Process Mapping Training Workshop Acknowledgement • This MAPSS Project is one of the Demonstrator projects funded by the Department of Health‟s Information for Social Care (IfSC) initiative. • The project would also like to thank Deloitte & Touche for their contributions in the training materials. Goals and Objectives • Introduction to the project • To understand why organisations are modelling Business Processes • To develop a common understanding of process mapping tools and techniques • To understand that process mapping is a skill that will support on- going initiatives • To gain some experience of writing process maps • To analyse and develop concrete suggestions for improvement and to create a basis for future change initiatives Introductions • Name • Where you work • Current Role • Your view of Process Mapping • Expectations Agenda Morning 09:30 – 10:00 Workshop opening & Introductions 10:00 – 11:00 Module 1 11:00 – 11:15 Break 11:15 – 12:45 Module 2 12:45 – 13:00 Summary 13:00 – 14:00 Lunch MAPSS Project - overview • This project is one of 2 process mapping projects being supported by the Department of Health across England. • The objectives of the project are to: – To deliver as set of agreed symbols for mapping social care – Produce a public domain user guide for process mapping – Develop public domain training materials – Produce a range of „As is‟ and „To be‟ process maps – To map cross-agency flows, inc. data flows for Caldicott purposes – Develop a business case for national co-ordination roll out and to – Explore options for future repository support, possibilities include SCIE, Dept of Health and ADSS IMG. Thereby establishing a shared knowledge base. • The project will help to address the requirements set out in the DoH guidance note „Information for Social Care‟ as will as helping CSSRs across London to develop best practice approaches and benchmarking capabilities for delivering customer focussed social services. The project plan Phase 1 Phase 2 Obtain funding & agree PID Agree standard symbols Prepare Refine manual manual Trainin Prepare Trainin Prepare g Day process maps g Day process maps Explore repository options Develop preferred option for repository Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Links with other projects • There are 2 process mapping pathfinder projects being undertaken: – This one – Stockton on Tees Consortium which will concentrate on the Integrated MH Services, mapping the „As is‟ and „As if‟ processes from referral to Discharge • The relationship between the two is the agreement to share all the deliverables and lessons learnt from the process mapping • Lessons learnt and findings will be disseminated and shared via the DoH Website. • We are linking with LEAP and IDEA to build on investments already made Course Outline Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Introduction to Building Tools & Uses & Process Process Techniques Applications Mapping Maps Practical 1 Practical 3 Practical 2 Module 1 Introduction to Process Mapping Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Introduction to Building Tools & Uses & Process Process Techniques Applications Mapping Maps Practical 1 Practical 3 Practical 2 What is a Business Process? A process is... A series of related activities that “flow” through an organisation Not limited to a single function or department Something that can be viewed from end to end Process Trigger Policy development Value-Added Assessment Input Output Customer Service Order Fulfilment Application Procedure Customer Functional View v Process View Functional orientation Process orientation Problems with Functional working • Bottlenecks • Repetition • Bureaucracy • No ownership • Management frustration • Too many steps • Customer forgotten • Opportunities for error or even corruption From Functional to Process View Successful re-engineering requires a shift from function to process Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 P P R R Requisition to Payment C u u e P e P u r r c a c a s c c e y e y Contact to Cash t h h i m i m o a a v e v e m s s i n i n Recruit to Retire e i i n t n t r n n g g s g g Functions drive Processes are acknowledged, Processes drive the the business but Functions dominate business What is Process Mapping? • Process mapping is a tool that is used to understand, analyse and document processes and activities in an organisation and assist in identifying opportunities for improvement • A process map displays the sequential steps involved in converting a specific input into the required output Why Process Map? Typical reasons for conducting process mapping include: • To improve a process, you must understand the process • Complexity of processes and lack of understanding constrains management‟s attempts to improve processes • Analytical skills and process mapping skills allow us to understand and communicate processes to management, staff and users • Identifies efficiency issues and where systems can support these Advantages of Process Mapping Process mapping can be extremely valuable because it can identify improvements in a number of aspects in the work place, including: • Increases understanding of the work process • Provides understanding of resource allocation • Documents training procedures • Tracks workflow • Increases staff awareness The Process Framework Continuous Improvement Identify and Analyse & TO-BE Design understand AS-IS Design Implementation Evaluate Best Practices APPROACHES BPI BT BPR Deliverables Turn TV On Does picture Is TV An action plan for implementation containing identified and prioritised No come on? plugged in? Yes No suggestions for improvement. Yes Plug in TV Is picture Does picture Call TV repair Yes No good? come on? man No Documented differences between existing Yes Is picture Adjust knobs good? No Watch work flow and Best Practices. Yes program Identified problem areas using root cause analysis Documented existing work flow with highlighted problems. Problem Causes Best Practices vs. existing workflow PROCESS 5 Suggestion for improvement - Quick Fix 1 Cross-functional process map Best Practice 1 1. Problem Solution Due date Effect POLICY GAP: 2. Prioritised suggestions for improvement Prioritised Action plans TECHNOLOGY 3. ---------- ------- ------- -------- --------- ------- Quick Fix Project --------- ------- 4. x ------- Importance PEOPLE x x x --------- -------- -------- 1. Automate.......... --------------------------------------- Best Practice 2 5. --------- ---------- -------- -------- --------------------------------------- 2. Simplify........ GAP: --------------------------------------- 6. x x --------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- x 3. Eliminate....... x --------------------------------------- x x --------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- Performance Process mapping symbols System Activity Action/Process Direction of Flow End Start or End Document Start On Page Connector No Decision Yes Off Page Connector Required information for process mapping We need to understand the following in order to process map: RESPONSIBILITIES ACTIVITIES INPUTS The key responsibilities of The key activities of The main sources of the process area the process area data input for each activity OUTPUTS CUSTOMERS PIs VOLUMES The key Recipients of the Key Performance Indicators Key volumes related to deliverables of outputs of each activity e.g. cycle time for process an activity e.g.no. of each activity (internal & external) items produced per day Facilitating Prepare • Use standard flowchart symbols • Flow from top left to bottom right • Bring people together who know the process to prepare Execute • Use group facilitated sessions with process owners • Use individual interviews where appropriate • Document process and technology opportunities for improvement as you go • Understand cost, quality and time (processing time and elapsed time) implications as you go Questions to ask about a processes‟ activities • Who are the customers of the process? • Who performs each activity? • What generates the process/task? • What forms and reports are used? • What computer systems and files are used? • How do we do it? Why do we do it? • What decisions are made in the process? • What happens next? What sequence are the activities performed in? • Who reviews it and when? • How long does it take? • What is the nature, frequency and cause of errors/problems? • How are errors/problems/exceptions handled? • What is the output? How many? • Where does the output go? Summary - Module 1 • A Business Process is a collection of linked tasks that consume inputs, add value, and produce an output of value to an internal or external customer • Business processes span multiple functions or departments • Process Mapping aims to make the process visible • To improve a process, you must understand the process • The continuous improvement framework helps create a value-added outcome • The deliverables of process mapping are essential for identifying improvements Module 2 Process Mapping Tools & Techniques Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Introduction to Building Tools & Uses & Process Process Techniques Applications Mapping Maps Practical 1 Practical 3 Practical 2 „As-Is‟ Process Design Process mapping is a process... Conduct individual interviews Plan and schedule Document “As-Is” Select a resources Select process and Core team process (process owners, Technique opportunities for reviews output rooms, dates, times, materials, agendas, improvement etc..) Connect to redesign/ design Conduct focus phase if group mapping applicable Modeling Techniques for „As-Is‟ Process Design • Workflow and Process Dependency Modelling • Flowcharting • Cross-Functional Flowcharts Workflow/Dependency Diagram Activity Dept A Dept B Person C 1. Set New Account Critieria Sequential 2. Accept New Account dependency 3.Determine Requirements Parallel 4. Allocate Manpower dependency 5. Allocate Supplies 6. Sell Lottery tickets Repetitive 7. Select Winning Ticket dependency 8. Announce Winning Ticket 9. Accept Credit Information Optional dependency 10. Accept Personal References 11. Approve/Reject Loan Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Introduction to Building Tools & Uses & Process Process Techniques Applications Mapping Maps Practical 1 Practical 3 Practical 2 Workflow Modelling Exercise Case Management Process Look at the handout • Work individually for 10 minutes • Simplify the process using the Workflow Modelling Technique • In the columns, add departments, customer, specific people • In the rows, specify the activities – Don‟t afraid to be descriptive – Keep to high level activities/processes • Add the boxes in the appropriate columns and flows between them Case Management Process 1st Draft Statement of Need Statement of Services to meet Care need Screen Planning Contact Statement of services arranged Unmet needs Fixed criteria Care Plan Arrange Referral service Services Initial Emergency Ongoing Services Provider EVENT Assessment Service case-work Provided Monitor intervention Services Full Assessment Purchaser Monitor Services Review END Needs SERVICE Advantages of Workflow Modelling • Simple to understand • Identifies Processes • Identifies dependencies • Highlights the number of „hand-offs‟ • Finds „black holes‟ • Easy to document metrics • Can show by person, department, geographical location etc. Flowcharts Turn TV On Start/End Does picture Is TV No come on? plugged in? Yes Decision No Yes Plug in TV Activity Is picture Does picture Call TV repair Yes No good? come on? man No Yes Is picture Adjust knobs good? No Watch Yes program Cross-Functional Flowcharts - „Swim Lanes‟ Publication Process Publication Process Customer Order received Request The Printing information Dept to be Printing Process published is collected Packaging The printed material is stuck Dept and bound together Spelling checks Dept Ready for QA for grammar and distribution? spelling are run Shipping Order Fulfilment Process Cross-Functional Flowcharts - „Swim Lanes‟ Hints: • Use workshops / focus groups • Keep things moving • Encourage everyone to join in • Energise, share and build • Use Paper / „Brown Paper Technique‟ / White Board / Flipcharts / PC based tool (e.g. Microsoft VISIO) Suggested steps in process mapping • Start with a high-level flow (Context Diagram) and then drop to the next level of detail if necessary (i.e. sub processes) • Define the beginning and end of each sub process (stay focused) • Define key inputs and outputs • Walk through each key sub process step by step • Don't waste time: If you get bogged down, take a break or move on to another area • Identify process and technology opportunities for improvement as you go or at the end of each sub process • Verify the accuracy of the flow Process mapping “DOs” and “DON‟Ts” • DO map the process as it actually • DON‟T map the process as you happens think it happens or as you think it • DO think about the process across ought to happen the entire organisation • DON‟T restrict your process map to • DO talk to the other people who are the activities in your own involved in the process department • DO define the beginning and end of • DON‟T work in a vacuum the process before you start • DON‟T attempt to process map • DO the process map at a high level before you identify a beginning and an end • DO ask questions • DON‟T get bogged down with too much detail • DON‟T struggle on your own Expected results Re-check the process by looking at the following: • Start, end points and customers should be clear • Inputs and outputs should be identified • Indicate title of person / area responsible for each task • A person not familiar with the process should be able to easily understand the flow without any explanation • The level of detail should be adequate to describe inefficiencies Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Introduction to Building Tools & Uses & Process Process Techniques Applications Mapping Maps Practical 1 Practical 3 Practical 2 A basic process mapping example - sending a fax • In teams, spend 15 minutes drafting a process map for sending a fax • Use the Brown Paper Technique – Write activities on Post-it notes – Stick them to the brown paper (or nominate someone to do this) – Move Post-its around until activities have been properly sequenced – Add other model components (function, resource, etc.) – Remember to use „swim lanes‟ where necessary – Run through process checking for accuracy A basic process mapping example - sending a fax - Example answer Depicts a Depicts an Depicts a action Sender decision point - Depicts the step taken generated by or always has yes/ Yes goes right start of the by the related to the no outputs process actionee system Compose Do you want to Start fax on Yes save a copy? Save copy of computer fax to database No goes down No Represents readable data such as printed output Print fax Refers reader to a follow-on process map Defines area of responsibility for actionee See Send fax to Send a copy Depicts a Yes Process recipient to CEO? functional area no.2 or actionee e.g. department No Recipient Recipient receives fax End Depicts the end point of the process Adding Metrics What do we want to measure? • Time - value, cycle, waiting, Keep In View (KIV), productive / non-productive • Volumes - transactions/day, units/hour, % • Rates or Costs - computed, fixed, per unit • Equipment Used - cost PIs • Value Added - real value, business value, no-value Advantages of using Metrics • Illustrates contribution or non-contribution of the activity • Shows bottlenecks, idle time, productive time • Basis for measuring success Adding Metrics - an example An Insurance Company‟s Metrics for their Claims Process: Process/KPI Time Taken Add. Costs Delays % (mins) (£) (days) Deal with call 5 Deal with Call Back Slip 10 Transfer to Supervisor 1 Update Client File 5 Send Claim Form 20 20 2 Reimburse Client 30 50 20 Average Claim Value 74 Non-rejected claims 72 Cycle Times Non-Investigated 13 Investigated/Assessed (5%) 29 Processing Costs per claim Non-Investigated 80 13 Investigated/Assessed 400 29 Analyse the results Summary - Module 2 • The As-Is process design is the most important part of the process improvement exercise • Modelling Techniques – Workflow and Process Dependency – Flowcharting – Cross-Functional Flowcharts /Swim Lane Modelling • Always re-check the process • Ask lots of questions to ensure a correct design • Metrics and PIs are used as a basis for measuring success Agenda Afternoon 14:00 – 14:30 Introduction to module 3 14:30 - 15:30 case study 15:30 – 15:45 Break 15:45 – 16:15 case study continued 16:15 – 16:40 Module 4 16:40 – 17:00 Summary and Next Steps Module 3 Building Process Maps Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Introduction to Building Tools & Uses & Process Process Techniques Applications Mapping Maps Practical 1 Practical 3 Practical 2 Using Microsoft VISIO 2000 • An automated process mapping tool • Templates – Basic Flowcharts – Cross-Functional Diagram (Swim Lanes) – Cause & Effect Diagram (Fishbone) • Use Help files Visio - Cross-Functional Flowchart Template Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Introduction to Building Tools & Uses & Process Process Techniques Applications Mapping Maps Practical 1 Practical 3 Practical 2 Your task ... • Choose a process you are familiar with in the workplace • Map the process using the Cross-Functional Flowchart Method (Swim Lanes) • Re-check the process • Analyse the results • List some problems and improvements Using VISIO 2000 • Use the process you have mapped by hand • Transfer this process into a Visio document • Use the Cross-Functional Flowchart template Summary - Module 3 • Microsoft VISIO 2000 is a valuable tool for automating and documenting various design techniques • Process Mapping takes practice • The process maps act as a basis for the Analysis and Evaluation phase Module 4 Uses and Applications of Process Maps Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Introduction to Building Tools & Uses & Process Process Techniques Applications Mapping Maps Practical 1 Practical 3 Practical 2 Identify opportunities for improvement During process mapping we should go beyond understanding the current flow to identifying areas for improvement, such as: • Process opportunities • Technology opportunities and issues • Short-term fixes or urgent action items Identify opportunities for improvement Process opportunities Once we have our process maps, we can begin to analyse them for process opportunities for improvement. Specifically, we can improve the work flow by using the following analysis techniques: • Value Chain Analysis • Why-Why Diagram • Cause and Effect Diagram • Critical Analysis Value Chain Analysis Real value added The „value‟ that is (RAV) added to the required Business value added deliverable by each (BAV) stage of the process. Non value added (NAV) Verbs which are likely to have no business value: – Copying – Checking – Collating – Approving – Counting – Storing – Preparing – Filing – Searching – Retrieving – Accumulating – Moving – Revising – Inspecting – Editing – Rework Value Chain Analysis - „Red Flag‟ • Loops • Hand-offs • Repetition/Duplication of effort (within a process or across divisions) • Black holes • Unused data stores • Temporary data stores WHY? • Overlapping processes • Processes which have many steps • Sequential steps which could be done in parallel • Omission of critical steps • Unnecessary paperwork • Unnecessary delays • Insufficient linkages between other processes, divisions, customers or suppliers Why-Why Diagram Why? Why? Bad quality milk Why? Bad quality milk Milk gone off Fridge Cold Milk gone off Fridge Cold Milk gone off Milk gone off etc. etc. Why? Local store closed Local store closed Can't go to store Can't go to store Large store too far Large store too far No Milk in Fridge No Milk in Fridge To eat cereal Housemates To eat cereal Housemates finished milk finished milk To feed cat To feed cat Rent too high No Money to buy Rent too high No Money to buy milk milk Too many debts Too many debts Insufficient Salary Insufficient Salary Cause and Effect Diagram Outside Influences Quality Housemates Cheap Milk finished milk Expired Faulty Fridge Effect, No money Problem or Fridge not cold For breakfast Objective For Micky the Milk gone off cat No Milk in Large store too far Fridge Milk ran out Rent too high Battery dead Closed on Sundays Mortagage Lazy Left lights on Poor Salary Student loans Old battery Small Store Too many Car won't start Insufficient debts Supplies No Money Critical Analysis What Why What Else is being done is it being done is being done Who Why Who Else is doing it are they doing it could do it When Why When Else Are they doing it then could it be done Where Why Where Else Is it being done there could it be done How Why How Else is it being done that way could it be done Visio - Fishbone Diagrams „To-Be‟ Design Customer Executive Executive Needs & Wants Vision Vision Opportunities Opportunities Implementation Implementation Visioning from „As-Is‟ from „As-Is‟ & Change & Change Workshops Analysis Analysis Planning Planning Best Practices Best Practices Experts Experts Benchmarks Benchmarks Goals Goals PIs PIs Design Principles • Work Backwards • See the business through the customers eyes • Focus on the logical workflow first • „What‟ first, then who, where, when and how • Look at I.T. as an enabler • Assume „Paradise Principle‟ to start with • Minimise hand-offs • Use „Triage‟ principle • Integrate tasks / activities • Place decision making close to the customer / transfer • Simplify • Test using PIs and metrics • Have a single point of contact - Ownership Identify opportunities for improvement Technology opportunities and issues During the process mapping we will capture current system limitations as well as ideas for ways technology can enable a more effective or efficient process: • Identify potential uses for new technology (e.g. automation, better availability and sharing of information, etc.) • Understand current system constraints (e.g. information not available on a timely basis due to batch processing, hardware capacity constraints, lack of interface between key systems, etc.) Identify opportunities for improvement Short term fixes or urgent action items Once we have our process maps, we can begin to analyse them for “Quick-wins”. These opportunities represent… • Issues that need to be addressed immediately for control, improved profitability and other reasons • Significant benefit with relatively low investment required Prioritised suggestions for improvement x x x x Importance x x x x x x Ease of implementation Summary - Module 4 • Process Mapping and Analysis identifies critical problems that need to be resolved • Business processes are re-designed to achieve ambitious business goals • Business Value is added • Quick Win projects are identified • Improvement Opportunities are identified • I.T. is used as an enabler for competitive advantage • The investment is justified using metrics and PIs Next Steps • Prioritise the main processes you have identified • Process map at least one of them by the end of Week 1 (or continue to work on the one you have started) • Start of with the high-level process (Context Diagram) • Decompose this process into sub-processes • Don‟t hesitate to ask for Help.
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