Korean Conflict by lse16211

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									Korean Conflict

     1950
    Communist Threat in the East
• Truman policy a success in Europe
• After WWII Korea divide at 38th parallel
• Failed to agree on united government
• 1949 each form its own government and
  occupation forces withdraw
• June 25, 1950 North invades Truman applies
  the Truman Doctrine and commits U.S. troops
           China’s Involvement

• 1948 Chinese Civil War ends with Communist in
  power led by Mao Zedong or Mao Tse-tung
• Chiang-Kai-Shek takes his forces to Taiwan: free,
  capitalist, Independent; two Chinas
• True civil war, Chinese against Chinese
• Chinese communism not USSR communism; does not
  look to expand
• Redistributes land and equalize people
            Korean War
• Jan. 12, 1950, Secretary of State Dean
  Atchison gives speech about sphere of
  influence; does not include South Korea
• Speech gives North the impression US
  will not defend South
• North Korea invades South
• Truman Doctrine applies to Asia
         U S Commits Troops
• UN security council brands communist as
  aggressors
• UN and US come to aid under the command of
  MacArthur
• North easily advances, takes almost all of
  peninsula
• MacArthur out flanks North pushes through to
  Yalu River
              Limited War
• MacArthur wants to bomb bridges and use
  nukes to finish Korea and help Nationalist
  recapture China
• Truman has a talk with MacArthur and says
  “Limit” the war to restoring status quo
• MacArthur fired for working behind Truman’s
  back to gain support for larger war
• Chinese drive UN forces back to 38th where it
  stalemates until truce in 1953
• Maps
       Significance of Action
• American people find it hard to understand
  the concept of limited war
• US proves it will use military force to stop the
  advance of communism
• South government ends up not being very
  free and open state
• Today N-Korea developing nukes and
  missiles
             Truman’s Problems
• Communism:                     • Free Enterprise
   – Atheist                        – Any or no religion
   – One party system               – Almost all property
   – All property owned by govt.      privately owned
   – Business managed by            – Some public rules on
     govt.                            what you can do with your
   – Govt. decides who will get       property or how you can
     what and what your job will      run your business
     be                             – Elected leaders with a
   – Dictatorship                     democratic structure



               Many reasons to fear each other!
              Fear of Communism
• Taft-Hartley Act
  – Wagner Act 1938 gave Unions many new powers during the
    depression
  – The new Red Scare focused in part on Unions (workers of
    the world unite)
  – Taft-Hartley Act limits powers of unions
     • Union leaders must take oath not to become a communist
     • Ends closed shops where a worker must join the union
     • Must give company 90 days notice before striking
     • President may delay any strike for 60 days (Pres. Bush did this in
       October of 2002 @ West Coast Ports
     • No wild cat strikes (walk off work)
     • No secondary boycotts in support of strikes
  Class of 1946 In Congress
• First time since 1932 Republicans
  control congress
  – Richard Nixon from California-46
  – Joseph McCarthy Wisconsin-46
    • Swing in politics from Democratic control and
      workers rights to Republican pro-business
      control.
            Security Menace
• People realize there is a war of ideas for
  control of the world (cold war)
• Russia gets its own atomic weapon
   – We see Russia as big and dumb
   – Someone must have given them the secret- WHO!
• Korean War we fight a limited war
   – Some believe there is a conspiracy for
     communism within our government
           Alger Hiss Case 1949
                  HUAC led Richard Nixon
• Whittaker Chambers, former communist, accused
  state department employee Alger Hiss of passing
  secrets to the Soviets in the 1930s
• Statute of limitations runs out, but they convict him of
  perjury
• Secretary of State Dean Atchison friend of Hiss and
  offers to resign; Truman refuses to let him resign
• Some of the public starts to buy into the idea that the
  Truman administration is corrupt and has communist
                 McCarthyism
• Senator Joseph McCarthy from Wisconsin chose to
  exploit the “Red Scare”
• 1950 he makes a speech charging the State
  Department was full of communist
• Public all too willing to believe accusations
• Never proved any accusations, but his attacks
  became more and more obnoxious
• 1954 he accuses the Army of harboring communist
  sympathizers.
• In the end he proved himself a fool, had a breakdown,
  and it was revealed he was an alcoholic
  McCarran Act or Internal Security
           Act of 1950
• Sometimes called the anticommunist law, is one of the
  most controversial and least understood laws in the
  history of the republic.
• Required registration of communist with state dept.,
  placed restrictions on immigration, and authorized
  deportation of suspected communist
• President Truman immediately vetoed it on the
  grounds that it "would make a mockery of our Bill of
  Rights."
• Early 1950 many people start believing Truman
  administration had communist in it and his popularity
  falls
                Truman vs. Dewy
•   Dewy runs as a conservative on economic issues
•   Truman makes fun of Dewey's mustache
•   Truman says he was chosen by FDR for a reason
•   When Harry Truman insisted that the Democratic
    Party embrace the cause of civil rights at the 1948
    convention, Mr. Thurmond bolted the party and ran for
    president as an independent. He took the South, but
    Mr. Truman took the nation
  Adlai Stevenson vs. Eisenhower
• 1952, 22 amendment limits presidency to two
  terms and Adlai Stevenson is Democratic
  candidate.
• Ike asked by Demos in 1948, but he didn’t want
  to run
• By 1952 he doesn’t like the way things are
  going and takes up Rep. request to run
      Dwight D. Eisenhower (IKE)
• Opposed Truman administration (change)
• Will end the Korean War
• Very popular war hero
• Health issues from smoking, 2 heart attacks
• First Rep. since 1928 Hoover
• Never a politician and is not sure how to work with
  congress
• Nixon becomes vice president
  1956 Election Same Candidates
• Ike very popular Demos afraid to send out their
  best until 1960
  – Hubert Humphrey, civil rights leader
  – Lyndon Baines Johnson, very powerful in both the
    House and Senate, not a nice guy, but knew how to
    get stuff done.
  – John F. Kennedy, war hero and could speak for the
    next generation
Eisenhower Administration 1953

•   January, becomes President
•   March, Stalin Dies
•   July, Korean Truce
•   September, Chief Justice Vinson dies
•   Earl Warren selected as new Chief
    Justice
         Ike the Moderate
• Found uneasy balance between conservative
  and liberals
• Business men receive high govt. positions
  and promote conservative philosophy
• At the same time expands social welfare
• As a moderate he tried to avoid getting
  trapped by either camp
     Conservative Republicans
      Want Balance Budget
•   Reduce government payroll
•   Cut back on military
•   Cut back on foreign aid
•   Tax cut favoring businesses
•   Cut farm support
•   Reduce government involvement in economy
•   Recession begins and Ike decides more govt.
    needed
                 Civil Rights
• Battle begins in 1950 for full citizenship of
  African Americans (school desegregation)
• Coalition of Northern and Southern in congress
  keep civil rights legislation from being passed
• Civil Rights battle passed to the courts
           Brown v. Board (1954)
• Overturn Plessy Vs. Furgeson separate but equal;
  Separate facilities were in violation of 14th
  amendment
• Court ruled desegregation of schools should begin
  "with all deliberate speed”
• Problem, courts do not run schools, local government
  does-
• South reacts by passing law that were called
  “interposition”, put the state between local and federal
  govt. Meaning State govt. would make up the
  difference in federal funds and that states
  constitutional rights were being denied
      1956 Little Rock Central High
• States top athletic school all white
• NAACP organizes integration plan
• Orval Faubus, Democratic Governor of Arkansas, calls out
  national guard to keep black students out
• Ike, however, reluctantly sends in 101st Airborne to keep
  National Guard back
• 1956-57 school shuts down, whites prefer to go to a different
  school
• Now Ike has his enemies, he prefer to be a moderate
• Token integration continues, black students put in to position to
  fail
Stevenson vs. Eisenhower 1956,
       Ike Wins 457-73

 • Sec. Dulles Foreign Policy containment
   continues with two major changes
   – Increase reliance on Nukes and massive
     retaliation
     • Communist aggression anywhere in the world
       will be challenged
     • Greater reliance on military, and expand foreign
       aid
                       USSR
• Stalin dies in 1953 and it take until 1956 for Nikita
  Khrushchev to win power as new leader
• Korean War end causes a more relaxed feeling in the
  world.
• Khrushchev gives impression they will not try to meet
  us bomb for bomb, but he does work on delivery
  systems, space race - missiles race
• Soviets launch satellite, US can’t get a rocket off
  launch pad
• National Defense Education Act (NDEA), improves
  curriculum and teacher training
• Calculus now taught, AP classes introduced, more in-
  depth science
• Sole purpose to improve weapons systems
       Terms and Names to Know
• Interposition: States passed "interposition" resolutions saying
  Brown was an unconstitutional encroachment upon states'
  rights.
• Token Integration: This type of integration is merely an
  affirmation of a principle without the substance of change.
• Brown versus Board: overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and ended
  school segregation.
• Justice Vinson: nearly always supported governmental action
  against constitutional challenges.
• Justice Warren: Chief Justice during one of the most turbulent
  times in our nation's history; dealt with controversial cases on
  civil rights and civil liberties
• NAACP: The NAACP have played a very important part in the
  civil rights movement. The initials stand for the National
  Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
              Soviet Block
• The death of Stalin came at an opportune
  time for new president (IKE).
• Korean lines were settled in July and tension
  between USSR and US is relaxed
• 1953-56 East Europe enjoys a greater degree
  of freedom and independence
             MARSHAL TITO

• Became president of Yugoslavia in 1953, and
  directed the rebuilding of a Yugoslavia bringing
  together of Yugoslavia's different peoples.
• Tito established an independent communist
  country Yugoslavia, and reached a cooperative
  relationship with USSR.
• Truman Doctrine does not apply because it was
  internal.
              Yugoslavia today

• The present-day countries
  created from the former
  parts of Yugoslavia are:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina,
  Croatia, Macedonia,
  Montenegro, Serbia,
  Slovenia, Kosovo (final
  status unresolved)
        Nikita Khrushchev 1953
• Dissidents within the communist block were
  encouraged by Khrushchev’s denunciation of
  Stalin in Feb. of 1956
• He used this as a way of invading countries, a
  set up.
• Once there was any kind of revolt he would
  send in troops, and show he is powerful
• Seems to have been staged by Khrushchev
        HUNGARIAN - Example
• Hungarian revolt of 1956 brought a harsh and bloody
  end to the “soft line” which had been allowed while
  Khrushchev was establishing himself
• Nationalistic revolt by Hungarian leaders tried to
  separate their nation from Russian control, but was
  ruthlessly crushed by the Red Army
• US statements (CIA) encouraged the revolt and led
  the revolutionaries to believe they would get help
• In the end fear of all out war with Soviets kept that
  from happening
                 China
• Red China (Mao Tse Dung) steps up
  threat to invade Formosa (Taiwan) and
  bring under its control
• This development has US seeking a
  NATO like alliance in Asia
• So little interest as to be ineffective
                 Israel
• Israel was formed in 1948 by the UN
  (ends Diaspora 2000 yag).
• Land was taken from Arab Palestine.
• Were regulated by the British following
  WWI.
• This creates the Palestinian Liberation
  Organization (PLO)
             Middle East
• Tension between the Arab nations
  evident in Arab-Israeli war of 1948 and
  continues to today
                    Suez Crisis
• Nasser of Egypt tried to rally Arab nations into a Pan-
  Arabic Union that opposes Isreal.
• The giant dam at Aswan was planned by Nasser to
  give prestige and economic power to this movement.
• US withdraws an offer to finance the project
  embittered Nasser toward the West.
• He seizes the the Suez Canal in 1956
• Brit, French and Israel attacks. Soviets threaten to
  attack and the West backs down to avoid major war.
• Cost NATO moral
              Nuclear Testing
• 1958 USSR announces that future testing was
  being halted; followed by US
• Soviets two up on US again Looked like the
  leading nation with vision
• Island in Pacific where we tested still unusable.
      Khrushchev 1959 Visit
• Two day visit to meet Eisenhower and
  discuss arms race
• Goes to Disney Land, Iowa, and D.C.
• Soviets again show them as leading in peace
  and a helpful nation
• Now Soviets up by 3
• The new “Hard-line” in US Soviet relations
  with the Soviets occurred with Sputnik
        Sputnik Oct. 1957
• Soviet prestige rises
• US realizes Soviets perfected missile
  and launch capabilities
• Causes fear and self doubt in US
• Soviets 4-up on us now
• World Leader

								
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