PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES Jawaharlal Nehru Technological cquired immunity

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					Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.                    W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch

                              PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
                                [SPECILISATION CODE: 22]




                                             PAPER- I
                                          (Common paper)



          S.NO              SUBJECT NAME                           SUBJECT CODE
            1     INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF                              R52201
                  PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.                 W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch

                              PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
                                [SPECILISATION CODE: 22]




                                          PAPER II
                                  (Choose Any ONE Subject)

           S.NO                    SUBJECT NAME                     SUBJECT
                                                                     CODE
              1.   PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY                      R52251
              2.   ADVANCED PHARMACEUTICS (PHARMACY)                 R52252
              3.   ADVANCED PHARMACOGNOSY                            R52253
              4.   ADVANCED PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY                 R52254
              5.   ADVANCED PHARMACOLOGY                             R52255
              6.   ADVANCED PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS                  R52256
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.                        W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch
                                                                              Subject Code: R52201

      INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS

Unit – I

UV – Visible spectroscopy: Introduction, Beers law and its limitations, molar extinction coefficient,
wood wards Fiesher rules for calculating absorption maximum, instrumentation design and
applications.
Unit – II

IR Spectroscopy : Basic Principles – Molecular vibrations, vibrational frequency and its
influencing factors, sampling techniques, instrumentation and applications of FT – IR.

Unit – III

NMR Spectroscopy : Principle, Chemical shifts, shielding and deshielding         effects, splitting of
signals, computing constants, instrumentations and applications (H&CNMR).

Unit – IV

Mass spectroscopy : Principle, Ionization Techniques, Fragmentation pattern, Instrumentation and
applications.

Unit – V

GLC and HPLC : Principles, instrumentation with special emphasis on different column and
detectors and applications.

Unit – VI

HPTLC, Ion-exchange Chromatography and Gel filtration: Principle, instrumentation and
applications.

Unit – VI

Potentiometry and Conductometry : Principle, instrumentation and applications.

 Unit – VIII:-
Polarimetry Fluorimetry and Refractometry : Principle, Instrumentation and applications with
suitable examples.

Books:

1.       Instrumental Methods of Analysis          -       Scog and West
2.       Instrumental Methods of Analysis          -       Willand, Dean and Merrit
3.       Instrumental Methods of Analysis by B.K.Sarma
4.       Introduction to Instrumental Analysis     -       Robert D.Braun.

Reference Books :

1.       Vogel’s text book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis
2.       A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis     -      Kenneth A.Connors.
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.                         W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch

                                                                             Subject Code: R52251
                    PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
       1.       Introduction to Proteins and Nucleic acids and their structure and features
       2.     Introduction to Genetic Engineering, enzymes and vectors in genetic engineering,
               concepts of cloning, cDNA and genomic libraries, Cloning for production of
               Biopharmaceuticals, Screening and detection methods for clones.

       3.       Recombinant DNA products and their applications
       4.     Immune System – Innate and acquired immunity, Monoclonal antibodies and
               immunological techniques.

       5.     Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture in vitro; disaggregation of tissue and
              primary culture, maintenance of cell culture; cell separation, and applications of
              mammalian cell culture.

       6.     Different areas and applications of plant tissue culture. Nutritional components of
              tissue culture media. Totipotency

       7.     Transgenic Plants and animals and their applications.

       8.     Introduction to Bioinformatics overview and applications.

       Text Books:
       1.    Bio-Chemistry                  -       Stryer
       2.    Bio-Technology                 -       Dr.U.Satyanarayana
       3.    Molecular cell Biology         -       Baltimore
       4.    Med.Plant Biotechnology        -       Ciddi Veereshan.

       Reference Books:
       1.    Gene cloning                                          -       T.A.Brown
       2.    Cell and Molecular Biology                            -       Geral Corp
       3.    Essential immunology (1998) VII Edition               -       I.Roitt
       4.    Plant Tissue Culture                                  -       J.Stewart
       5.    Animal Cell Biotechnology methods & Protocols         -       Negel Jenkins
       6.    Bio Informatics Basics                                -       Buelher.
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.          W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch
                                                   Subject: Code: R52252
                        ADVANCED PHARMACEUTICS (PHARMACY)

Unit -1         Introduction to pharmacokinetics – Pharmacokinetics models, physiological models,
one compartment open model drug disposition, plasma elimination half life, two compartment open
model drug disposition, Drug Distribution:- Apparent volume of distribution (one and two
compartment models), protein binding of drugs – Implications of drug protein binding in
pharmacokinetics and therepy kinetics of drug – protein binding.
Unit -2
Biotransformation of drugs:- Phase I and II biotransformation reactions, factors affecting,
Excretion of drugs – renal and nonrenal drug excretion – mechanism of renal excretion, clearance-
renal clearance, hepatic clearance, kinetics of drug absorption- one compartment oper model,
evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters.
Unit -3         Dosage form Evaluation-Bioavailability –rate and extent of bioavailability, assessing
bioavailability, multiple dosing – bioavailability, in vitro bioavailability studies (dissolution), Bio
equivalence – General principles, criteria for establishing bioequivalence requirement, criteria for
waiver of evidence for bioequivalence requirement, methodology, pharmacokinetics parameters –
logarithmic transformations.
Unit -4         Multiple dosage regimens – drugs accumulation, i.v and oral regiment, loading
dosing, scheduling, Diseases-Dose adjustment – hepatic disease – dose adjustment, renal disease –
dose adjustment, therapeutics drug monitoring, Non-compartment model-pharmacokinetics –
statistical movement theory, pharmacokinetics parameters.
Unit -5         Concept & Models for NDDS: Classification of rate controlled drug delivery system
(DDS), rate programmed release, activation modulated & feedback regulated DDS, Fundamentals of
rate controlled drug delivery – Introduction, mechanistic analysis of controlled release drug
delivery, effect of system parameters in controlled drug delivery, evaluation of controlled release drug
delivery systems.
Unit -6         Oral drug delivery and delivery systems: Development of novel drug delivery
systems for oral controlled release drug administration, modulation of gastrointestinal transit time,
overcome hepatic first pass elimination, Mucosal drug delivery: human mucosa, transmucosal
systemic delivery of drugs.

Unit -7
        Transdermal Drug Delivery systems: Skin site for transdermal drug administration, recent
developments in transdermal drug delivery, fundamentals of skin permeabtion, technologies for
developing transdermal systems, Evaluation of transdermal systems, Particulate drug carriers –
liposomes and nanoparticles – Concepts, applications, preparation, and evaluation, in vivo barriers to
particulate distribution, selected examples of drug delivery.

Unit -8
       Target Oriented Drug Delivery Systems: Rationale for targeted drug delivery, biological
processes and events involved in drug targeting, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic
considerations, targeted drug delivery systems, targeting in the gastrointestinal tracts and other
mucosal surfaces.
Text Books :
1.     Y.W.Chein – Novel Drug Deliuery Systems – Vol – 50 2nd Edition Marcel Deckker – 2005
2.     Robinson & Lee, control Drug Delivery Systems, Vol-29, 2nd Edition, Marcel Deckker – 2005
3.     Milo Gibaldi Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 4th Edition, PHarma syndicate,
       Hyderabad (2005).
Reference Books:
1.     NK Jain Controlled Novel Drug Delivery, C.B.S.Publishers, New Delhi-2002
2.     Brahmankar & Jaiswal Bio pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Atreatise Vallabha
       Prakashan, Delhi – 2005.
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.           W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch
                                                                 Subject Code: R52253
                                ADVANCED PHARMACOGNOSY
Unit – I
        General methods and Principles of extraction methods, types of extraction and their merits and
demerits for Crude Drugs; Selection and purification of solvents for extraction; screening of the plant
extracts for chemicals. General methods of isolation of different classes of phytochemical.
Unit – II:      Screening of plant extracts / phytochemicals for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-
diabetic, diuretic, anti-fertility, anti-epileptic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer
cardiovascular and antimicrobial activity.
Unit – III
       Techniques employed in elucidation of bio synthetic pathway. Study of basic metabolic
pathways (Shikkinic, Acetatemerolonate pathway 2 calvins cycle) Biogenesis of tropane, quinoline,
Imidazole, Isoquinoline and Indole alkaloids; sterols, anthraquinone, saponin glycosides and
flavonoids compounds of pharmaceutical significance.
Unit – IV
       Current status of anti-cancer, anti-HIV, anti-diabetic and Immunomodulatory herbal drugs. A
review of Bio medicinals of recent discovery. Current status of plants used in alternative systems of
medicines.
Unit – V
       Application of various chromatographic techniques and spectrometry to natural products :
TLC, GC, HPLC and HPTLC; Flourimetry and colorimetry. Uses of UV, IR, NMR and mass
spectrometry in the structural elucidation of natural products.
Unit – VI
        Herbal formulations : Types of herbal formulations preparation of standardized extracts
suitable for incorporation into solid dosage form like tablets capsules etc. Recent trends in poly-
herbal medicines. Herbal cosmetics and herbal teas. Manufacture, packaging and approach to quality
control of herbal formulations. GMP for herbal drug formulations.
Unit – VII
        World Health Organisation guide lines for herbal drugs including standards for pesticide
residue / aflatoxins. Current status of regulatory affairs for herbal formulations. Patents, Intellectual
property rights.
Unit – VIII
       Current trends in tissue culture and its applications in Pharmaceutical and allied fields.
Immobilized cell systems and techniques of immobilization, Biotransformation resulting into
pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites, using tissue cultures.
Micro propagation, Hairy-root cultures and their applications in Pharmacy.
Text Books:
1.    Text Book of Pharmacognosy by Trease & Evans
2.    Phytochemical methods by J.B.Heraborne
3.    Instrumental methods of Analysis – B.K.Sharma
4.    Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry- Vinod Rangari
5.    Plant Tissue culture by Razdawn.
Reference Books:
1.    Text Book of Pharmacogonsy by Brady & Tyler
2.    Instrumental Analysis by Chatwal & Anand
3.    Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology – Aushthoskar
4.    Pharmacognosy – Gene Bruneton
5.    Quality control of Herbal Drugs and approach to evaluation of Botanicals by Dr.Paulok
      K.Mukarjee
6.    Aromatic Planats cultivation of process and uses – H.Panda
7.    Meidcinal plant Biotechnology By ciddi Veeresham.
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.       W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch
Subject Code: R52254
                      ADVANCED PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY

UNIT-I:
       Structural Elucidation: Structural Elucidation of some important Natural, Synthetic and
Semi synthetic drugs by using spectroscopic data.
[UV, IR, H1NMR, C13 NMR, Mass].

UNIT-II :
        Reaction Mechanisms:          Generation, Stability, structure and reactivity of free radicals,
Carbocations and Carbenes. Mechanism of free radical, electrophitic, Nucleophitic (Addition and
substitution) reactions, eliminaton reactions with examinable

UNIT-III
      Basic Principles and strategies to plan synthetic reactions schemes by using different reagents.

UNIT-IV:
       Molecular Boric of Being Action: Concept of receptors and receptor theories. The role of
functional groups in drying receptors, interactions with specific reference to Opiod, thiotaminergic ,
Dorpaminergic, Adrenergic, Cholinergic, GABA nergic receptors.

UNIT-V :
        Recent advances in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitub, Cardiovasenlan disease, CNS diseases,
Viral, Cancer, Malaria and Tuberculosis.

UNIT-VI:
       New drug development and lead approach: Identification of lead molecule for natural
products. Lead optimization for the New drying development with suitable example from CNS, CNS,
Chemotherapeutic. Agents.

UNIT-VII:
       Drying Resign:- History and development of QSAR, physicochemical parameters. Hansch
analysis., free klison analysis.
       Molecular modeling: Molecular mechanics quantum mechanism.

UNIT-VIII:
        Design and application of prodrugs.
        Structure based drug design.
        Combinational chemistry: Combinational approached chemical peptide and small molecule
         librarian.
        Assays and Screening combinational libraries introduction to high through puts. Screening
         (HTS)
Text Books:
1.       Organic Chemistry                                  -      Vol I & II – I.L.Finar
2.       Advanced Organic Chemistry                         -      Jerry March
3.       Medicinal Chemistry Vol I to V                     -      Barger
4.       Organic Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry       -      Willon and Gisword

Reference Books:
1.    Identification of Organic Compounds                   -      Silverstain
2.    Principles of Medicinal Chemistry                     -      Foye
3.    Organic Synthesis                                     -      Lednicer.
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.                         W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch
                                                                               Subject Code: R52255

                               ADVANCED PHARMACOLOGY

UNIT – I
Receptor Pharmacology & Mechanisms :
       Types of Receptors, theories of receptors, G-protein coupled receptors, NMDA receptors,
Kinase linked receptors, ion channels, second messengers, DNA linked receptors, signal transduction
mechanism, proliferation and apoptosis.

UNIT – II
Pharmacogenetics, Drug Interactions – invitho (biopharmaceutical)              Pharmacokinetic   and
Pharmacodynamic interaction, Adverse drug reactions.

UNIT – III
      Neurohumoral transmission in CNS, ANS and somatic various system
  a.      Molecular basis, underlying mechanism of action of adrenergic, Cholinergic,
          Dopaminergie, Serotoninergie and GBA ergie system.
  b.      Pharmacological actions and possible physiological role of serotononin, Noradrenalene,
          Adrenaline. Acetylcholine and Dopamine.

UNIT – IV
Chemotherapy :
  a.     Molecular and bio chemical mechanisms Pharmacology involved in the activity of various
         antiviral and anticancer drugs.
  b.     Concepts on free radicle mediated injury, TAT inhibitors and its role in HIV.

UNIT – IV
Cardiovascular Pharmacology :
      Cardiotonics, Antiarrhythonics, Antihypertensive, antianginal & anti hyperlipidemic agents.

UNIT – V
        Organisation of screening for the pharmacological activity of new substances with emphasis on
the evaluation of antihypertensives, Cardiac, Psychopharmacological, analgesic, anti inflammatory anti
diabetic, hepatoprotective, antistress and nootropic agents.

UNIT – VI
      a       Biotransformation of drugs : Phase I & II biotransformation reactions
      b.      Excretion of drugs : Renal & nonrenal –Mechanisms and factors affecting.
      c.      Clearance : Renals & hepatic clearance.
      d.      Kinetics of drug absorption – compartment models evaluation of Pharmacokinetic
              parameters.

UNIT – VII
      a.      Design & testing of drugs in humans – clinical trials bio equivalence studies.
      b.      Acute and Chronic toxicity studies in animals models.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Bio Pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics an introduction by Robert E.Notari
2. The Pharmacological basics of Therapeutics by Goodman and Gillman’s
3. Pharmacology by M.M.Ranga and H.D.Dale
4. Screening Methods in Pharmacology by Robert A.Turner

Reference Books:
1.    Drug Metabolism by Bernard Testa and Peter Jenner
2.    Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.                       W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch

3.     Drug Evaluation by voges
4.     Methods in Pharmacology by Swarbrick
5.     Basic and Clinical Pharmacology by Bertram G.Katzung
6.     Clinical Pharmacology by Molmon and Morelli
7.     Essentials of Medical Pharmacology by Tripathi.
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.         W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch
                                                               Subject Code: R52256
                         ADVANCED PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS
UNIT – I
      Interpretation of FTIR spectra, Raman Spectroscopy 1Hz13CMR and its significance uses of
2D NMR techniques in the characterization of organic compounds.

UNIT – II
       Analysis of drugs and excipients in solid state – particle size analysis, DTA, DSC, DGA –
Principles, instrumentation, applications, X-ray diffraction – applications in Pharmacy, Powered
XRD, single crystal x ray crystallography.

UNIT – III
        Multi component analysis using uv spectro photometric method, radio immunoassay
principle, theory application and methods.

UNIT – IV
       Principles and procedures involved in the use of the following reagents in Pharmaceutical
analysis.
i.     N, 1-naphthyl ethylene diamine
ii     P-dimethylamine benzaldehyde (DDNB)
iii    2,6 Dichloro quinine chlorimide
iv     2,3,5, Triphenyl tetrazolium salt
v      FC ragent
vi     P – dimethylamine cinnamaldehyde
vii    3-Methyl, 2-benzothiazoline hydrazone
viii   2,4 dinitrophenyl hydrazine
ix     DPPH

UNIT – V
       Quality control and in process quality control of tablets, capsules, liquid dosage forms,
pasenteral and sterile preparations.

UNIT – VI
       Validation and calibration of various instruments used for drug analysis such as uv-visible
spectrophotometer, IR spectro photometer, HPLC, GC, and HPTLC.

UNIT – VII
        Study of principles and procedures involved in the following biological tests and assays tests
for effectiveness of antimicrobial preservatives, absorbed diphtheria vaccine, adsorbed diphtheria,
Microbiological assays of cyanocobalamine neomycin sulphate, oxytocin and tetanus toxoid.

UNIT – VIII
        Quality Control Laboratory – Responsibilities, good laboratory practices, routine controls,
instruments, protocol non clinical testing, stability testing of pharmaceuticals and shelf life
predictions, ICH guidelines.

Text Books:

1.     Instrumental Analysis                         -       Eving
2.     Instrumental method of Analysis               -       Skog & West
3.     B.K.Sharma                                    -
4.     Quantitative Analysis of Drugs                -       Jenkin
5.     Introduction of Instrumental Analysis         -       Robert D.Braun
Syllabi for Pre.PhD/Pre M.Phil/ Pre MS.                 W.e.f. 2005-2006 Batch
Reference Books:

1.    A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis              -      Kenneth A.Connors
2.    Instrumental Methods of Analysis                    -      Willad, Dean & Merrit
3.    Quantitative Analysis of Drugs                      -      P.D.Sethi
4.    Quantitative Analysis of Drugs                      -      D.C.Garret
5.    Pharmaceutical Analysis Modern Methods Part-A&B     -      J.W.Munson(Marcel
Dekker)
6.    IP, BP, USP
7.    Vogel – Quantitative Analysis.

				
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Description: PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES Jawaharlal Nehru Technological cquired immunity