                                     Expired
                                                        Faulty Fridge                                                         Effect,
                                                                                              No money
                                                                                                                            Problem or
                                                        Fridge not cold
                 For breakfast                                                                                              Objective
                          For Micky the                      Milk gone off
                                                                                                                           No Milk in
                               Large store too far
                                                                      Milk ran out
                                                                                                         Rent too high
       Battery dead                                                   Closed on Sundays
         Left lights on                                                      Poor Salary                   Student loans
                 Old battery
                                                               Small Store                                Too many
                           Car won't start
                                                               Insufficient                               debts

                                      Supplies                                        No Money
Critical Analysis

     What                  Why                  What Else
       is being done        is it being done     is being done
     Who                   Why                  Who Else
       is doing it          are they doing it    could do it
     When                  Why                  When Else
       Are they doing it    then                 could it be done
     Where                 Why                  Where Else
       Is it being done     there                could it be done
     How                   Why                  How Else
       is it being done     that way             could it be done
Visio - Fishbone Diagrams
„To-Be‟ Design

     Needs & Wants

       Opportunities                    Implementation
        from „As-Is‟
        from „As-Is‟                      & Change
                                          & Change
          Analysis                         Planning

                       Best Practices
                       Best Practices
Design Principles

•   Work Backwards
•   See the business through the customers eyes
•   Focus on the logical workflow first
•   „What‟ first, then who, where, when and how
•   Look at I.T. as an enabler
•   Assume „Paradise Principle‟ to start with
•   Minimise hand-offs
•   Use „Triage‟ principle
•   Integrate tasks / activities
•   Place decision making close to the customer / transfer
•   Simplify
•   Test using PIs and metrics
•   Have a single point of contact - Ownership
Identify opportunities for improvement
Technology opportunities and issues

During the process mapping we will capture current
system limitations as well as ideas for ways technology
can enable a more effective or efficient process:
•   Identify potential uses for new technology (e.g. automation,
    better availability and sharing of information, etc.)

•   Understand current system constraints (e.g. information not
    available on a timely basis due to batch processing, hardware
    capacity constraints, lack of interface between key systems,
Identify opportunities for improvement
Short term fixes or urgent action items

Once we have our process maps, we can begin to analyse them for
“Quick-wins”. These opportunities represent…
•   Issues that need to be addressed immediately for control, improved profitability
    and other reasons
•   Significant benefit with relatively low investment required

                          Prioritised suggestions for improvement

                              x                 x          x

                                    x               x x
                                                    x x
                                  Ease of implementation
Summary - Module 4

•   Process Mapping and Analysis identifies critical problems that
    need to be resolved
•   Business processes are re-designed to achieve ambitious
    business goals
•   Business Value is added
•   Quick Win projects are identified
•   Improvement Opportunities are identified
•   I.T. is used as an enabler for competitive advantage
•   The investment is justified using metrics and PIs
Next Steps

•   Prioritise the main processes you have identified
•   Process map at least one of them by the end of Week 1
    (or continue to work on the one you have started)
•   Start of with the high-level process (Context Diagram)
•   Decompose this process into sub-processes
•   Don‟t hesitate to ask for Help.

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