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Swine Flu flu outbreak2

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					                What is Swine Flu?
Swine influenza (also swine flu) refers to influenza caused by any strain of
the influenza virus endemic in pigs (swine). Strains endemic in swine are
called swine influenza virus (SIV).

Swine flu is common in swine and rare in humans. People who work with
swine, especially people with intense exposures, are at risk of catching
swine influenza if the swine carry a strain able to infect humans. However,
these strains rarely are able to pass from human to human. Rarely, SIV
mutates into a form able to pass easily from human to human. The strain
responsible for the 2009 swine flu outbreak in humans (a strain of influenza
A virus subtype H1N1) is believed to have undergone such a mutation.[1]

The strain responsible for the 2009 swine flu outbreak in most cases causes
only mild symptoms and the infected person makes a full recovery without
requiring medical attention and without the use of antiviral medicines.[2]

Of the three genera of human flu, two are endemic also in swine:
Influenzavirus A (common) and Influenzavirus C (rare).[3] Influenzavirus B
has not been reported in swine. Within Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus
C, the strains endemic to swine and humans are largely distinct.               1
        What is Swine Flu?
  Swine Influenza or flu, is a contagious
respiratory disease that affects pigs.

   When the flu spreads person to person,
instead of from animal to person, it can
continue to mutate, making it harder to treat or
fight, because people have no natural
immunity.

                                                   2
        Structure of tailed Virus

Phage




                                    3
What is the Science behind new Flu?

 What is the science behind how new flu strains
 arise - this one has pig, human and bird
 components (mainly pig). How has it got this
 way and how is it able to gain each of these
 components?
 "Pigs are traditionally considered "mixing
 vessels" for avian and human influenza as they
 contain both types of receptor used by these
 viruses. As they can host both types of virus
 they facilitate their mixing and rearrangement."
                                                    4
 Pig are considered to be mixing vessel

Virus common to cause influenza in poultry
  and pigs




                                             5
Symptoms of Swine Flu

 Swine flu presents the same as any other viral infection.
 Symptoms can include:
 fever
 cough
 sore throat
 headache
 chills
 cough
 body aches
 fatigue
 vomiting and/or diarrhea
 In severe cases, swine flu can lead to pneumonia and
 respiratory failure.



                                                             6
   Can it be prevented or cured?
Can Swine flu be prevented or cured? There is no
vaccine which can prevent swine flu. Medicines like
Tamiflu and Relenza are effective, if taken initially.
Is it safe to eat pork? Swine Flu is not spread by eating
pork or its products including salami, ham and sausages.
However, it is a good practice to cook pork over 70
degrees C, which kills the virus.
Risk factors: According to medical experts, people who
are exposed to areas where they have to work with pigs,
are at risk of contracting swine flu.



                                                        7
              Testing Involves!
Testing involves rescue of nucleic acid sequence and
determination of sequence. Sometimes also virus
isolation. If patients have died and/or samples have been
poorly stored this can be tricky. Even in the best cases
there may be failures that need a repeat. Sequences
from the US samples were deposited in GenBank and
are publicly available."

I'd be interested in stuff on the implications and risks of
any WHO decision to move to pandemic flu vaccine
production as this would come at the expense of
seasonal vaccines. What does this mean if people don't
get seasonal flu vaccine?
                                                              8
Steps to Take to Stay Healthy

 Fortunately, there are simple things you can do
 to avoid getting the flu at any time.
 Wash your hands. This is the number one way
 to keep the flu at bay. This means washing with
 warm water and soap for 20 seconds, or using
 an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if you can't get
 to a sink.
 Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue if you
 cough or sneeze, throw it away and, that's right,
 wash your hands.
 Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth
 because that's how germs are often spread.
                                                     9
            Good Health Habits
Below is a listing of good health habits students and staff
are always encouraged to follow.
(1) Stay home when you are sick.
(2) Do not go to work or school if you are running a
fever.
(3) Use a tissue to cover your mouth and nose when
coughing. Do not cough or sneeze directly into your
hand.
(4) Wash your hands frequently with soap and water.
The signs and symptoms of swine flu are similar to the
symptoms of regular flu and include fever, cough, sore
throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. A
simple cough or runny nose does not mean you have the
swine flu.

                                                          10
  WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW


NEW ZEALAND CASES – 1ST MAY’09
Confirmed/probable: 16, all in Auckland,
one is a child.
Suspected cases: 104, waiting test
results for influenza A.
Isolations: 111 people, plus their family
members.
                                            11
               DEFINITIONS
Isolation includes all cases and contacts in
isolation or quarantine (but not people in hospital
isolation). It refers to the number of cases, the
actual number of people in isolation may be
higher as it includes the people in the suspected
category, plus their close family members.
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Suspected is all people who display flu
symptoms AND have travelled through areas of
concern, or are contacts of cases.
Probable are all suspected cases that test
positive for Influenza A all these cases are being
treated as confirmed for the purposes of
treatment.                                        12
                Tamiflu

Tamiflu, which health authorities have
been giving to people in isolation, can be
purchased from pharmacies from today
until September 30 but pharmacists will
only sell the pills under certain conditions.

Patients with early-stage flu symptoms
must present themselves face-to-face to
their pharmacist.
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Description: Swine Flu flu outbreak2