Female Leadership for a sustainable European Management Model

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					“Female Leadership for a sustainable
European Management Model (EMM)”
          Literature study
                                       Table of content


Introduction
The Glass Ceiling is broken
A (business)case for woman
Pitfalls of female leadership
Success full Leadership skills
Leadership styles
Recognition of a specific female leadership style?
Female (transformational) leadership for a sustainable European Management Model
Conclusions
References
                                The Glass Ceiling is broken


• The Glass Ceiling: an invisible barrier for women and carrier

• BUT: Women participate in management
  Conclusion: Through the glass ceiling

• The labyrinth a new metaphor
  Numerous barriers that women encounter (some obvious, some subtitle)
                              A (business)case for women

1)    Business arguments
     •   Why do women matter in management?
     •   Positive relation between the number of women in the company and
         corporate performance?

2)   Intrinsic importance of diversity
     •     Importance of gender and diversity an sich
     •     Women’s proportional representation affects the workplace experiences

3)   Female leadership for a sustainable EMM
     •  10 areas for key for management success
                                Pitfalls of female leadership


•   Trade-off between family and work

•   Discrimination

•   Prejudice

•   Resistance to female leadership

•   Visibility, exaggeration of differences and stereotyping
                               Successful leadership skills


Definitions
•   Leader = someone who exercises authority over other people.
•   Leaderships = being in charge of other people in multiple ways. It consists of
    influencing, motivating, organizing and coordinating the work of others.”

Leadership theories
•   Personal behavior theories: personal qualities or behavioral patterns
•   Trait theories: some traits have potential for making some people leaders
•   Contingency theories: some situational aspects make leaders successful

Leadership characteristics
•   Change agent
•   Managerial courage
•   Leadership ability
•   Result oriented
                                      Leadership styles


•   Autocracy versus democracy

•   Task-oriented versus interpersonally-oriented

•   Communion (people oriented) versus agentic (problem-oriented)

•   Participative versus directive

•   Transactional (cooperative), transformational (role model) & laissez-faire
    (absence)

        CONCLUSION: Transformational leadership !!!
        = SUCCESSFUL LEADERSHIP
        = EFFECTIVE
        = META-ANALYSIS PERFORMED
            Recognition of a specific female leadership style



• Gender roles and leadership roles

• Female leadership: communal and/or transformational?

• Gender and values
                      Gender roles and leadership roles



• Some research focus on sex differences in leadership roles
     Gender stereotypes influence leaders (formal and informal roles)
     Constraints of gender roles

• Some research focus on similarities in leadership roles
                          Female leadership:
                    communal and/or transformational?

• Stereotypic expectations portray effective leadership as dominated by
masculine qualities
• Behavior relevant to successful leadership includes behavior that is viewed
as feminine
Example: “Consideration” as element of effective leadership is typically
perceived as feminine
• Leaders must seek to androgynous behavior
• Meta-analysis comparing women and men with respect to their leadership
styles shows significant sex differences in most aspects of their styles
(transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership )
Conclusion: women have generally a more
          effective style
          act more transformational
          are support-giving and motivating team members
          emphasize on interpersonal relations and task accomplishment
                                Gender and values

Focus on differences between male and female leadership styles is popular

Consider possible sex values in leadership behavior
Conclusion: women attach other value than man to
         helping others
         difference between themselves and others
         support regulations, citizens, consumers and environment
         materialism and competition
                  Female (transformational) leadership
            for a sustainable European Management Model

• Most effective leadership style under modern conditions

• Qualities for transformational leadership
                motivate respect and pride from the association
                communicate values, purposes and mission
                exhibit optimism and excitement about goals
                examine new perspectives for problems and tasks
                focus on development and mentoring
                attend individual needs on team members

• Values for leadership in the European Management Model (EMM)
                long-term thinking
                stakeholder engagement
                social accountability
                professional development
               What can companies do to prevent pitfalls?



• Organize leadership training
              explore the legitimacy deficit of female leaders
              consider the negotiation of potential value disagreements
               with team members
              address issues of effectively projecting leadership authority

• Focus on the gendered context of leadership

• Transformational leadership works similarly for ♀ and   ♂