Norio Nagano, Himeji LNG Terminal, Osaka Gas Co., Ltd by iem58695


									  Creating a Harmonious Relationship with the Local Community
           Using the Green Zones of the LNG Terminal
      - Approach to the Creation of the Factory Green Zones
              that Will Nurture a Diverse Ecosystem -
              Norio Nagano, Himeji LNG Terminal, Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.
                      Hiroaki Sekioka, Technogreen Co., Ltd.

1. Introduction
1.1 The crises of biological diversity
         Biological diversity is rapidly being lost on a worldwide scale by the human activities of
recent years. Creatures confirmed on the earth number 1,750,000 species and this number
could reach 30 million or more if unknown species are included. However, it is also estimated
that these species are becoming extinct at the rate of 40,000 species per year [1] or at a rate of
50 species per day [2].
         In 2002, 5,453 animals including mammals, birds and insects, and 5,714 plants were
listed as threatened species in the Red List issued by IUCN (The World Conservation Union).
In Japan, 1,665 plants are listed in the Red Data Book of Japan, and this amounts to
approximately 24% of the entire wild plants which number 7,000 species [3].

1.2 Preservation of biological diversity
          Under this critical situation facing wildlife, the Earth Summit held in 1992 adopted the
“Convention on Biological Diversity” to tackle the situation on a global scale. Up to the present,
more than 180 countries including Japan have become signatories of the convention. In Japan,
the Environmental Basic Law, which incorporates the conservation of biological diversity, was
established in 1993 and the preparing of Environmental Basic Plans was made mandatory.
Furthermore, in 1995, the National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan was decided by a cabinet
meeting relating to global environmental conservation. Then, in consideration of the executed
situation of measures, the New National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan was decided in 2002.
By such regulatory action, national and local government have respectively adopted the
conservation of biological diversity as one of the important issues within the “Environmental
Basic Plan”.
          In the West Harima area of Hyogo Pref. where the Himeji LNG Terminal is located,
cities, towns, NGOs and education institutions are all promoting surveys of water creatures,
observations and studies on nature, and natural environmental education. Also, the Himeji
City’s environmental basic plan includes plans to promote “creating an environment nearby
where we can live together with nature”, and thus, expectations on companies to engage in
environmental activities are increasing from the perspective of “securing of biological diversity
and the conservation of a diverse natural environment”.

1.3 Directions of the factory green zone
          With the object of, “locating factory properly so as to conserve the environment”, Law on
Factory Construction in Japan specifies that at least 20% of the factory site must be green zone.
The law defines green zones by tree height and density of plants, while there is no provision for
the vegetation type that compose the green zone.
          However, when the recent expectations for biological diversity mentioned in Item 1.2
are considered, the mere satisfying of defined conditions is not sufficient, and that the arranging
of high level green zones enabling the existence of more diverse habitats is necessary.
1.4 The objective and significance
          Considering the above background, the Himeji LNG Terminal perceived that the entire
factory green zone should be a biotope where diverse plants and creatures could live and
develop. With this in mind, it was decided to approach the re-conditioning of the green zone to
form the basis for the biotope.
          The term biotope is a German coined word meaning, “a space where wild life live and
grow”. In recent years in Japan, the following activities have been pursued in preserving
biological diversity.
(1) Activity to preserve and conserve areas where ecosystems remain (Preservation and
conservation of biotope) .
(2) Activity to restore the original natural ecosystems of rivers, etc. which were artificially
restructured (Restoration of biotope).
(3) Activity to create an environment enabling wildlife to exist in parts of urban schools, buildings,
etc. (Creation of biotope).
          In the past, there have been many examples of irrigation ponds, etc. being created in
factories. However, cases where the entire factory green zone was arranged as a biotope from
the perspective of conserving biological diversity are rare. Moreover, the present reported
activity corresponds to the creation of a biotope mentioned in the (3) above, and is a new
approach to utilizing existing factory green zones to which not much attention was paid in the
past from the perspective of plant and creature diversity.
          This activity aims to contribute to conserving the biological diversity of the West Harima
area by improving the high biological diversity of the factory green zone. Therefore, it is aimed
at promoting activities that consider genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity,
which are factors of biological diversity.

2.1 The outline of the Himeji LNG Terminal green zones
          At the Himeji LNG Terminal, the establishment of green zones by the ecological
afforestation method was advanced from the initial stage of the Terminal construction.
Ecological afforestation is a method in which seedlings of multiple kinds of native trees are
planted mixed in high density. By this, the planted trees compete against each other to grow,
and it is possible to form an environmental conservation forest with tall trees quickly. Also as a
method in which subsequent care is not necessary, this method has been used to form artificial
forests including the creation of green zones in factories.
          At present, there are about 11 ha of green zone in the Terminal, out of which about 3 ha
comprise forests with tall evergreen broad-leaved trees including evergreen oaks (Castanopsis
cuspidata var. sieboldii and Quercus glauca). These forests, which have grown big, have
become habitats for raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and birds such as brown-eared
bulbul (Hypsipetes amaurotis). Also, the grasslands between the forests have become habitats
for birds such as common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and skylarks (Alauda arvensis).
          In this way, artificial forests have grown to heights of about 8 meters in the 20 years
since the establishment of the Terminal, and creatures have come to live in this environment.
Therefore, the initial object of securing a substantial amount of greenery and scenery early by
the ecological afforestation method has been achieved.
          The ecological afforestation method is a superior way to secure greenery. However, it
cannot be said to be a method with consciousness for biological diversity. Therefore, to
re-evaluate the Terminal green zones from the standpoint of biological diversity, and to extract
issues for the future, the authors conducted survey on the present vegetation.
2.2 Vegetation survey
[Survey method]
          The vegetation survey was conducted on artificial forests around 15 to 20 years old in
which lucidophyllous trees (evergreen broad-leaved trees) with tree height of about 8 meters
grew predominantly or mixed. Five investigated stands (quadrats), which had area of 10 meters
by 10 meters measured, were set in green zones in the Himeji LNG Terminal. After classifying
the stratum of each quadrat, the height and percentage of vegetational cover of each stratum
were recorded and the height and cover of all species appeared in each stratum were recorded.
          Also, a tree census was made in the same quadrats. The tree census was made,
targeting trees exceeding 1.3 meters in height in each quadrat with the species recorded, tree
height (H) and diameter at breast height measured (D). From the results of the tree census, the
aboveground biomass was estimated. The estimation of aboveground biomass was made using
the following estimation formula [4].

             D0.1 = 0.9756D+0.5954, [cm,cm]
             WS = 0.02117D0.1 2H, [kg,cm,m]
             WB = 0.005618D0.1 2H, [kg,cm,m]
             WL = 0.003581(D0.1 2H)0.7256 , [kg,cm,m]

                 D : the diameter at breast height
                 H : the tree height
                 WS, WB and WL : biomass of stem, branches and leaves

[Results and discussion]
a. The number of species found in a unit area (100 sq. meters)
         From the obtained vegetation data, 32 species including 19 species of lucidophyllous
elements [5] such as evergreen oaks (Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii, Quercus glauca), and
bayberry (Myrica rubra) were confirmed (Table 1).
         The average number of species of lucidophyllous elements growing per unit area (10 x
10 sq. meters) was 14. On the other hand, in lucidophyllous secondary forests or in
lucidophyllous natural forests, the number of species found in the same area was 22 to 56
species according to other survey examples (Table 2). According to Kodate et al (unpublished),
besides trees and shrubs, about 7% of lucidophyllous vines and perennial herbs were included.
The present survey found that besides the planted plants, 7 species such as Chinese fevervine
(Paederia scandens), climbing fern (Lygodium japonicum) had taken rooted in the forest.
However, among these natural inflow species, dwarf lilyturf (Ophiopogon ohwii) was the only
lucidophyllous element. Although the growth of seedling derived from planted trees was
confirmed in the Terminal green zone, it became clear that the growth of lucidophyllous vines or
perennial herbs was not observed.
         Hattori et al. [6] conducted studies on the species diversity in artificial forests of another
factory green zones, and clarified that artificial forests with high species diversity were adjacent
to seed supply sources while artificial forests with low species diversity were at least 500 meters
away from seed sources. The Terminal is located on the manmade island and is distant from
the mainland.          Furthermore, it is about 2 kilometers away from the nearest
lucidophyllous-deciduous mixed secondary forest (Mt. Otabi, 140 meters high), and therefore,
the natural inflow of lucidophyllous plant seeds is assumed to be difficult.
         For these reasons, the species diversity at the Terminal is regarded as being of a low
level, and that inducing a green zone with high biological diversity will be difficult under the
present administrative methods.
                                Confirmed species                                                 Quadrat No.
               Scientific name                  English name                  Japanese name No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4 No.5
Lygodium japonicum                       Climbing fern                        カニクサ                          ○
Myrica rubra                             Bayberry                             ヤマモモ           ○    ○         ○    ○
Populus sieboldii                        Japanese poplar                      ヤマナラシ                    ○
Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii     Evergreen oak sp.                    スダジイ           ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Lithocarpus edulis                       Evergreen oak sp.                    マテバシイ          ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Quercus glauca                           Evergreen oak sp.                    アラカシ           ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Quercus phillyraeoides                   Japanese holly oak                   ウバメガシ                    ○    ○    ○
Aphananthe aspera                        Aphananthe oriental elm              ムクノキ           ○
Celtis sinensis var. japonica            Japanese hacklberry                  エノキ            ○
Ulmus parvifolia                         Chinese elm                          アキニレ           ○
Cinnamomum camphora                      Camphor tree                         クスノキ           ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Machilus thunbergii                      Red nanmu                            タブノキ           ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Neolitsea sericea                        Japanese silver tree                 シロダモ                          ○
Akebia quinata                           Akebia sp.                           アケビ                                ○
Pittosporum tobira                       Cheesewood                           トベラ            ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Prunus mume                              Japanese apricot                     ウメ                  ○    ○
Rhaphiolepis umbellata                   Yedda hawthorn                       シャリンバイ         ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Vicia sepium                             Tare                                 カラスノエンドウ                 ○
Daphniphyllum teijsmannii                -                                    ヒメユズリハ         ○
Ilex integra                             Bird-lime holly                      モチノキ           ○
Ilex rotunda                             Ovatelef holly                       クロガネモチ         ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Euonymus japonicus                       Japanese spindle                     マサキ            ○         ○         ○
Elaeagnus pungens                        Gumi sp.                             ナワシログミ         ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Dendropanax trifidus                     -                                    カクレミノ                    ○    ○
Ligustrum japonicum                      Japanese privet                      ネズミモチ          ○    ○    ○    ○
Ligustrum lucidum                        Chinese privet                       トウネズミモチ             ○    ○    ○    ○
Ligustrum obtusifolium                   Ibota privet                         イボタノキ          ○
Ligustrum vulgare                        Privet                               セイヨウイボタ        ○    ○    ○
Paederia scandens                        Chinese fevervine                    ヘクソカズラ         ○    ○    ○    ○    ○
Youngia japonica                         Hawk's-beard                         オニタビラコ         ○
Ophiopogon ohwii                         Dwarf lilyturf                       ナガバジャノヒゲ            ○
Carex lenta                              Sedge sp.                            ナキリスゲ          ○
       Lucidophyllous elements                        19                                     14 13 14 15 13
       New plants                                      7                                      3   2    2    2    2
        Total number of species                       32                                     22 16 19 17 15
Note1 : Bold-faced type indicates lucidopyllous elements
Note2 : Asterisk indicates natural inflow species
Note3 : Circle indicates occurrence of plants in the each quadrat (10X10m2)

                              Table 1.        List of species appeared in each quadrat

                                                                                         No. of    No. of
               Forest type                                      Study site                                   Reference
                                                                                        speceis   quadrats
Lucidophyllous artificial forest     Nadahama Himeji-shi, Hyogo Pref. *                   14         5          -
Lucidophyllous natural forest        Taisanji Kobe-shi, Hyogo Pref.                       22         5          a
Lucidophyllous natural forest        Sakoshi Ikushima Ako-shi, Hyogo Pref.                17         6          b
Lucidophyllous secondery forest      Takasaki-cho Miyazaki Pref.                          32         5          c
Lucidophyllous secondery forest      Taterayama (Tsushima), Nagasaki Pref.                22         3          c
Lucidophyllous primitive forest      Aya-cho, Miyazaki Pref.                              56         6          c
Lucidophyllous primitive forest      Ashizurimisaki, Kochi Pref.                          30         3          c
Lucidophyllous primitive forest      Murotomisaki, Kochi Pref.                            34         2          c
Lucidophyllous primitive forest      Taterayama (Tsushima), Nagasaki Pref.                35         7          c
Note : Asterisk indicates the Osaka Gas Himeji LNG Terminal
  a : Kodate et al . (unpublished)
  b : Hattori et al . (unpublished)
  c : Hattori et al . (2001) [6]

    Table 2.       Mean number of species appeared in a quadrat of the respective study site
b. Stratifications of forest
          Stratification of lucidophyllous natural forests may generally be divided into four to five
layers, namely the tree layer, sub-tree layer, shrub layer and the herb layer (Figure 1a). The
tree layer of the lucidophyllous natural forest (Castanopsis cuspidata - Photinia glabra
association) growing in Taisanji of Kobe City reaches 20 meters in height, and diverse trees and
plants grow in the each layer [7]. On the other hand, it has become obvious that the
lucidophyllous artificial forest of the Terminal comprises a simple stratification that lacks the
sub-tree layer and shrub layer, although the tree layer has developed (Figure 1b). The height of
the tree layer of the lucidophyllous artificial forest of the Terminal is about 8 meters, and their
total canopy coverage is 100%. This indicates that the physiognomy of the Terminal green
zone forms a lucidophyllous forest, and that the initial object of ecological afforestation, namely
the early forming of a forest, has been achieved. However, the plants growing in the herb layer
are mainly those of seedlings such as evergreen oak (Quercus glauca), and other plant species
are minimal. Although actual growth of seedlings of evergreen oak etc. in the herb layer may
be confirmed inside the lucidophyllous artificial forest of the Terminal, there were no actual trees
that had developed into a shrub layer or sub-tree layer. This is because the percentage of
vegetational cover by the tree layer is high, and therefore sufficient sunlight does not reach the
forest bed.
          In the future, to form sound forests similar to the lucidophyllous natural forests,
maintenance such as selective cutting between trees to enable sunlight to reach the forest bed
will be necessary.

c. Aboveground biomass
         The aboveground biomass (Wt) of the Terminal green zone has been estimated as
88.4t/ha (n=5) (Table 3). Together with past papers on surveys made on the secondary forests
of Hyogo Pref. , Tamura et al. [8] obtained aboveground biomass at 26 places. Among these,
lucidophyllous secondary forest (Castanopsis cuspidata forests, Quercus glauca forests) were
estimated to be 167.4~244.5t/ha (average 201.2t/ha (n=6)). Compared with this estimated
value, the aboveground biomass of the Terminal green zone is low.
         Also, the tallest tree in the Terminal is 9 meters, while according to the survey data
collected by Tamura et al. [8] the trees in the lucidophyllous secondary forests in Hyogo Pref. are
11~20 meters in height (average 14.8 m (n=6)). Thus, the stem height of the Terminal green
zones is low compared with those of the secondary forests.
         In this way, the green zones of the Terminal are at present still in the development
stage, and by further nurturing the green zones of the Terminal, accumulation of organic matter
of 79.0~156.1t/ha may be possible, just for the aboveground portion.

                                                                                Hmax Dmax Area     Wt
               Forest type                             Study site                                        Reference
                                                                                 (m)   (cm) (m2) (t/ha)
Lucidophyllous artificial forest           Himeji-shi, Hyogo Pref.*                9.0 16.0 100     88.4     -
Lucidophyllous secondary forest            Yachiyo-cho Yamatoji, Hyogo Pref.      20.0 43.6 100 244.5        d
Lucidophyllous secondary forest            Yachiyo-cho Yamatoji, Hyogo Pref.      15.0 21.0 100 223.2        d
Lucidophyllous secondary forest            Yachiyo-cho Yamatoji, Hyogo Pref.      11.0 18.5 100 167.4        d
Lucidophyllous secondary forest            Yachiyo-cho Yamatoji, Hyogo Pref.      17.0 21.3 100 220.9        d
Lucidophyllous secondary forest            Takeno-cho Hairi, Hyogo Pref.          13.0 23.0 100 179.7        d
Lucidophyllous secondary forest            Flower town Sanda-shi, Hyogo Pref.     13.0 26.0 100 171.3        d
Note : Asterisk indicates the Osaka Gas Himeji LNG Terminal
   d: Tamura et al .(2000) [8]

                             Table 3.     Estimate of aboveground biomass
a. Lucidophyllous natural forest
 [Taisanji Kobe-shi, Hyogo Pref.]
                          Castanopsis cuspidata
                          コジイ                          Castanopsis cuspidata
  20m                                                  コジイ

                                                                                    Tree layer

                                Dendropanax trifidus

                     Quercus glauca
                     アラカシ                                     Actinodaphne
                                                                     lancifolia     Sub tree layer

                       Eurya japonica       サカキ
   Ligustrum           ヒサカキ
   ネズミモチ                                                                            Shrub layer

                                                                                    Herb layer
                              Arachniodes aristata     Trachelospermum asiaticum
                              ホソバカナワラビ                                f. intermedium
b. Lucidophyllous artificial forest
 [Himeji LNG Terminal. Nadahama Himeji-shi, Hyogo Pref.]

         Castanopsis cuspidata
                    var. sieboldii              Cinnamomum
         スダジイ                                        camphora      Quercus glauca
  10m                        Quercus glauca
                                                クスノキ               アラカシ

                                                                                    Tree layer

                                                                                    Herb layer
                  Q. glauca                                     Q. glauca
                  アラカシ                                          アラカシ

                   Figure 1.       Simulated figure of stratificiation
3.1 Re-setting the concept of the Terminal green zone
          Conventional ecological afforestation was applied to create the green zones of the
Himeji Terminal, mainly using the native trees. The result of vegetation survey showed that, a
lucidophyllous forest was formed physiognomically in a relatively short period after planted
seedling. On the other hand, natural inflow species of lucidophyllous elements were minimal
and the degree of diversity was low. Stratification has not been formed nor has a sound forest
been formed either. The existence of such issues has been clarified. Therefore, to improve the
Terminal green zones as green zones with consideration given to biological diversity, the
concept for green zones was reviewed and reset.
          In the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992, Convention 9), biological diversity was
defined to mean variability between all forms of life, including diversity within species, diversity
between species and diversity of ecosystems. Among these, diversity within species (genetic
diversity) means that although species are classified into the same species, the combination of
the genes of each individual differs slightly and that diverse combinations of genes are seen in a
species. Also, in general, species have different gene structures to adapt to the locality
between regional individual groups, and genetic diversity is maintained in a species [8].
          Therefore, in setting the concept of green zone management in the Terminal, the
conservation of biological diversity proper to the area was viewed as one of the targets (Figure 2).
Here, the area was limited to the West Harima area where the Terminal is located. Furthermore,
as behavior themes in concrete terms, the following were mentioned: (1) To conserve genetic
diversity, limit the introduced creatures to those of the West Harima area, so that the disturbance
of genes does not occur and make the site a biotope rooted in the area. (2) To conserve
species diversity, introduce various plants of the area as well as provide functions as a
temporary refuge for rare species. (3) To conserve ecosystem diversity, position the entire
green zones of the Terminal as biotopes and aim to form various types of ecosystems.

             c o nc e pt

          C r e a tio n an d a d m in istr a tio n o f th e H ime ji L N G T e r m in a l g r e e n z o n e s
            p r o v id e d w ith b io lo g ic al d iv e r s ity p r o p e r to th e W e st H ar ima ar e a

       (1) Imp r o v e m e n t o f str a tificia tio n
          C ond uc t m aintena nc e s u c h as s ele c tive c utting a nd bru s h c utting
          to im prove s tratific a tio n in to a s o und c o ndition .

       (2) S e c u r in g o f b io lo g ic al d iv e r s ity
         a. C re atio n o f ec os ys te m d ive rs ity (C rea tion of luc idop yu llou s fo res ts ,
            b ioto pe s ).
         b. C re atio n o f s p ec ies dive rs ity (In tro duc ing variou s plants in s ide
            luc id op yullo us artific ia l fo res ts , giving tem porary refu ge to rare s p ec ie s ).
         c . C on s e rvation of g en etic divers ity (Intro du c ing plants of the W e s t Harim a
            a rea grow th).

                   Figure 2.     Concept of the Himeji LNG Terminal Green zone
          To achieve this concept, zoning of the green zones was made (Figure 3). In the
setting of zones, all green zones of the Terminal were set as biotopes, and the aim was to form
various ecosystems by making the most of the features of the respective green zones such as
their forests or grasslands. Therefore, as the typical ecosystem element of the West Harima
area, consideration was given to incorporating ecosystems of lucidophyllous forests, grasslands
and Satoyama areas.
          The following four types were arranged in the zoning of the green zones in the

[Lucidophyllous forest zone]
    ・Forest zone surrounding the outer circumstance of the Terminal.
    ・Inducing lucidophyllous forests (Castanopsis cuspidata-Photinia glabra association) as
    the target vegetation.
    ・Conducting maintenance such as selective cutting and introducing diverse plants of the
    West Harima area.
[Seacoast forest zone]
    ・Forest zone located on the seacoast of the Terminal which have functions of providing
    protection against salty storm.
    ・Forming a forest composed of plants strong against salty wind, including Japanese black
    pine (Pinus thunbergii).
    ・Inducing sound stratification by maintenance such as selective cutting.
[Grassland zone]
    ・Centering around tanks, create zones with grasslands.
    ・ Inducing grasslands where diverse wild grasses and insects such as grasshoppers,
    butterflies, etc. can be nurtured and live.
    ・By cutting the grass 2 to 3 times a year, maintain a short herbaceous community where
    cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical var.koenigii) dominates.
[Satoyama zone]
    ・A zone where the nature of the West Harima area is condensed and reproduced.
    ・Structured by evergreen oaks (Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii and Quercus glauca)
    forest, an irrigation pond, ditch, and etc.
    ・Familiar creatures may be observed in the Satoyama zone.

                                                                 Lucidophyllous forest zone
                                                                 (Castanopsis cuspidata – Photinica glabra association)

Seacoast forest zone
(Pinus thunbergii community)

                                       Satoyama zone
Grassland zone
(Imperata cylindrical var. koenigii community)

                                            Lucidophyllous forest zone
                                            (Castanopsis cuspidata – Photinica glabra association)

                     Figure 3.      Zoning of the Himeji LNG Terminal green zones
3.2 Introduction of new plants
          Up till now, the lucidophyllous artificial forest of the Himeji LNG Terminal was left alone
after the initial planting with administration of the forest limited to keeping it in shape by cutting
the trees along the road. However, the development of a soundly structured forest cannot be
obtained by this method, and therefore, the administration was changed to the method that
include selective cutting to create an environment to induce new plants.
          With consideration given to genetic diversity in the introduction of new plants, plants
were limited to those that naturally grow in the West Harima area. Two model areas were set
inside the green zones of the Terminal, and 116 stocks of 35 species were planted (Table 4) to
make them bases (as a seed supply base) for forming other green zones with high diversity
ecosystems. These areas are still in the initial stages of formation, but centering around these
model areas, seeds from the introduced plants are expected to be carried by birds and others to
surrounding areas, and that an expansion of diverse ecosystem green zones will be seen all over
the Terminal.
          The introduced plants include 37 stocks of 7 rare species mentioned in the Red Data
Book of Hyogo Pref. (Table 4). These include rare species peculiar to the West Harima area
such as Pittosporum illiciodides, which has been confirmed as growing only in the West Harima
area, and Gardneria multiflora and Meehania montis-koyae, which have been confirmed as
growing only in the West Harima area, and only in several other areas. It is expected that the
green zones of the Terminal will serve as a temporary refuse site and as a risk dispersal site for
the rare species of the West Harima area, and function as a base to conserve the biological
diversity of West Harima area.

3.3 Creation of the Satoyama area
          A Satoyama area is an area where positioned between urban areas and natural areas,
and have been formed through various influences exerted by human activities. It is structured
with secondary forests surrounding communities together with coexisting paddy fields, fields,
irrigation ponds grasslands and others. Around 50% of the areas where endangered species
grow distribute in such Satoyama areas [10]. Therefore, Satoyama areas may be important
from the standpoint of conserving biological diversity.
          To create the Satoyama area in the Himeji LNG Terminal where diverse habitats may
exist, an irrigation pond (800 m2), a ditch, paddy fields, fields, summergreen secondary forest,
etc. were arranged in the Terminal green zones (Figure 4) with reference to the landscape of
Satoyama areas in the West Harima area. Creatures introduced to this area were limited to
natural creatures within the West Harima area. Furthermore, aquatic creatures introduced such
as freshwater fish or aquatic and wetland plants were limited to those of the drainage basin of
the area where the Terminal is located.
          The work of introducing creatures was conducted by volunteer activities of the Terminal
personnel. In conducting this volunteer work, some personnel were seen enjoying the work
together with their families, became interested in natural environment issues.
          From the completion of arranging the Satoyama area in March 2001 up to January,
2003, natatorial birds such as spotbill duck (Anas poecilorhyncha) and Japanese wagtail
(Motacilla grandis), waterside living insects such as dragonflies including the common green
darnar (Anax parthenope) and birds that live in forests and grasslands such as the bull-headed
shrike (Lanius bucephalus) and Siberian meadow bunting (Emberiza cioides) have been
confirmed in this Satoyama area (Tables 5 and 6). By monitoring after the area was arranged,
it has been confirmed that birds use the Satoyama area for feeding and resting. Also, the
larvae of dragonflies and damselflies have been confirmed in the prepared pond and ditch, and
therefore, it may be assumed that dragonflies and damselflies are using the Satoyama area
throughout their life cycles.
         Animals using this area are still minimal since not much time has elapsed. However,
with the passing of time, diverse creatures are expected to make this area their habitat.

                                  Introduced species
                                                                                      No. of
                                                                         Japanese                  RDB
                Scientific name                        English name                   stocks
Adiantum monochlamys                             Fern sp.               ハコネシダ           1
Polypodium niponicum                             Fern sp.               アオネカズラ          1             C
Pyrrosia lingua                                  Dyer's-broom           ヒトツバ            4
Cephalotaxus harringtonia                        Cow's tail pine        イヌガヤ            1
Quercus glauca                                   Evergreen oak sp.      アラカシ             5
Kadsura japonica                                 Kadsura                サネカズラ           1
Illicium anisatum                                Japanese anise-tree    シキミ              4
Cinnamomum japonicum                             Japanese cassia        ヤブニッケイ          4
Neolitsea sericea                                Japanese silver tree   シロダモ            4
Heterotropa aspera                               Birthwort sp.          ミヤコアオイ           4
Camellia japonica                                Camellia               ヤブツバキ          6
Eurya japonica                                   Eurya                  ヒサカキ             4
Pittosporum illicioides                          Pittosporum            コヤスノキ            1             C
Kerria japonica                                  Kerria                 ヤマブキ            1
Prunus spinulosa                                 Blackthorn             リンボク            1
Skimmia japonica                                 Japanese skimmia       ミヤマシキミ           4
Ilex crenata                                     Japanese holly         イヌツゲ            5
Ilex pedunculosa                                 Longstalk holly        ソヨゴ             1
Buxus microphylla var. japonica                  Box                    ツゲ              1
Pachysandra terminalis                           Japanese spurge        フッキソウ            4             B
Elaeagnus pungens                                Gumi sp.               ナワシログミ          1
Aucuba japonica                                  Japanese aucuba        アオキ              2
Rhododendron obtusum var. kaempferi              Azalea sp.             ヤマツツジ           1
Ardisia japonica                                 Japanese ardisia       ヤブコウジ          4
Ligustrum japonicum                              Japanese privet        ネズミモチ           3
Ligustrum obtusifolium                           Ibota privet           イボタノキ           2
Osmanthus heterophyllus                          Osmanthus sp.          ヒイラギ            4
Gardneria multiflora                             Manyflower gardneria   チトセカズラ          8             C
Trachelospermum asiaticum f. intermedium         Oleander sp.           テイカカズラ          2
Meehania montis-koyae                            Perilla sp.            オチフジ            4             A
Lilium cordatum                                  Heartleaf lily         ウバユリ            4
Liriope muscari                                  Big blue lily-turf     ヤブラン            1
Ophiopogon japonicus                             Dwarf lily-turf        ジャノヒゲ          4
Calanthe discolor                                Calanthe               エビネ             2             C
Cymbidium nipponicum                             Orchid sp.             マヤラン             17            A
       Total number of species : 35 species                                             116

   Note: A - C of RDB indicate those mentioned in the Hyogo Pref. Edition of the Red Data Book [11].
   The requirements of the respective ranks A - C are as follows :
    A Rank : Superior in scale and quality, degree of worth is highest and warrants national value.
    B Rank : Follows that of A Rank. Has local value, worth value on a prefectural scale.
    C Rank : Follows that of B Rank. Has value on the scale of cities, towns, villages.

  Table 4.    List of plants of the West Harima area growth introduced to the green zones
                                   Evergreen oak forest

                         Irrigation pond

                                               Red pine forest

                                                   Field          Trail

                                           Paddy       Grass-
                                           field         land
               Trail                                                 forest

                                     Evergreen oak forest

                  Figure 4.   Master plan of the Satoyama area

                                  Confirmed species
           Scientific name                English name                      Japanease name
    Anas poecilorhyncha           Spotbill duck                            カルガモ
    Milvus migrans                Black kite                               トビ
    Falco tinnunculus             Kestrel                                  チョウゲンボウ
    Microsarcops cinereus         Grey-headed lapwing                      ケリ
    Streptopelia orientalis       Rufous turtle dove                       キジバト
    Columba livia                 Domestic pigeon                          ドバト
    Alauda arvensis               Skylark                                  ヒバリ
    Hirundo rustica               House swallow                            ツバメ
    Motacilla grandis             Japanese wagtail                         セグロセキレイ
    Lanius bucephalus             Bull-headed shrike                       モズ
    Cisticola juncidis            Fan-tailed warbler                       セッカ
    Emberiza cioides              Siberian meadow bunting                  ホオジロ
    Carduelis sinica              Oriental greenfinch                      カワラヒワ
    Passer montanus               Tree sparrow                             スズメ
    Corvus corone                 Carrion crow                             ハシボソガラス
    Corvus macrorhynchos          Jungle crow                              ハシブトガラス
                          Total number of species : 16 species

            Table 5.   List of birds appeared in the Satoyama area

                                  Confirmed species
            Scientific name               English name                      Japanese name
     Ischnura senegalensis        Blue-tailed damselfly sp.                アオモンイトトンボ
     Anax parthenope              Common green darner                      ギンヤンマ
     Pantala flavescens           Globe skimmer                            ウスバキトンボ
     Orthetrum albistylum         Common skimmer                           シオカラトンボ
     Sympetrum infuscatum         Darter sp.                               ノシメトンボ
     Crocothemis servilia         Scarlet skimmer                          ショウジョウトンボ
                          Total number of species : 6 species

Table 8.   List of dragonflies and damselflies appeared in the Satoyama area
          For LNG terminal to be developed in the future as local energy bases, “creating a
harmonious relationship with the local community” will be indispensable. The new approach of
improving green zones of the Himeji LNG Terminal, that are closely attached to the locality by
increasing biological diversity, has significance from the perspective of contributing to the
environment of the locality. Increased efficiency in carbon fixing ability possessed by the green
zones in the Terminal green zones may also be expected. Hereafter, it will be necessary to
establish maintenance methods for green zones to improve biological diversity together with
achieving carbon dioxide absorption effects. For achieving carbon dioxide absorption effects
the method must include recycling selectively cut trees and branches into resources without
return them to their initial carbon dioxide.
          The approach introduced by this report is still in the stages of creating the basics. It is
considered that many years will be required for the many introduced plants to become stabilized,
for diverse creatures such as insects to newly come to the plant community in an abundance of
species and for these to function organically as an ecosystem of the Terminal and the locality.
We hope that with the continuation of this activity, it is proved that factory green zones can
function as a site for the conservation of local biological diversity.

          The authors would like to acknowledge many helpful suggestions of Professor Tamotsu
Hattori, other doctor and researchers of the “Himeji Institute of Technology” and “Museum of
Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo”. We thank them for their great cooperation such as
fieldwork and supply of seedlings including rare species.

1. Myers, N.( 1979).The Sinking Ark – A New Look at the Problem of Disappearing Species.
Pergamon Press Ltd., Oxford.
2. Biological Diversity Policy Research Society. (2002). Key words of biodiversity, Published by
Chuo Hoki, pp.247
3. Ministry of the Environment. (2000). Red Data Book of Japan – vascular plants. pp660
4. Kawaguchi,H. and Yoda, T. (1986). Carbon-cycling changes during regeneration of a
deciduous broadleaf forest after clear-cutting Ⅰ . Changes in organic matter and carbon storage.
Japanese Journal of Ecology, 35:551-563.
5. Hattori,T. and Minamiyama,N. (2001). Flora of the Lucidophyllous Forest in Kyushu and
Northward in Japan. Human and Nature, 12:91-104.
6. Hattori,T., Ono,Y., Kaji,K.., Ishida,H., Suzuki,T. and Iwasaki, M. (2001). Relationship
between Source in Plant Species Flow and Species Richness in the Lucidophyllous artificial
Forests on the Littoral Districs. J. of the Japanease Institute of Landscape Architecture,
7. Hattori,T., Fujii,M., Kodate,S., Ishida,Y., Ishida,H., Takeda,A. (1996). Nature of Taisanji.
8. Tamura,K., Hattori,T., Kodate,S. and Ishida,H. (2000). Aboveground Biomass of Rural
Forests in Hyogo Prefecture. Humans and Nature,11:77-83
9. Ministry of the Environment. (2002). Environmental Basic Plan. Gyosei. pp315
10. Ministry of the Environment. (2002). New National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan. Gyosei.
11. Hyogo pref. (1995). The Precious Nature of Hyogo Pref. Red Data Book of Hyogo. pp.286

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