IDST 6400 Critical Literature Review Scientific Writing by iem58695


									                   IDST 6400 Critical Literature Review & Scientific Writing
                                      Unit 5 Assignment
                                Building a Literature Matrix
For this assignment, your goal is to organize your original research literature using a modification
of the matrix method (Garrard, 1999). In doing so, you should also learn:

   1. How to store, link, and retrieve bibliographic information on a computer
   2. How to use a tabular framework (matrix) to organize and analyze bibliographic information
      related to a specific clinical (PICO-based) question
   3. What key questions should be addressed in evaluating research studies in a particular
      category (therapy, diagnosis, prognosis, harm)
Time Allocated: 2-1/2 to 3 weeks (depending on the semester)

First, carefully read and review the following Unit 5 general resource:

   1. Research Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2001). Phase 4 - Selection of Studies in
      Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness. CRD Report # 4. 2nd ed.
   2. Scanlan (2001). Organizing Your Data for Literature Review
   3. Critical Appraisal of Research Studies

Second, download the IDST6400 Literature Review Matrix form at:
The Literature Review Matrix provides the basis for completing and submitting your Unit 5
Assignment (and is based on your previously defined PICO question).

Preparing Your Literature Review Matrix

First, fill in the top of the Literature Review Matrix, being sure to include your name, review
advisor, date, type of question (therapy, diagnosis, prognosis, harm) and full PICO question.

Gathering Source Materials. Before actually 'filling in' the matrix, separate your literature into the
following three 'piles':

   1. primary/original research studies involving either actual interventions or observations, e.g.
      clinical trials, cohort studies, case control studies, cross-sectional surveys, review of cases or
      case reports
   2. secondary evidence-based literature (systematic reviews, meta-analyses or evidence-based
      practice guidelines
   3. other literature (non-EB secondary sources, opinions and editorials, etc)

Put aside 'piles' #2 and #3 and focus on your primary/original research studies (the basis for the
matrix). Be sure that for each study in this category you have (a) its full citation, (b) its PICO

information (from the abstract or full-text), and (c) sufficient information to evaluate its strengths,
weaknesses, and relevance (usually via the full-text, sometimes via the abstract).

Screening Primary Sources. Based on your readings (and practical constraints), decide on a set of
preliminary inclusion and exclusion criteria and enter them in the box provided on the matrix form.
Typically these criteria relate to the key elements of your question and may also involve the levels
of evidence available to address it. In terms of practical constraints, language is legitimate (e.g.,
limiting to English); unavailability of full-text is not (if you are in process of securing a hard copy,
specify "hard copy being obtained" in the Evaluation column).

After specifying your preliminary inclusion and exclusion criteria, show the results of applying
them by citing the total number of primary articles initially obtained versus the number remaining
after screening.

Building the Matrix. Enter your current selection of primary studies (those remaining after
application of your inclusion/exclusion criteria) in the Matrix Table. Use one row for each primary
study included.
Citation. Provide the full citation in correct APA format.
PICO Information. Be succinct in adding the PICO information and be sure to use your own words.
DO NOT simply copy and paste text from the article – this is not acceptable and could later lead to
problems with plagiarism. Instead, summarize or outline. If you absolutely must include direct
quotes from a study, be sure to place them in quotation marks and include the page number(s) right
in the matrix entry. Using abbreviations or acronyms can help keep this information manageable,
but be sure to define them when first introduced.

Don't confuse Interventions, Comparisons and Outcomes. The Intervention column should briefly
define what was done, e.g., the treatment, diagnostic test, exposure. The Comparison column should
specify what the intervention was tested against, i.e., no treatment (or placebo), or an alternative
intervention or test (not all studies have comparisons). The Outcome column should briefly define
the key outcome measure(s) and summarize the basic findings. Findings should include the key
'numbers' (such as group differences on the outcome measure) and their statistical significance
(such as p-values and Confidence Intervals). See the good example below:

Citation                  Patients/Subjects         Interventions        Comparisons   Outcomes
Baltzopoulos, V.,         10 healthy male           Isokinetic testing   Same test     Measure: torque output
Williams, J.G., &         volunteers, mean          at 60 & 180/sec     parameters.   (TO). Results: 12.3 N*m
Brodie, D.A. (1991).      age of 25.8, no           with visual          No VF.        increase in max TO of
Sources of error in       history of joint injury   feedback (VF)                      quads & hams at 60/sec
isokinetic dynamom-                                                                    (p = 0.01); 3.4 N*m
etry: Effects of visual                                                                increase at 180 /sec (p =
feedback on maximum                                                                    0.12; NS). Knee flexor/
torque measurements.                                                                   extensor ratio not affected
J Ortho Sports Phys                                                                    by VF or movement speed
Ther, 13, 138-142.

Level. For ‘Level,’ specify the appropriate level of evidence code using the simplified 3-level
version of the Oxford Levels of Evidence scale discussed in Scanlan, CL (2004). Seeking Answers:
Questions Heath Professionals Ask and the Evidence Needed to Answer Them.

Evaluation. Your evaluation or critical appraisal should focus on identifying general weaknesses
(biases) in the research design, as well as answering specific questions related to the type of
question being answered, i.e., therapy, diagnosis, prognosis, etiology/harm. For helpful guidance on
critical appraisal link to the following summary document:

In terms of Relevance, avoid just summarizing or rehashing the authors' findings, conclusions or
recommendations. Instead, focus on how closely the study's methods coincide with your question
(are the patients, intervention, comparison, and outcomes consistent with those specified in your
question?) and whether in your opinion the results can be or should be applied in practice. In terms
of the potential application of a study to patient care, the last several questions in the each Colorado
Users’ Guide (Therapy, Diagnosis, Etiology, Prognosis) provide good direction, e.g., Can the
results be applied to my patient care? or Will the results change my management?

If you have not yet been able to evaluate a study because it is not available as electronic full-text
and you are in process of securing a hard copy, specify "hard copy being obtained" in the
Evaluation column.

Reporting on Your Relevant Background Literature. After completing the matrix for your
primary research studies, report on any relevant background or secondary literature ('piles' #2 and
#3) in the table provided. For this section, you need only provide the complete (APA formatted)
citations. No evaluation is needed.

Comment to Review Advisor. If needed, provide clarification to your review advisor in the space

Save Your Assignment
After completing the Literature Review Matrix save it using the following name format:

Submit Your Assignment
First be sure that your file is named yourlastname_assignment05.doc. Then use Angel's
Assignment dropbox to submit your Assignment.

   1. Click on the Unit Assignment link in applicable Unit folder
   2. the In the Assignment Dropbox Title box title your assignment by its number, e.g.
      "Assignment 1"
   3. If you want to provide any message to the instructor(s) regarding your assignment
      submission, do so in the Message box
   4. Click on the Attachments button to open an Attachments pop-up window
   5. Click the Browse button to open your computer's file browser

   6. Locate and select your assignment file, e.g., yourlastname_assignmentX.doc (unless
      otherwise instructed, upload ONLY the assignment file)
   7. Click the Upload File button to upload the selected file to the Assignment dropbox
   8. Confirm that the selected file is listed in the Uploaded Files box, then click the Finished
      button to complete your submission

If for any reason you need to resubmit an Assignment follow the instructions above and overwrite
your previously submitted document.

Share Your Matrix with Your Review Advisor (if assigned)
Prior to the end date for this unit, you should share your preliminary matrix with your review
advisor (if assigned). To do so, send your assigned review advisor an e-mail message with the
matrix assignment attached as a Word document. Note that some Programs or advisors require that
you provide copies of all included primary research articles when you submit your matrix. Please
contact your advisor in advance to see whether this requirement applies to you

Post an Example for Discussion and Feedback
Select and post a SINGLE example of one citation from your matrix for discussion in the Unit 5
discussion topic. Each student should also comment on one other student's posting, with an
emphasis on the evaluation component.

Need Help?
Your first source of answers to questions regarding assignments should always be the applicable
Assignment FAQs, accessible within each Unit's folder on the Course Contents Tab. If you cannot
find the answer to your question there, post it to the applicable Assignment Help discussion forum
(also in each Unit's folder). Please post your questions to the Help topic using the New Post button
to create a NEW thread with a Title line corresponding to the specific section of the assignment and
problem for which you are seeking help. Expect an answer from the instruction within 1 business

Document Last Saved: 7/31/2010 2:03 AM


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