RESEARCH PROJECT TO TRACE THE MOBILITY PATTERNS, POPULATION DYNAMICS

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RESEARCH PROJECT TO TRACE THE MOBILITY PATTERNS, POPULATION DYNAMICS Powered By Docstoc
					INCECREASE HUMAN ELEPHANT CO EXISTENCE THROUGH COMMUNITY BASE ELEPHANT
     MONITORING AWARENESS PROGRAM AT PRE SELCETED SITES, SRI LANKA
      INTERIM REPORT FOR INTERNATIONAL ELEPHANT FOUNDATION (IEF)
                            SEPTEMBER – 2006




                                    By
                    Rohan Cooray, (B.A. Social Sciences)




               Bundala-Biodiversity Conservation Group(BBCG)
                      Bundala,Hambantota, Sri Lanka




                             SEPTEMBER 2006




                                     1
                                               -Content-
1. Introduction:
      1.1.     Sri Lanka
      1.2.     Elephants of Sri Lanka


2. Introduction to Physical and climatic Characteristics of the Study areas
      2.1      Agro-Ecology
      2.2      Climate


3. Introduction to the Pre Selected Program Sites:
      3.1      Palugaswewa/Habarana
      3.2      Sigiriya/Mailattawa/Polattawa
      3.3      Bundala/Siriyagama/Pallemalala


4. Justification for project:


5. Objectives program:


6. Methodology:
      6.1         Community based Elephant Monitoring Program
      6.2         Group Discussions
      6.3         Mapping Exercise
      6.4         Three day workshops


7. Practical Limitations:


8. Results of the program:
      8.1         Community based Elephant Monitoring Program
      8.2         Group Discussions
      8.3         Three day workshops


9.          Conclusions:


10.         Summary of the Findings At Pre Selected program Sites:

11.         Financial Summary as at 20th September 2006
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1. 1. INTRODUCTION
Sri Lanka is a tropical island lying 50km to the South West of Peninsular India. It is relatively small for
a continental island, with maximum width and length of 240km and 435km respectively, a coastline
of 1760km and an area of 65,525 km2, of which some 32,000 km2 are under permanent or shifting
cultivation. After excluding the plantation sector, over 71% of the remaining cultivable area is rain
fed. Though population growth is stabilizing (currently growing at 1.1% per annum), with a total of
18.1million persons. Population density is high and average land holdings low as 80% < 1.2 ha and
40% <0.4ha. Nearly 80% of the population lives in rural areas, of which over 55% depend on
agriculture for their source of primary income. An additional 17% are employed in seasonal labor
activities, 80% of which are in the agricultural sector and another 8% recorded as being employed in
the fishing industry (Central Bank 1998). A map of the country showing administrative divisions and
the major climatic zones is shown in Figure 1.




Figure 1.




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1.2.    Elephants of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka has one of largest populations of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in the wild today. It is
estimated that there are some 2500-3000 Sri Lankan elephants (Elephas maximus maximus – a
distinct sub species of the Asian elephant) still in the wild in Sri Lanka, although no accurate and
acceptable recent census is available. However, in the early part of the century there were some
15,000 elephants widely dispersed in most parts of the island. (Mackay 1973). Some of the animals
now remaining are confined to the National Wildlife parks, with other herds pocketed in rapidly
developing village areas, resulting in periodic and often disastrous conflict with man.


2.      Introduction to Physical and climatic Characteristics of the Study areas


2.1     Agro-Ecology
An agro-ecological region consists of a particular combination of natural assets: climate, soil and
relief, which give rise to particular farming systems. Elevation and its effects on temperature and
rainfall is the single most important determinant of agro-ecology in Sri Lanka. The surface
configuration comprises a south central highland massif rising to 2554m, surrounded by a zone of
upland ridges and valleys at a lower elevation. This in turn is surrounded an extensive area of flat
lowlands. Three climatic zones, the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zone are defined by this topography.
The Lowland Dry Zone (LDZ), which is the wider focus area of this project lies entirely below 300m
and covers some 70% of the land area. Within these zones, twenty-four agro-ecological regions
(AERs) have been characterized on the basis of 75% probability of monthly rainfall, elevation,
topography and soils. Five of these regions are located in the dry zone.


In the HEC focus areas of this project, most villagers derive their primary source of household income
from farming activities. Paddy (the staple food along with fish) is the principal irrigated crop. Dry land
crops are grown under a traditional pattern of shifting ‘slash and burn’ or fixed highland cultivation,
whilst vegetables and other cash crops are also grown in smaller home-gardens. Livestock holdings,
already low within this predominantly Buddhist society, are declining further due to reduced pasture
availability and the mechanization of tasks formerly undertaken by draught animals.


2.2.    Climate
Rainfall: Although Sri Lanka is classified as having a semi-humid tropical climate; conditions in the
dry zone range from semi-humid, semi-arid and arid. Rainfall ranges from 625-1900 mm p.a.
unevenly distributed over two growing seasons, with 60-70% falling during the “Maha” season (late
September to February) and 20-40% falling during the minor “Yala “cultivation season (Late
February to June).These seasons are associated with the arrival of the Northwest and the Southwest
monsoons respectively. Two drought periods occur during the inter-monsoon periods between
February to May and August to October. Rainfall is highly erratic with the co-efficiency of variance for
annual rainfall during the last 15 years ranging from 20-33%. Inter-annual variability has been shown
                                                    4
to be greatest during the maha season and severe drought events associated with the failure of the
NW monsoon re-occur on average every 3-4 years in the dry zone. Three consecutive drought years
were experienced from 1981 to 83 and again in 1991 and 1996. Whilst inter-annual variation in
rainfall has increased over the last 30 years absolute rainfall levels have decreased.


Temperatures and evaporative conditions within the dry zone are uniformly high. The seasonal
pattern is also bimodal with a mean annual temperature of 28oC and a mean daily range of 9oC.
Relative humidity averages 60-65% by day. Maximum and minimum temperatures rarely drop below
20oC or above 36oC. Winds and rains associated with the two monsoons are the main modifying
influence. During May to September warm drying westerly winds know as the karachan blow over the
central dry zone, increasing evaporation levels and narrowing the daily temperature range to about
6oC.




Photo 01. Vegetation of the Palugaswewa Habrana site




                                                   5
3.      Introduction to the Pre Selected Program Sites:
3.1     Palugaswewa DS Division
Palugaswewa DS Division is located in Anuradhapura District in the North central province of Sri
Lanka. Palugaswewa DS division has 16 GN Divisions. Palugaswewa & Habarana GN divisions are two
GN divisions which have relatively high Human elephant conflict (HEC) during the past few years.
Total no of population in the division is 14,617 which includes 8,096 Males & 6,521 females.
Population under 18 is 4,681 and 9,986 is 18 years and over. Population under 18 is 20,758 and
40,472 is 18 years and over. 44.9% of the population studied up to grade 10. Population by Religion
can be divided as 14,216 are sinhala Buddhist, 61 Hindus, 99 Islam, 214 Roman Catholic and 27 are
other Christians. 54.9% of the labor population are engaged in agriculture related industry. 22.4% is
unpaid family worker and 44.4% is working for own. 91.7% of the population used fire wood for
cooking fuel and 49.1% of the population used kerosene as their principal type of lighting. The No of
housing units in the division is 4,037. The average annual rainfall for Palugaswewa is between 1300
to 1500 mm, with prolonged dry spells. In addition, total of 666 farmers owning home garden and
1610 farmers owning home garden & other land for cultivations. 6,158 acres of land used to
cultivations in the division. The rainy season prevails from October to December. The prominent
geography of the division can be understood as flat lands. In addition, there are some prominent
water sources such as, Habarana wewa, and few other small tanks. Palugaswewa DS division is one
of the most highly HEC prevailing areas in North central province. This is mainly because that location
of Minneriya & kaudulla National parks, Sigiriya sanctuary and Habarana forest adjacent to the
Palugaswewa DS division. Elephants in Minneriya & kaudulla National Parks and Habarana Forest
reservation, Sigiriya Sanctuary used to enter into the agricultural lands in Palugaswewa area. As a
consequence of the competition for same water and land resources, elephant and human deaths,
crop and property damages are frequent in this area. Palugaswewa DS division also had more
elephants – railroad accidents due to one of the major rail road runs through the division. It was
significantly affect the wild elephant population in the area. Especially in the migrating season (June-
August) calf and juveniles and some times adult elephants killed or injured due to rail accidents.
Presently Department of wildlife and the Department of Railways in Sri Lanka preparing plan to
mitigate the issue.


PALUGASWEWA/HABARANA VILLAGES
Amongst the several human elephant conflict villages in Sri Lanka, Palugaswewa/Habarana villages
are facing a relatively higher number of human elephant conflicts in the Anuradhapura District.
Ritigala, One of the strict nature reserves (SNR) in Sri Lanka located adjacent to palugaswewa village.
Palugaswewa village is approximately 19km North West from Habarana junction town. Habarana
village is a main junction of the North central province which major roads leads to Trincomalee &
Batticaloa and Polonnaruwa. It is also very famous among tourist for elephant rides. There are nearly
30 captive elephants could be seen at any given time. Total numbers of families in these two villages

                                                   6
are 453 and 621 respectively. Main income generation activities of these families in the palugaswewa
village include agriculture; while Habarana villagers are mostly depend on agriculture and tourism
related business. There are many Seasonal Rain fed & irrigated tanks in palugaswewa and Habarana
villages. Wildlife in the area are using these tanks as their primary source of water.


LOCATION
Palugaswewa and Habarana villages are situated in the north central region of Sri Lanka and hence it
falls partially into the dry zone. The annual rainfall is 1524 mm, with a period of drought from May to
September. The villages have several water-holes, which provide water for the animals. More
importantly, with the feeder canals to kalawewa reservoir in the district and the presence of few
larger reservoirs there are adequate sources of water even during the dry season.


LOCATION MAP OF THE PALUGASWEWA PROGRAM SITE:




BOUNDARIES




The boundaries of the villages are fairly well established, with the eastern part of the perimeter
bordering by Kurunegala – Trincomalee main road. Some of the other boundaries have natural
barriers, such forest reserves and village settlements on the western and southern side and
therefore, migration of elephants, particularly herds, out of the area may not be all that much. On
the other hand there have been several sightings of males regularly wandering to the villages from
the eastern and northern parts of the division.



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SOCIAL & ECONOMICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PALUGASWEWA VILLAGE
During the initial data collection period the program coordinator and MO’s have collected the data
such as Total Number of families in palugaswewa,and Habarana which are 578 and 627 which has
total population of 4246 respectively. In addition, the income of the sites in palugaswewa program
site gives a clear idea of the community. From the total 64% of the community is considering as
poor. The income is less than Rs. 1500.00 per month and this is mostly the government relief.




Palugaswewa village(Ritigala Strict Nature reserve on the background)



3.2.    Dambulla DS Division
Dambulla DS Division is located in Matale District in the Central province of Sri Lanka. Dambulla DS
division have 59 GN Divisions. Sigiriya, Polattawata, Mailattawa are GN divisions are the GN divisions
which have relatively high Human elephant conflict (HEC) during the past few years. Total no of
population in the division is 61,230 which includes, 32,015 Males & 29215 females. Population under
18 is 20,758 and 40,472 is 18 years and over. 41.3% of the population studied up to grade 10.
Population by Religion can be divided as 57,897 are sinhala Buddhist, 521 Hindus, 1,871 Islam, 868
Roman Catholic and 60 are other Christians. 39.2% of the population is engaged in agriculture
related industry. 13.4% is unpaid family worker and 34.5% is working for own. 92.4% of the
population used fire wood for cooking fuel and 49% of the population used kerosene as their
principal type of lighting. No of housing units in the division are 16,953. The average annual rainfall
for Palugaswewa is between 1300 to 1500 mm, with prolonged dry spells. The rainy season prevails
from October to December. The prominent geography of the division can be understood as flat lands.
In addition, total of 1,661 farmers owning home garden and 2,493 farmers owning home garden &
                                                8
other land for cultivations. 27,606 acres of land used to cultivations in the division. The main water
source in the division is Dambulu Oya and several other ancient reservoirs. In addition, there are
some prominent water sources such as, such as kandalama Wewa, Thalakolawewa and hurulu Oya
feeder canal flowing from kandalama wewa, Dambulla DS division is one of the highly HEC prevailing
areas in North central province. This is mainly because that location of Minneriya National park,
Sigiriya Sanctuary and Habarana forest adjacent to the Dambulla DS division. Elephants in Minneriya
National Park and Habarana Forest reservation, Sigiriya Sanctuary used to enter into the agricultural
lands in Sigiriya, Polattawa, Mailattawa and Diyakepilla Villages. As a consequence of the competition
for same water and land resources, elephant and human deaths, crop and property damages are
frequent in this area.


SIGIRIYA/POLATTAWA/MAILATTWA VILLAGES
Amongst the several Archaeological sites in Sri Lanka Sigiriya is very famous for its lion Rock. One of
remaining architectural wonders in the Asia and known as eight wonder of the world. Sigiriya is a
very popular tourist destination in the country. Villages in Sigiriya are affected by crop raiding
elephants in the harvesting season. Most of the elephants which wandering Sigiriya area are
migrating herds from Minneriya National park, one of the biggest elephant population in Sri lanka
lives around the park and seasonally gathers in the park. Minneriya National parks in Sri Lanka, is
unique, because it has the largest and healthy population of elephants. It is common knowledge
today that the best places to view large gatherings of wild elephants in Sri Lanka is in the Minneriya
NP.
LOCATION
Sigiriya/Mailattawa and Polattawa villages are situated in the north eastern region of Sri Lanka and
hence it falls partially into the intermediate dry zone. The annual rainfall is 1354 mm, with a period of
drought from May to September. The area has several water-holes, which provide water for the
animals. More importantly, with the polattwa wewa, Talkote wewa and many small tanks and hurulu
Oya feeder canal flowing through the area and the presence of the large reservoirs and ancient tanks
there are adequate sources of water even during the dry season.




                                                   9
LOCATION MAP OF THE SIGIRIYA PROGRAM SITE:




BOUNDARIES
The boundaries of the sigiriya are fairly well established, with the northern part of the perimeter
protected by an electrified wire fence. Some of the other boundaries have natural barriers, such as
the canals on the eastern side and village settlements on the western and southern side and
therefore, seasonal migration of elephants, particularly herds, to the area are significant number. On
the other hand there have been several sightings of males regularly wandering in villages of sigiriya
from the northern and eastern boundaries.


SOCIAL & ECONOMICAL BACKGROUND OF THE VILLAGE
Sigiriya/Mailattawa and Polattawa villages are primarily depend on agriculture and most of the
farmers are paddy cultivators while some are growing vegetables and area is very popular for onions.
During the initial data collection period the program coordinator and MO’s have collected the data
such as Total Number of families in the area surveying which are 697 which has population of 4327
respectively. In addition, the income of the sites in area gives a clear idea of the community. From
the total 64% of the community is considering as poor. The income is less than Rs. 1500.00 per
month and this is mostly the government relief.




                                                  10
3.3.    Hambantota DS Division
Hambantota DS Division, extending 73,912 Acres is located in Hambantota District in the southern
province of Sri Lanka. The population in the division is 57,126 with 13,789 families. There are 30 GN
divisions Hambantota DS Division. Main income source of the area are Salt production, Fishing and
farming of paddy in Maha season and other crops in Yala season. There are about 39,748 acres of
agricultural lands and of this 3,637 acres of agricultural lands are illegal holdings. Rice is cultivated
with major irrigation in 6,319 acres in the entire division. In addition, the forest lands of the division
extend up to 50,608 acres. Among them, 40,107 acres are natural forests and 10,437 acres are
protected forests. No of Housing units in the division is 12,444 and the average annual rainfall for
Hambantota is between 1300 to 1500 mm, with prolonged dry spells. . The rainy season prevails
from October to December. The prominent geography of the division can be understood as flat lands.
The main water source in the division is several large and small tanks. In addition, there are some
prominent water sources such as, such as Keligama Wewa. Hambantota DS division is one of the
highly HEC prevailing areas in Southern province. HEC is a critical issue in most of the GN divisions in
Hambantota DS division. HEC are high in several GN divisions such as Bundala, Julgamuwa,
Bandagiriya, Keliyapura, Gonnoruwa, Siriyagama, Pallemalala, Mirijjavila, Koholankala, Siribopura,
Pahala Beragama, Bellagas wewa GN division. This is mainly because that there are few isolated
forest patches in Hambantota district which holds 100> elephant population. In addition, ancient
elephant corridors are still used by these pachyderms. The corridors are used to enter adjacent
National parks such as Bundala National Park, Lunugamvehera and Yala National Parks. This seasonal
migration overlap with the crop harvesting seasons which lead to major human elephant conflict in
the specified GN Divisions. As a consequence of the competition for equal resources such as water
and land, crop and property damages are frequent in this area.


BUNDALA/SIRIYAGAMA/PALLEMALALA VILLAGES
Bundala, small village on the south coast of Sri Lanka, approximately 23km east along the coast from
Hambantota. Bundala village divided into two small villages, Bundala Leawagamgoda and Bundala
Wellagamgoda and the total number of families in these two villages is 196 respectively. Total no of
people in Bundala village are 766 and 53% is female and 47% is male. Main income generation
activities of these families in the Bundala village include agriculture; sea fishing and others are
government services, and workers at the Bundala saltpan.




                                                   11
LOCATION MAP OF THE BUNDALA PROGRAM SITE:
        No: 81 – Bundala        82 – Siriyagama                 83 – Pallemalala




Bundala Village


SOCIAL & ECONOMICAL BACKGROUND OF PROGRAM SITE:
During the initial data collection period the program has collected the data such as Total Number of
families in Bundala, Siriyagama and Pallemalala are 968 which has population of 3489 respectively. In
addition, the income of the three sites in Bundala program site gives a clear idea of the community.

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From the total 50% of the community is considering as poor. The income is less than Rs. 1500.00 per
month and this is mostly the government relief.


4.       JUSTIFICATION FOR PROJECT
Sri Lanka has globally significant biodiversity values that are currently threatened by deforestation,
land degradation, and unregulated exploitation of natural resources. The program is central to
conserving elephant’s and it’s habitat while adopting community participatory approach. Additionally,
support rural communities through providing of sound scientific, educational materials and eco
tourism development opportunities. Effective HEC mitigation could not take place in long term
without true involvement of affected communities. Similarly, rural livelihood in Sri Lanka mainly
depends on a flow of natural resources, many of which cannot be sustained without active protective
measures. This requires effective community empowerment to allow the affected communities to
plan their own mitigation and preparedness measures.


Therefore well coordinated program for a period of time which focused the awareness, capacity
building, and local empowerment will yield definite answers to major issues hampering in
environment field. Due to the absence of any scientific and accurate data or information available on
the crop raiding elephants and affected communities within the HEC areas, no proper answers to the
following basic questions are currently available –


     What is the approximate damage to crops by elephants at selected site?
     How the farmers react to the crop raiding elephants?
     Does the farmer consider crop raiding as a major threat to their cropland/property or
     their life?
     Is it significantly affecting farmer’s annual income?
     What are the farmer’s ideas/suggestions about the crop raiding elephants?
     How do they overcome the damages to the crop by other animals?
     Are these elephant’s resident or do they regularly migrate out of the area?
     Does the officials clearly identified needs of the farmers?
     Does the official have local maps on HEC areas?
     Is this migration affected by weather patterns, dietary needs, and others ?


This lack of basic data needed for fundamental information based planning and management
has been identified as one of the primary issues hampering in HEC mitigation programs in Sri Lanka
(Desai.A.A., FAO Consultant – Elephant Management – 1998)




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5.      OBJECTIVES
The project envisaged pursuing the following Objectives:-


        •   To establish a community based elephant monitoring program at pre selected
            sites in Sri Lanka.
        •   Continuous awareness programs for the affected communities at the pre
            selected sites.
        •   Introduction and develop eco tourism program as a tool to mitigate the
            human elephant conflict at pre selected sites.


It was felt that this exercise will generate sufficient scientific data, which, under proper scientific
analysis will result in valuable conclusions being derived regarding the HEC of the palugaswewa,
Sigiriya and Bundala. From these findings it will be possible, in the long term, to make important
decisions regarding the necessary intervention required for proper management. And also this could
create human elephant coexistence as long term objective.


Second Workshop at Sigiriya some of the participants sharing experience:




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6.       METHODOLOGY
Based on the preliminary screening process Habarana and Palugaswewa villages both affected by
HEC were identified as the sites for CBEMP in Palugaswewa DS Division. And Sigiriya, Mailattawa,
Polattawa villages were identified HEC areas from Dambulla DS Divisions and Bundala, Pallemalala,
Siriyagama from Hambantota DS Division.
Initial introductions into villages were made by BBCG staff and GN of the Respective GN Divisions,
with the help of whom community meetings were arranged at times suitable for villagers. The
function of these meetings was as follows:
     •   To introduce the purpose and the staff of the research project
     •   To facilitate group discussions on topics including the village history, cropping systems,
         indigenous knowledge of Elephants
     •   To facilitate mapping exercise.
     •   Activity charts, time-lines and seasonal calendars. Participants were split into groups of 2-4
         for this purpose.
     •   In addition to stimulating interest this also ensured participation of as many individuals as
         possible and productive use of farmers’ limited time.


Names of participating farmers were collected to assess the attendance of the meetings based on the
results of the subsequent CBEMP. In both instances farmers within the least affected group were
poorly represented and tended to participate least in discussion sessions. Numbers of men and
women in attendance were approximately equal, in Group Discussions women outnumbered men by
nearly 3 to 1.




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6.1.   Community based Elephant monitoring Program (CBEMP):
One monitoring officer recruited from each site after conduct a formal interview. The Monitoring
officer’s were selected based on their experience with elephants. In addition, MO’s were selected
among the vulnerable community of the pre selected site. Initially they were trained by the program
coordinator and the principal investigator of the program. Three day training session were conduct
to familiar with PRA tools & communication skills need to conduct interviews, group discussions, and
workshops. Initially program has printed 500 sets of data sheets for CBEMP. Community based
Elephant monitoring data sheets were hand over to them at the end of the program. They have
been instructed to have personal interviews with farmers and to collect the information. While in
respect the Human elephant conflict, the information was collected through structured
questionnaires by face to face interviews and interviewee filled questionnaire.




Photo: Farmer protecting his farm yard from elephants.


Program coordinator conduct an initial visit to each site and conduct a formal discussion with village
level administrator known as “Grama Niladharis”(GN). This was also an introduction of MO’s to GN to
avoid unnecessary problems. During the first two months of the program all sites were mapped with
community participatory approach. These maps will be digitized at the end of the program. The
mapping exercise becomes a very useful activity to get the support of the vulnerable community
members. 18 farmers from Palugaswewa, 14 Farmers from Sigiriya and 17 farmers from Bundala

                                                 16
area was participated for this mapping exercise. At the mapping exercise program MO’s and the
Program Coordinator identified the initial houses/lands which are affected frequently by the
elephants.


a) At the end of the first month, MO’s started CBEMP and MO’s at each site visit four days per week
   to meet the affected farmers and collects the data as per objectives of the program. This activity
   still continues and collected useful data on elephant crop raiding pattern at each site, seasonality
   of movement, behavior during the crop raiding. This methodology was followed fairly accurately,
   traversing the area on a pre-determined schedule, so as to ensure that all the areas of the site
   were covered on a regular basis.


b) Identification of affected farmers and croplands were firstly conduct on manual basis on field
    data sheets supported by GPS at the time of initial visit to the farmer. At the end of the month
    data sheets were collected by the program coordinator and enter into Excel worksheet. GPS
    coordinates were transfer using GPS track maker software.
The Interviews mainly conduct during the morning and evenings as per the farmer’s request. The
morning field work normally began at about 7.00 a.m. and finished around 9.00 a.m., and evening
visits were from about 4.00 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. And the elephant crop raiding data sheet was filled by
the MO’s with help of farmer and this data sheet will be kept with the farmer interviewed until
program end. These data sheet will be monitored by MO during their visit to respective farmer on any
given day. However, for analyzing purposes this data sheet will be replaced with new data sheet with
previous data sheet number to avoid double counting.




                                                 17
6.2       GROUP DISCUSSIONS/THREE DAY COMMUNITY WORKSHOPS:
As it was impracticable to bring primary and secondary stakeholders(Relevant Government officials &
Farmers) together within a single forum, the participation workshop was restricted to the latter
group; village level Government Administrative representative, Affected farmer communities in the
selected areas of Program. The Group Discussions & Affected community workshops were therefore
used to achieve the following outputs:
      •   identified the local knowledge for human elephant co existence.
      •   Developed a strategy to overcome the crop damage through local knowledge.
      •   Introducing a community based elephant monitoring work to closely monitor and assess the
          losses to crops and the crop raiding behaviors by elephants.
      •   And the appropriate measures for human elephant co existence to identify by the farmers
          themselves.


      a) MO’s has conduct group discussion with the support of the program coordinator. At each site
          conduct Five group discussions during the last five months. Topic for the group discussion
          was selected by the MO’s during their interviews with affected farmers. This has become very
          useful for the farmers and the discussion was fully owed by them.
      b) Group discussion supported with multimedia and projector and conduct at the temples of
          each site. In addition, relevant information on elephants has distributed among the group at
          the end of the program.
      c) Program coordinator/MO at respective site collects the information discussed during the
          session. These suggestions, ideas are separately typed into a word document and will be
          collate at the end of the program.




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6.3     Community Based Mapping Exercise:




Used to simplify and present complex information in an easy to understand format. Often used to
stimulate the interest of villagers and increase their participation. Major components of the exercise is
detailing locations of tanks,affected areas and other land uses, Base maps were completed using the
following data sources:
· 1:50,000 topographical maps (GOSL).
· Key informant interviews.
· Results of participatory affected area mapping during community meetings.
· Village walks.


Affected House holds and Crop lands marking was undertaken by affected farmers in each village and
the results plotted on maps. The maps thus produced were used as the basis for a selection of
farmers in different affected groups during the interviews. This included individual semi-structured
interviews, farm walks.
7.      PRACTICAL LIMITATIONS
One of the serious limitations was that the social differences between the sites gave a wide range of
information which is difficult standardized during the analyzing of qualitative data. At some sites
different dialect of the language is used to describe the same matter at another site.




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Recording of crop raiding behaviour patterns was also somewhat difficult. Recording of detailed
feeding patterns and vegetation types in an accurate way was also found to be complicated, but we
have been able to record at least some broad types of vegetation when the elephants were sighted.


Studies were carried out from end of April 2006 to date. Every effort was made to visit the affected
farmers at least 04 days of the week, but there were occasional constraints.


Another limitation was that the interviews and group discussions has to re scheduled accordingly.
This is mainly the most of the farmers are preparing there crop lands for the next crop season. And
the next two workshops have to be re scheduled. The next three day workshop of Bundala site will
be conduct on the month December 2006, and final three day workshop will be conduct on the
month of April 2007.




Some of the participants for the Threeday workshop at palugaswewa




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8.      RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY BASED ELEPHANT MONITORING PROGRAM
        (CBEMP):
A total of 312 data sheets were collected from affected farmers and households at three pre selected
sites for end of April 2006 to September 15th 2006.       132 farmers were selected for continuous
monitoring program for the next six months at all sites. Total of 107 Crop raiding elephants sightings
were monitored during the period of study with an overall count of 243 elephants. Of the 243
elephants, a total of 87 were male adults, while 11 were female adults.          145 elephants though
recorded, could not be identified as males or females positively. Analysis of the monthly sightings
seems to indicate that there is a greater abundance of elephants in the palugaswewa and Sigiriya
during the months of May and June in particular. In Bundala elephant sightings during the months of
August on the contrary, the elephants seem to be scarce. This could be directly co-related to rainfall
(monsoon) patterns, August & September being the driest months in Bundala site.


8.1.    COMMUNITY BASED ELEPHANT MONITORING PROGRAM (CBEMP):

No.     Program Site          No of farmers       No of farmers                No of farmers
                              Interviewed         participated in              Participated in
                                                  Mapping Exercise:            CBEMP

01      Palugaswewa                   104                    18                          52
02      Sigiriya                      121                    14                          43
03      Bundala                        87                    17                          37
                     Total:           312                    49                          132


8.2.    GROUP DISSCUSSIONS:
15 Group discussions conducted which has total of 294 participants were attended for the discussions
at three sites.

No.     Program Site          Month           Topic – Group Discussion                 No of
                                                                                  Participants

01      Palugaswewa           May             Introduction to Elephants           17

02      Habarana              June            Introduction to Elephants           14

03      Habarana              July            Chasing Crop raiding Elephants      16

04      Palugaswewa           August          Introduction to Elephants           12

05      Palugaswewa           September       Chasing Crop raiding Elephants      17

06      Sigiriya              April           Introduction to Elephants           23

07      Mailattawa            May             Introduction to Elephants           35



                                                  21
08     Polattawa            June            Introduction to Elephants            26

09     Mailattawa           July            Chasing Crop raiding Elephants       17

10     Polattawa            August          Chasing Crop raiding Elephants       22

11     Bundala              May             Introduction to Elephants            18

12     Pallemalala          June            Introduction to Elephants            16

13     Siriyagama           July            Introduction to Elephants            21

14     Bundala              August          Crop raiding patterns                23

15     Pallemalala          September       Crop raiding patterns                17

                                                                        Total:   294



Ideas/Suggestions aroused at the Group Discussions in related to the Program Sites:
Below is the summarized list ideas/Suggestions aroused during the Group discussions.

No.      Program Site        Ideas/Suggestions by farmers/Affected Communities

01       Palugaswewa         Capture all Rogue elephants and released into National Park
                             which is not close to the area.
                             Distribution of Fire Crackers for the farmers in timely manner.
                             Fixing of Electric fences around the village
                             Train Youth Group to chase Crop raiding Elephants
                             Provide adequate Compensation
                             Provide relief on bank loans
                             Control all illegal deforestation activities.

                             Build Community empowerment on Elephants
                             Sell All rogue elephants for tourism activities

02       Sigiriya            Capture all Rogue elephants and released into National Park
                             which is not close to the area.
                             Distribution of Fire Crackers for the farmers in timely manner.
                             Fixing of Electric fences around the village
                             Train Youth Group to chase Crop raiding Elephants
                             Provide adequate Compensation
                             Provide relief on bank loans
                             Sell All rogue elephants for tourism activities

03       Bundala             Capture all Rogue elephants and released into Lunugamvehera
                             National Park which is not close to the area.
                             Distribution of Fire Crackers for the farmers in timely manner.
                             Fixing of Electric fences around the village
                             Train Youth Group to chase Crop raiding Elephants
                             Provide adequate Compensation
                             Provide relief on bank loans




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8.3.    THREE DAY WORKSHOPS
Two workshops were carried out at palugaswewa & Sigiriya Project Sites. For three day work shop
we have limited the number of participants to 60 per one workshop and two workshops were
participated total of 120 and 12 resource personnel. The limitations were done mainly due to the
transportation we could arrange for one workshop.


THREE DAY WORKSHOPS

No.     Program Site         Month                Sites visited/Topics                No of
                                                         Discussed                Participants

01      Palugaswewa          July            Minneriya       NP/Polonnaruwa;     64(including
                                             Sharing      experience      with   04     resource
                                             farmers of Ilukwewa at Sigiriya     personnel)

02      Sigiriya             September       Minneriya       NP/Polonnaruwa;     68(including
                                             Sharing      experience      with   08     resource
                                             farmers of Habarana.                personnel)




9.      CONCLUSIONS


It is still too premature to come to any conclusive hypothesis about true nature of human elephant
conflict and crop raiding movements and abundance patterns of the selected sites. Further analysis of
data is in progress, where each of these situations will be further co-related to weather patterns, time
of day and monthly observations.


But from a very broad perspective, the following aspects are noteworthy.


•There appears to be a greater abundance of crop raiding elephants in the selected sites during the
months of June, July August & September, which falls with drought in the areas.

•Most of these elephants tend to move eastwards towards the reservoir during the dryer months of
June and July.

• paddy and home gardens and its surrounds , showed the highest abundance, possibly because of
the availability of food.


So far, it has been a very interesting study from which we can arrive at only some general trends and
broad patterns.




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10.    SUMMARY OF FIELD STUDY FINDINGS AT PRE SELECTED SITES:


Duration                               :     April 2006 to 15 September 2006 –
                                              (06 months)

Socio Economic Data of the selected sites: Completed at All three sites

GN Division Data                       :     Completed at All three sites

DS Division Data                       :     Completed at All three sites

GPS Mapping of the area:                     Completed at All three sites

Community Based mapping of the sites:        Completed at All three sites

Total Farmers interviewed              :     312

Total No of farmers selected for CBEMP :     132

Group Discussions Completed            :     15

Total No of farmers Participated       :     294

No of Three day workshops completed:         02

Total No of farmers Participated       :     120

Number of days surveyed                :     240 days

Total number of crop raiding
Elephants sighted                      :     243




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    11. Financial Summary as at 25th September 2006

    * Conversion rate: 01 US $ = 101.75

                   April       May         June        July          August      September
Transport          Rs.         Rs.         Rs.         Rs.           Rs.         Rs.
Workshops x
02                                                      33,000.00                  39,000.00
Program
Coordinator        5,070.00    5,190.00    5,850.00      6,500.00    7,500.00
Food &
Lodging
02 workshops                                            47,160.00                  54,365.00
Program
Coordinator        5,192.00    5,690.00    6,762.00      5,400.00    7,120.00
supplies
Leaflets,
Brochures, etc.    23,104.00                            13,905.00                  16,396.00
Stipend

03 staff           15,576.00   15,576.00   15,576.00    15,576.00    15,576.00     15,576.00

Total:             48,942.00   26,456.00   28,188.00   121,541.00    30,196.00    125,337.00
                                                                                 Balance as at
                                                       Total                     25th
Receives:                                              Expenditure               September
406,643.88                                             380,660.00                25,983.88


Prepared by

N.D.Gamage
Treasurer (BBCG)

Checked by

Rohan Cooray
President (BBCG)




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