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					                                                           Mission Statement:
   To provide responsible leadership necessary to manage our natural and urban
environment to meet the needs of present and future citizens of Pinellas County.


                                                        September 2001
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


           Editor
        Debra J. Price

       Layout & Design
    D.W. “Skip” Holmes

      Technical Support
       Gary Robbins
      Tom Stringfellow
       Alain Watson

         Photographs
 Pinellas County Government
 Department of Public Affairs
     Air Quality Division

           Printing
 Pinellas County Government
        Printing Services
                              Board of County Commissioners
                                  Calvin D. Harris – Chairman
                            Barbara Sheen Todd – Vice Chairman
                                            Susan Latvala
                                            John Morroni
                                        Karen Williams Seel
                                         Robert B. Stewart
                                         Kenneth T. Welch



                               County Administrator (Interim)
                                         D. Gay Lancaster

                               Assistant County Administrator
                                          Jacob F. Stowers

            Director of the Department of Environmental Management
                                         William M. Davis

                             Air Quality Division Administrator
                                          Peter A. Hessling



This document was produced at a cost estimate of $296 or $2.96 per copy and was prepared by the Department of
        Environmental Management under the direction of the Board of County Commissioners and was
                      partially funded with federal U.S. EPA Section 105 Grant funds.
                                            DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE




 William M. Davis, Director
Department of Environmental
        Management

 Since 1975, the Pinellas County Department of Environmental Managements (DEM) Air
 Quality Division (AQD) has been working to combat air pollution. Thanks to the efforts and
 programs at the federal, state, and local levels, this past year has been a celebration of twenty-
 five years of improvements in Pinellas County’s air quality.
 A few key events that made the past twenty-five years memorable are:
   1) In 1975, the AQD was established, with an air-monitoring network and data collection
      site.
   2) In 1977, the AQD began preparing and issuing a daily Air Quality Index (AQI),
      describing ambient air quality concentration levels for criteria pollutants, including
      total suspended particulates (TSP).
   3) In 1979, the AQD implemented a comprehensive program to analyze airborne lead,
   4) In 1980, the first edition of the Air Quality Annual Report was published.
   5) In 1985, the AQD began a mobile source control program, which coordinates air
      quality and transportation planning.
   6) In 1986, the AQD developed an air toxics compliance program for asbestos removal.
   7) In 1988, as a result of health assessments conducted by EPA, AQD replaced TSP
      monitoring for coarse particles (PM10).
   8) In 1994, the AQD developed an air toxics monitoring program.
   9) In 1995, the AQD implemented a pollution prevention program.
  10) In 1999, the AQD established the fine particles (PM 2.5) program.
  11) In 2000, clean air efforts have progressed to creating partnerships with other agencies or
      institutions. As you can see, Pinellas County’s Air Quality Division has had a busy and
      productive twenty-five years.
 The 2000 Air Quality Report is prepared to provide information on the efforts of the county
 government to improve the quality of the air that we breathe. We hope that you find this
 report useful.

                                                  i
                                       ADMINISTRATOR’S MESSAGE




     Peter A. Hessling
       Administrator
    Air Quality Division
In the year 2000, the Pinellas County Environmental Management’s Air Quality Division
(AQD) celebrated a culmination of twenty-five years of continued air quality improvement.
Focusing on the past year, significant progress was made in heightening public awareness of the
effects of air pollution on health. This was accomplished through a variety of media and
methodology. For example, partnerships were created with other organizations that combine
voluntary pollution-reducing activities with environmental education. Also, informational air
quality brochures were produced and distributed throughout the community. The new Air
Quality Index (AQI), developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
provided the public with daily access to information on air quality and health effects.
Ambient air quality in Pinellas County has been good most of the year. Based on the new AQI,
the year 2000 had 318 days in which outdoor measured pollutants were in the “good” range, 44
days in the “moderate” range, 4 days in the “unhealthy for sensitive individuals” range, and no
“unhealthy” days. This suggests that for 87% of the year, Pinellas County citizens enjoyed
relatively clean air. We intend to build on these results and have an even healthier 2001.
In concert with AQI activities and outreach efforts, our Air Monitoring section provides daily
ambient air sampling and data collecting. Also, our Permitting and Compliance section’s
oversight of both permitted and unpermitted sources of air pollution has allowed the public the
freedom to know that the air in Pinellas County is the best that it can be. In the past year, levels
of ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and coarse particulate matter have
all decreased in concentrations throughout the county. Although this sounds very impressive, we
still have much to do to ensure that our residents enjoy the best air quality possible.
All in all, it was a very busy year for Pinellas County’s Department of Environmental
Management’s Air Quality Division. The Air Quality Division implements federal and state air
pollution regulations and enforces the county’s strict air pollution codes. Periodic audits by the
federal Environmental Protection Agency and state Department of Environmental Protection
continue to give high marks for our county’s Air Quality Program.

                                                ii
Indicates support to the AQD         As of August 1, 2001


                               iii
                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


      Article                                                                                                 Page
Director’s Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Administrator’s Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Organizational Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
List of Tables & Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v


What is Air Pollution? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
The Air Quality Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
          Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
          Objective Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
          Public Education and Outreach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
          Criteria Pollutants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
          Air Quality Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Program Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
           Air Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
           Permitting and Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
               Point Source Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
           Planning and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
           Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Regulations and Special Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
           Regulatory Update for 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
               Urban Air Toxics Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
               NAAQS Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
           National Air Toxics Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
           Motor Vehicle Inspection Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Staff photograph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25




                                                                iv
                                              LIST OF TABLES


                    Table                                                                                       Page
1.    National Ambient Air Quality Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.    Air Quality Index Descriptive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.    Analytical Techniques, Site Locations and Pollutants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.    Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.    Compliance Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.    Citizen’s Complaints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.    2000 Permitted Point Source Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.    Fiscal Year Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

                                            LIST OF FIGURES

                    Figure                                                                                      Page
1.    2000 Ambient Ozone Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
2.    1998-2000 8-Hr Ozone Design Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
3.    2000 Ambient Carbon Monoxide Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
4.    2000 Ambient Sulfur Dioxide Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
5.    2000 Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
6.    2000 Ambient Particulate (PM10) Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
7.    2000 Ambient Particulate (PM2.5) Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
8.    Historical Ambient Lead Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
9.    2000 Percent of the NAAQS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
10.   2000 Air Quality Index Monthly Trend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
11.   Historical Air Quality Index 10-year Annual Trend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
12.   Air Monitoring Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
13.   1999-2000 Revenue / External Funding Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19




                                                             v
                           What is Air Pollution?
                                                                Conservation and Aesthetic Effects
  A     ir pollution is defined as the presence in
        the outdoor atmosphere of any one or more
substance in quantities which may be harmful or
injurious to human health or welfare, animal or
                                                             A      nthropogenic or man-made air pollution
                                                                    is generated primarily through the
                                                           combustion of fossil fuels. In most cases, these
plant life, or which may reasonably interfere with
                                                           fuels are derived from non-renewable natural
the enjoyment of life, including outdoor
                                                           resources like oil and coal. Thus, as we increase
recreation, or property. Air pollution includes a
                                                           our demands for energy, air pollution will tend to
vast array of elements, which may be introduced
                                                           increase without proper management, alternative
into our atmosphere in the form of vapors or
                                                           fuels, or imposing additional controls.
particles from both natural and manmade sources.
                                                               Most of the air pollution generated within
        Health and Economic Effects
                                                           Pinellas County comes from transportation-related

  I n most cases, air pollution frequently affects
    those who are least prepared to protect
themselves, namely children and the elderly.
                                                           sources. The latest emission inventory update,
                                                           compiled for 1997, indicates that automobiles
                                                           contribute approximately 46% of the total
Although the effects of air pollution vary by              emissions of oxides of nitrogen and 28% of
pollutant type and length of exposure, the major           volatile organic compounds.
health concern associated with air pollution is
                                                               Aesthetic effects may include intangible
the aggravation of existing respiratory and
                                                           factors that can not be easily quantified. Air
cardiovascular disease and mortality.
                                                           pollution can result in impaired visibility,
    Sustained exposure to air pollution can result         excessive amounts of dirt and soot and nauseous
in high morbidity rates and premature death. In a          odors that decrease personal comfort and
1990 report, “The Health Costs of Air Pollution,”          enjoyment of the environment.
the American Lung Association estimates the total
                                                                   Climatology and Meteorology
health cost lies in the range of tens of billions of
dollars per year for the total population of the
United States.                                               W        eather, climate and, in some instances,
                                                                      topography can play an important part
                                                           in the formation and distribution of air pollution.
    Although the major economic impact from
                                                           The climate in Pinellas County can be described
air pollution includes the costs associated with
                                                           as sub-tropical with a primary wet season during
medical treatments, morbidity, and reduced
                                                           the summer and a secondary wet season in the
productivity, air pollutants are capable of causing
                                                           winter. In 2000, rainfall was 14” below normal
significant economic impacts in other ways. For
                                                           (normal = 44”/year) for the Tampa Bay area, a total
example, the remediation of air toxics such as
                                                           deficit of 24” in two years, making it the 2nd driest
asbestos, formaldehyde, benzene and other toxic
                                                           year on record.
compounds can result in significant removal and
disposal costs.                                                 Seabreezes modify the sub-tropical climate;
                                                           this along with daily afternoon thunderstorms (the




                                                       1
Tampa Bay area is the lightning capital of the              Double high pressure systems create inversion
world), keep summertime temperatures in the low         conditions where the air becomes stagnant and
90’s. Even with long, warm and humid summers,           allows ozone precursors to accumulate. Our
the winters are quite mild, with temperatures in        proximity to the coast line and the various effects
the 50’s to low 70’s. There have been some              caused by the migration of convergence zones and
occurrences of freezing temperatures. In 2000, at       thermal contrasts in and around Tampa Bay and
Tampa International, there was only one day that        the Gulf of Mexico, results in recirculating wind
recorded a temperature below 32 degrees                 patterns which also promote the accumulation
(December 20, 30°).                                     and regional transport of ozone precursors.
    Given the dynamic nature of our area’s                  Conversely, it is weather and relatively flat
weather, climatological and meteorological              topography which prevents potential adverse air
analysis are indispensable components in our            quality impacts from other air pollutants. For
efforts to adequately evaluate air pollution and        example, prevailing coastal winds that assure
the appropriateness of ambient air quality              thorough transport of air parcels above the
monitoring sites.                                       county and our relatively flat and coarse
                                                        topography provides ample mixing and dilution
    Ozone is created through a very complicated
                                                        of CO. Thus, elevated and sustained ambient
photochemical reaction of volatile organic
                                                        CO concentrations in Pinellas County are
compounds (VOC’s), oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
                                                        uncommon.
and, to a lesser degree, carbon monoxide (CO) in
the presence of sunlight. Double high pressure              There are also dichotomous relationships that
systems, coastal recirculation patterns, high           exist between weather and climate and air
surface temperatures, relatively low surface wind       pollution. For example, during the rainy season,
speeds and abundant sunlight, which provides            sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
the solar radiation necessary for the                   are precipitated from our atmosphere. However,
photochemical process, are key factors in the           this same precipitation acts as a medium for wet
formation of tropospheric ozone                         deposition of acidic compounds (acid rain) into
within Pinellas County.                                 our lakes and streams.




                                                    2
                      The Air Quality Program
                                                      through public speaking engagements,
                    Mission
                                                      educational programs and printed materials
                                                      such as brochures, fact sheets, technical reports
  T    he Air Quality Division is dedicated to
       protect and preserve or enhance the air
quality within Pinellas County. The Division
                                                      and the local newspaper. The Division strives
                                                      to utilize any available media to enhance public
                                                      awareness on air quality in an efficient and
will accomplish its mission by providing and
                                                      cost-effective manner.
maintaining for the citizens and visitors of
Pinellas County, standards that will ensure
atmospheric purity and freedom of the air from
contaminants, which threaten public health and
                                                        E    nvironmental awareness extends beyond
                                                             the workplace. To promote this sense of
                                                      awareness, the Air Quality Division writes
welfare.
                                                      environmental news articles, and “Enviro-Facts”
              Objective Strategy                      for the Environmental News brochure that is
                                                      published bi-monthly. The informational
  A    ttain the National Ambient Air Quality
       Standard (NAAQS) for ozone through
the implementation of air pollution control
                                                      handout is sent to various environmental
                                                      agencies, civic groups, county employees, and
strategies consistent with authorization of the       other interested parties.
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
  • Maintain programs to protect the public
    from high risk sources of toxic and
                                                        P   ublic Education and Outreach includes
                                                            networking with other agencies,
                                                      including the University of South Florida
    hazardous air pollutants.                         (USF) and various public and private schools.
  • Continue to develop programs that serve           This past year has seen an increase in the
    and educate the public concerning air             number of USF seminars that the Air Quality
    pollution issues.                                 Division has been asked to participate in. Also,
                                                      the Pinellas County Speakers’ bureau has had
  • Maintain programs that will prevent the           numerous requests for speakers from the
    degradation of air quality where standards        division, including November’s “Great
    are being met.                                    American Teach In,” elementary and secondary
                                                      science fair judges, West Central Florida Air
      Public Education and Outreach                   Quality Coordinating Committee, the Air &
                                                      Waste Management Association, and the

  T     he Air Quality Division’s Public
        Education and Outreach Program
promotes awareness of current air quality
                                                      Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc., in
                                                      which many of the Division’s staff participated.

issues. This is accomplished by using a multi-
media approach to provide up-to-date
information to the public and private sectors.
                                                        A    large part of Public Education and
                                                             Outreach activities in 2000 have been
                                                      the developing of partnerships in order to
Air quality related information is presented          obtain grants. Five grants were funded. One of



                                                  3
these, “Tampa Bay Region Air Toxics Study”
(TBRATS), was funded through the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and
                                                            T     he Air Quality Division continues to
                                                                  support and distribute the American
                                                          Lung Association of Gulfcoast Florida’s
included as a partner, the Environmental                  AirWise™ program to middle school students.
Protection Commission of Hillsborough                     AirWise™ is a two-day curriculum addressing
County and began January 1, 2001. Another                 air quality and health issues. The program
grant, “Environmental Monitoring for Public               contains a lesson plan, pre- and post-tests,
Access and Community Tracking” (EMPACT),                  activities and information on pollution
was also funded by the U.S. EPA, and included             prevention, ambient air quality, and health
the American Lung Association of Gulfcoast                effects of smoking, global warming and more.
Florida as a partner, and is producing a                  Reaching out to our leaders of tomorrow is a
bilingual Air Quality Index guide for all                 high priority in our environmental education
pulmonary care physicians’ offices and day care           programs.
facilities. Finally, three grants were partnered
with the University of South Florida’s (USF)
College of Public Health; “Public Health
Possibilities,” “Public Health Possibilities-Plus,”
                                                            F   inally, the Public Education and
                                                                Outreach staff played a lead role in the
                                                          receipt of the “Clean Air Excellence Award”
and Project HELP, “Public Health &                        from the U.S.EPA and also the “American
Environmental Leadership Project.” All USF                Lung Association’s Corporate Partnership
grants include active participation in teaching           Award.” The staff also played a lead role in
students and teachers about the environment               the production of the “Communication
through seminars and hands-on activities.                 Toolkit for Toxic Air Pollution and Related
                                                          Health Risks” for state and local air agencies.

  T    he month of May is clean air month,
       and to celebrate, the division had a one-
month display in the courthouse featuring                   T    hroughout the year, various air quality
                                                                 issues and policies come before our
different air quality topics like pollution               elected and appointed officials on the Board of
prevention and carpooling. Since a large part             County Commissioners and the Metropolitan
of outreach involves participation with other             Planning Organization. In these instances, the
agencies in community events, the Air Quality             Division provides technical support and
Division participated in “Enviro-Fair 2000”               expertise at meetings, workshops and public
that was held May 6th in the Largo Park, and              hearings. Our purpose is to provide a clear
in the Alternative Transportation Week at a               understanding of the issues and their potential
Clearwater Park, and was featured on local                impact on Pinellas County.
radio and television. The Air Quality Division
and the Pinellas County Department of Public
Affairs also developed a brochure that was
inserted into the local newspaper. “Clean Air
2000” featured the services and operations of
the Air Quality Division, as well as a
lighthearted look at air pollution and what the
County does to prevent and reduce it.


                                                      4
               CRITERIA POLLUTANTS
                                                                          The primary NAAQS are designed to
  T    he U.S Environmental Protection Agency
       (EPA) is responsible for establishing and
maintaining the National Ambient Air Quality
                                                                      protect the public health. The secondary
                                                                      NAAQS are designed to protect public welfare
Standards (NAAQS) to protect health and                               including the effects of air pollution on visibility,
welfare (refer to Table 1).                                           materials and vegetation.

                 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)a
 Pollutant                Primary Standard (Public Health)b                       Secondary Standard (Public Welfare)c
                     Averaging                                                      Averaging
                       Time           Leveld                 Form                     Time             Level         Form
                                                       3-year average; # of
                      1-hour         0.12 ppm          exceedances > one
                                                           per year
Ozonee (O3)                                                                                    Same as primary standard
                                                        3-year average of
                      8-hour         0.08 ppm         annual fourth highest
                                                        daily maximum

Particulate                                            3-year average; # of
Matter                24-hour        150 µg/m3         exceedances > one
(PM10)                                                     per year                            Same as primary standard
                      Annual         50 µg/m    3
                                                       Not to be exceeded

Particulatee          24-hour        65 µg/m3           3-year average of
Matter                                                   98th percentile                       Same as primary standard
(PM2.5)               Annual         15 µg/m3           3-year average of
                                                          annual mean

Carbon                1-hour         35 ppm            Not to be exceeded
Monoxide                                                more than once                          No secondary standard
(CO)                  8-hour         9 ppm                  per year
                                                       Not to be exceeded
Sulfur Dioxide        24-hour        0.14 ppm           more than once                                         Not to be exceeded
(SO2)                                                       per year                 3-hour          0.5 ppm     more than once
                                                                                                                    per year
                      Annual         0.03 ppm          Arithmetic Mean
Nitrogen
Dioxide               Annual         0.053 ppm         Not to be exceeded                      Same as primary standard
(NO2)

Lead (Pb)             Quarterly      1.5 µg/m3         Not to be exceeded                      Same as primary standard

  a) Standards as of December 1999.
  b) Primary standards set limits to protect public health, including the health of “sensitive” populations,
      such as asthmatics, children and the elderly.
  c) Secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare, including protection against decreased
      visibility, damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings.
  d) ppm = parts per million
     µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter
  e) EPA promulgated new ozone and particulate matter standards in July 1997. For Florida, the 1-hour
      ozone standard did not apply during 1998 or 1999.

  Table 1: National Ambient Air Quality Standards

                                                                  5
                                                  Ozone                                           In July 1997, EPA changed the ozone
                                                                                             standard from a maximum 1-hour concentration
                          Ozone (O3) is a colorless and highly
                           unstable molecular form of oxygen that
                  is associated with the presence of photochemical
                                                                                             (0.12 ppm) to an 8-hour average concentration
                                                                                             standard (0.08 ppm). The 1-hour standard was
                                                                                             defined as there can be no more than one (1)
                  smog. Ozone is not emitted directly into the air
                                                                                             exceedance per year, per site, averaged over three
                  from any source. Instead, it is formed by
                                                                                             years. The new 8-hour standard states that an
                  chemical reactions involving volatile organic
                                                                                             exceedance will occur when the 3-year average
                  compounds (VOC’s) and oxides of nitrogen
                                                                                             of the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour
                  (NOx) in the presence of sunlight. NOx is
                                                                                             concentration at a single site is above the
                  emitted from sources of high temperature
                                                                                             standard. This value for 2000 is shown in Figure
                  combustion. VOC’s are emitted primarily from
                                                                                             2, which shows the 8-hr Ozone Design Value
                  transportation sources such as cars and trucks.
                                                                                             for all three ozone monitors in Pinellas County,
                  Maximum values for ozone in 2000 are shown
                                                                                             for the period 1998-2000.
                  in Figure 1(Reference Site Locations page 12).
                                                                                                 In the year 2001 EPA is expected to
                       The highly reactive nature of ozone can
                                                                                             designate areas as non-attainment, which do not
                  cause health problems by damaging biological
                                                                                             meet the new 8-hour standard based on the most
                  tissues and cells. High ambient levels of ozone
                                                                                             recent three years of ozone data available at that
                  can result in impaired breathing, coughing,
                                                                                             time (e.g., 1998-2000). The original plan was
                  nausea and pulmonary congestion. High levels
                                                                                             that EPA would phase out and replace the 1-
                  of ozone can also cause noticeable foliar and
                                                                                             hour standard with the new 8-hour standard
                  ecosystem damage, reduce agricultural crop
                                                                                             that is more protective of public health.
                  yields, and degrade paints, dyes and rubber
                                                                                             However, a court case with the American
                  products. The Pinellas County Air Quality
                                                                                             Trucking Association et. al. vs. EPA has delayed
                  Division operates three ozone monitoring sites
                                                                                             that plan.
                  throughout the county, and on occasion,
                  measured levels approach the national ambient
                  air quality standards.
                                                          Ozone                                                                   8-Hr Ozone Design Values
                                                   Pinellas County 2000                                                             Pinellas County 1998-2000


                                                                                                                                                                Standard
                                                                                                                                                           0.085 ppm 4th high
                                                                                               Parts per Million (ppm)
Parts per Million (ppm)




                              Azalea               Clearwater                 Eastlake                                   Azalea         Clearwater        Eastlake
                                              Monitoring Sites                                                                        Monitoring Sites
                                       1-hr Max    8-hr Max   8-hr 4th High


              Figure 1: Ambient Ozone Levels                                                             Figure 2: 8-Hr Ozone Design Values



                                                                                         6
                                         Carbon Monoxide                                                                      Sulfur Dioxide

                           C    arbon Monoxide (CO) is a by-product
                                of the incomplete combustion of fuels.
                          Transportation related sources account for over
                                                                                                            S
                                                                                        ulfur Dioxide (SO2) is emitted primarily
                                                                                        from steam power and steam-electric
                                                                                  power generating facilities that consume
                          98% of all CO pollution in the county.                  sulfur-containing fossil fuels such as coal and
                                                                                  oil.
                               Carbon monoxide exposure can disrupt the
                          delivery of oxygen to the body’s organs and                 Asthmatics and others with respiratory
                          tissues. The health threat from CO is greatest          diseases such as bronchitis, influenza and
                          for those individuals who suffer from                   emphysema can be at risk when exposed to higher
                          cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of CO           than normal ambient concentrations of sulfur
                          have been associated with impaired vision, loss         dioxide. The Air Quality Division operates four
                          of manual dexterity and the loss of short-term          SO2 monitoring sites located throughout the
                          memory. Health effects from exposure to high            county.
                          levels of carbon monoxide can result in reduced
                                                                                      The NAAQS for SO2 is expressed as an
                          productivity with impairment of work capacity,
                                                                                  annual mean of 0.03 ppm, a maximum 24-hour
                          learning ability and performance of complex
                                                                                  average of 0.14 ppm, or a maximum 3-hour
                          tasks. There are four CO monitoring sites
                                                                                  average of 0.5 ppm. Figure 4 shows the maximum
                          located throughout the county.
                                                                                  values for 2000.
                              The NAAQS for carbon monoxide is                                                                            Sulfur Dioxide
                          expressed as a 1-hour maximum of 35 ppm and                                                                    Pinellas County 2000

                          an 8-hour average of 9 ppm. Figure 3 shows
                                                                                  Parts per Million (ppm)




                          the maximum values for 2000.


                                             Carbon Monoxide
                                              Pinellas County 2000
Parts per Million (ppm)




                                                                                                                Derby Lane         East Lake          Oakwood        Resource
                                                                                                                                           Monitoring Sites
                                                                                                                              3-hr Max    24-hr Max    Annual Mean


                                                                                                      Figure 4: Ambient Sulfur Dioxide Levels

                                                                                                                             Nitrogen Dioxide
                                Azalea     Curlew
                                              Monitoring Sites
                                           1-hr Max
                                                          Gateway


                                                      8-hr Max
                                                                     Tyrone


                                                                                                            M
                                                                                           uch of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in
                                                                                           the atmosphere is formed from
                                                                                  nitrogen oxide (NO) released during high
 Figure 3: Ambient Carbon Monoxide Levels
                                                                                  temperature combustion of fuels. Primary
                                                                                  sources of NO and NO2 are coal- and oil-fired
                                                                                  electric utility boilers and transportation
                                                                                  sources such as gasoline and diesel powered cars,
                                                                                  trucks and buses.


                                                                              7
      Asthmatics and others with respiratory                                        gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides,
 diseases such as bronchitis, influenza and                                         and volatile organic compounds, emitted by
 emphysema can be at risk when exposed to                                           combustion activities, are transformed by
 higher than normal ambient concentrations of                                       chemical reactions in the air.
 nitrogen dioxide. There is one NO2 monitoring
                                                                                        Coarse particles can accumulate in the
 site located in a high transportation area of the
                                                                                    respiratory system and aggravate health
 county and it produces annual measurements
                                                                                    problems such as asthma. Fine particulates are
 generally in the range of 20% of the ambient air
                                                                                    a health threat because of their ability to
 quality standard.
                                                                                    penetrate deep into the lungs, causing
                                    Nitrogen Dioxide
                                    Pinellas County 2000
                                                                                    premature mortality and increased hospital
                                                                                    admissions. These fine particles are so small that
                                                                                    several thousand of them could fit on the period
                                                                                    at the end of this sentence. The elderly,
 Parts per Million (ppm)




                                                                                    children, asthmatics and individuals with pre-
                                                                                    existing heart or lung disease are most at risk
                                                                                    from particulate matter exposure.


                                            Azalea
                                                                                                                   Particulate Matter (PM10)
                                      Monitoring Sites                                                                       Pinellas County 2000
                                1-hr Max   24-hr Max   Annual Mean
                                                                         Micrograms/Cubic Meter(µg/m3)




Figure 5: Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Levels

     The NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide is
 expressed as an annual arithmetic mean of 0.05
 ppm. Figure 5 shows the maximum values for
 2000.
                               Particulate Matter                                                        Azalea   Eastlake       Fleet (official)   Fleet (co-located)   Woodlawn
                                                                                                                              Monitoring Sites



                           T
         he characteristics, sources, and potential
         health effects of larger or “coarse”
 fraction particles (from 2.5 to 10 micrometers
                                                                                                                        24-hr Max        Annual Mean


                                                                                                 Figure 6: Ambient Particulate (PM10) Levels

 in diameter) and smaller or “fine” particles
                                                                                        The same fine particles linked to serious
 (smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) are
                                                                                    health effects are also a major cause of visibility
 very different. Coarse particles (PM10) come
                                                                                    impairment in many parts of the U.S. – causing
 from sources such as windblown dust from
                                                                                    the visual range to be reduced up to 70% from
 agricultural fields, grinding operations, and
                                                                                    natural conditions. In the east, the current
 dust kicked up on unpaved roads by vehicle
                                                                                    range is only 14-24 miles vs. a natural visibility
 traffic. Fine particles (PM2.5) are generally
                                                                                    of 90 miles. The particles can remain suspended
 emitted from activities such as industrial and
                                                                                    in the air and travel long distances – meaning
 residential combustion, open burning of trash
                                                                                    emissions from diesel trucks on I-95 can end up
 and garbage, and from vehicle exhaust. Fine
                                                                                    on the beaches of the Gulf Coast.
 particles are also formed in the atmosphere when


                                                                     8
                                                  Particulate Matter (PM2.5)
                                                       Pinellas County 2000
                                                                                                                    defects, high blood pressure and neurological
                                                                                                                    problems such as seizures and behavioral
Micrograms/Cubic Meter(µg/m3)




                                                                                                                    disorders. Figure 8 shows that the presence of
                                                                                                                    lead has been less than 1% of the national
                                                                                                                    standard since 1991. There is one lead site
                                                                                                                    located in the county.
                                                                                                                        The NAAQS for lead is expressed as a
                                                                                                                    calendar quarterly mean of 1.5 µg/m3.
                                    Azalea Park       Azalea Park (1 in 6-Day)     Dunedin (1 in 3-Day)
                                                           Monitoring Sites
                                                     24-hr Max       Annual Mean



                  Figure 7: Ambient Particulate (PM2.5) Levels

      To help measure the particulate emissions
 in Pinellas County, there are four PM10
 monitoring sites and two PM2.5 sites located
 throughout the county. The NAAQS for PM10
 is expressed as an annual arithmetic mean of 50                                                                            1983           1987                 1995   2000
 µg/m3 and as a 24-hour maximum of 150 µg/m3,
 while PM2.5 has an annual mean of 15 µg/m3                                                                          Figure 8: Historical Ambient Lead Levels
 and a 24-hour maximum of 65 µg/m3. Figures
 6 and 7 show the maximum values for 2000.                                                                          Comparison of All Criteria Pollutants
                                                         Lead

                                L
        ead (Pb) is primarily emitted from sources
        such as nonferrous smelters, battery
                                                                                                                     T     he following chart, Figure 9, shows the
                                                                                                                           percentage of each pollutant to its
                                                                                                                    respective standard. At this time, Pinellas
 plants and lead gasoline additives. Exposure of                                                                    County is within the standard for all the
 lead can occur through inhalation and/or                                                                           criteria pollutants, but we are very close to
 ingestion leading to the accumulation of lead in                                                                   exceeding the 8-hour ozone standard (3-year
 the blood, bones and soft tissues. Excessive                                                                       average of 4th high).
 exposure has been associated with various birth
                                                                                                 Percent of NAAQS
                                                     Lead Quarterly
                                                           O3 8-hr
                                                           O3 1-hr
                                                       NO2 Annual
                                                          CO 8-hr
                                                          CO 1-hr
                                                       SO2 Annual
                                                         SO2 24-hr
                                                          SO2 3-hr
                                                      PM2.5 Annual
                                                       PM2.5 24-hr
                                                      PM10 Annual
                                                        PM10 24-hr
                                                                             0%          20%              40%         60%          80%   100%     120%
                                                       Figure 9: Percent of National Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2000

                                                                                                                9
                                                         AIR QUALITY INDEX
    AQI         Color                                   Level                                                       Cautionary Statement
 Category

    0-50        Green                                      Good                          None

                                                                                         Unusually sensitive people should consider limiting prolonged
   51-100       Yellow                              Moderate                             outdoor exertion.

                                        Unhealthy for Sensitive                          Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such
  101-150      Orange                                                                    as asthma, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion.
                                               Groups
                                                                                         Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such
  151-200        Red                                Unhealthy                            as asthma, should avoid prolonged outdoor exertion; everyone else,
                                                                                         especially children, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion.
                                                                                         Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such
  201-300       Purple                            Very Unhealthy                         as asthma, should avoid all outdoor exertion; everyone else,
                                                                                         especially children, should limit outdoor exertion.

  301-500      Maroon                               Hazardous                            Everyone should avoid outdoor exertion.



Table 2: Air Quality Index Descriptive
                                                    your air is, and what associated health concerns
             AIR QUALITY INDEX                      you should be aware of. The AQI describes
                                                    ambient air quality concentration levels for
       he Air Quality Index (AQI), is a sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), carbon
  T    nation-wide standard method developed monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and
by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency particulate matter (PM) in terms of a
(EPA) for reporting daily air quality to the public concentration index for the highest pollutant
in a health related manner. It tells you how clean level in a previous time period.

                                                                             2000 Air Quality Index
                                                                                   Pinellas County
                       Number of Days



                                        January


                                                     February


                                                                   March


                                                                           April


                                                                                   May


                                                                                             June


                                                                                                    July


                                                                                                           August


                                                                                                                       September


                                                                                                                                   October


                                                                                                                                             November


                                                                                                                                                        December




                                                                Good (318 days)                            Moderate (44 days)
                                                                Unhealthy Sensitive (4 days)               Unhealthy (0 days)

                    Figure 10: AQI Monthly Trend in 2000

                                                                                            10
    The pollutant concentrations are measured                                   The higher the AQI value, the greater the
and converted to numbers based on a                                        level of air pollution and the greater the health
mathematical formula that transforms ambient                               danger. AQI values below 100 are generally
pollutant concentrations onto a scale where an                             thought of as satisfactory. When AQI values are
AQI of 100 would be equal to the National                                  above 100, air quality is considered to be
Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS).                                      unhealthy—at first for sensitive groups of people,
                                                                           then for everyone as AQI values get higher.
     In August 1999, the AQI Reporting Rule was
                                                                           Figures 10 and 11 illustrate the monthly trend
revised to provide more accurate and specific
                                                                           during 2000 and the ten-year trend, respectively.
information on health risks associated with
                                                                           Changes in the ozone standard in 1999, from a
exposure to air pollution. This will help
                                                                           1-hour to an 8-hour standard, may have
individuals make informed decisions regarding
                                                                           impacted the number of days in each category in
actions to avoid or reduce their exposure to these
                                                                           1999 and 2000. The graph shows an increase in
pollutants. Table 2 provides the AQI health
                                                                           good and unhealthy sensitive days, while
descriptor scale and cautionary statements.
                                                                           moderate days decreased by 50%.
     The revised AQI adds an additional air
quality category. Previously, Index values from                                 The Air Quality Division’s Air Monitoring
101 - 200 were characterized “unhealthful.” The                            and Planning Sections prepare the AQI every
revised AQI establishes a category from 101 -150                           working day at approximately 4:30 p.m. A
characterized as “unhealthy for sensitive groups,”                         prerecorded message of the report can be accessed
and a category of 151 - 200 as “unhealthy.”                                by calling (727) 464-3392. In addition, the St.
Members of sensitive groups include children who                           Petersburg Times prints the AQI every working
are active outdoors, adults involved in moderate                           day.
or strenuous outdoor activities, individuals with
respiratory disease such as asthma, and individuals
with unusual susceptibility to ozone.

                                                          Historical Air Quality Index
                                                                  Pinellas County

                                          Good     Moderate      Unhealthful (Unhealthy Sensitive & Unhealthy)*
              Number of Days




                                   1991    1992   1993   1994   1995   1996     1997   1998    1999*    2000

            * Beginning in 1999, the unhealthful category was divided into 2 subgroups, unhealthy for sensitive groups and unhealthy.


                               Figure 11: Historical AQI 10-year Annual Trend

                                                                        11
                            Program Operations
        AIR MONITORING

  T     he framework for a well developed air
        quality management strategy begins with
a balanced ambient monitoring
network. A fully approved monitoring                                                           1. Oakwood
network must comply with uniform                                                               2. Eastlake
criteria for network design,                                                                   3. Curlew
                                                                                               4. Dunedin
measurement methodology, instrument
                                                                                               5. SPJC Clearwater
siting and spatial representation, as
                                                                                               6. P.C Motor Pool
defined in the code of Federal
                                                                                               7. Gateway
Regulations.                                                                                   8. Lift Station #65
     The monitoring of ambient air                                                             9. Resource Recovery
quality in Pinellas County is conducted                                                       10. Derby Lane
through a system of periodic and                                                              11. Azalea
                                                                                              12. Tyrone
continuous sampling stations around
                                                                                              13. Woodlawn
the county. The data collected from
these networks provide the basis for
developing the daily Air Quality
Index, reviewing air pollution
permits and evaluating the overall
effectiveness of air pollution control
strategies. These monitoring sites are
part of what is known as the National
Ambient Monitoring Stations (NAMS) and
the State and Local Air Monitoring Stations
(SLAMS).
     The county’s air monitoring network is an
EPA approved program that has been in
operation since 1975. The Air Monitoring
Program measures air pollution concentration
levels by operating two networks of air sampling
stations or air monitors located throughout the
County. Air pollutants from businesses, industry
and transportation sources are monitored in
areas of expected maximum as well as typical             Figure 12: Air Monitoring Stations
concentrations. All monitoring data is subjected
to a rigorous quality assurance program to
ensure that the data are valid, representative,         In addition, the Air Monitoring Program is
complete and of known precision and accuracy.           subject to state and federal audits.

                                                   12
    The Air Monitoring’s Environmental                           and publishing of the daily Air Quality Index
Laboratory is responsible for sampling and                       (AQI), conducts monitoring to provide a basis to
identification for lead, asbestos, acid deposition,              evaluate permit review and conducts monitoring
particulates and provides technical information                  for special projects. Figure 12 displays the location
to the public and private sectors on issues related              of monitoring sites in the county and Table 3 is a
to air pollution.                                                summary of the monitoring station’s sampling
                                                                 method, analytical technique and location.
    Air Monitoring participates in the preparation

            Analytical Techniques, Site Locations and Pollutants
          POLLUTANT                          SAMPLING METHOD                         ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE
  PM10                                SSI-High Volume Sampler                  Gravimetric
  Lead                                High Volume Sampler                      Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
  Sulfur Dioxide                      Continuous Sampler                       Fluorescence
  Oxides of Nitrogen                  Continuous Sampler                       Chemiluminescence
  Ozone                               Continuous Sampler                       Ultraviolet Photometry
  Carbon Monoxide                     Continuous Sampler                       Infrared Gas Filter Correlation
  Toxic VOC’s                         Canister Sampler                         GC – MS
  PM2.5                               Sequential Sampler                       Gravimetric

          SITE NAME                  NEAREST INTERSECTION LOCATION                   POLLUTANT MONITORED
  East Lake Tarpon                    John A. Chesnut Sr. Park                 SO2, O3, PM10
  SPJC/Clearwater Campus              Clearwater Campus                        O3
  Motor Pool                          100th St & Ulmerton Rd                   PM10
  Derby Lane                          San Martin Blvd & 98th Ave               SO2
  Resource Recovery                   43rd St & 118th Ave N                    SO2
  Azalea Park                         72nd St & 22 Ave N                       NO2, CO, O3, PM10, Toxic
                                                                               VOC’s, PM2.5,
  Tyrone Square                       66th St & Tyrone Blvd                    CO
  Woodlawn                            19th St N & 13th Ave N                   PM10
  Curlew Road                         Curlew Rd & McMullen Booth Rd CO
  Gateway                             34th St N & Ulmerton Rd                  CO, Toxic VOC’s
  Lift Station #65                    47th St N & 115th Ct                     Pb
  Oakwood                             US Hwy 19 N & Oakwood St                 SO2
  Dunedin Middle School               Union St & Patricia Ave                  PM2.5

Table 3: Analytical Techniques, Site Locations and Pollutants

                                                            13
          Air Toxics Monitoring                           During 2000, VOC samplers operated at the
                                                        Azalea Park and Gateway monitoring sites. The
       itle III of the 1990 Clean Air Act
 T     Amendments lists Hazardous Air
Pollutants (HAP’s) and requires
                                                        samplers are electronic and utilize a six liter
                                                        specially treated stainless steel canister to
                                                                      collect one sample over a 24 hour
that source emissions of these
                                                                          period, every 6 days. Samples were
toxic air pollutants be
                                                                              analyzed with EPA method
regulated. HAP’s are of
                                                                                 TO-14 using a gas
interest not only because
                                                                                   chromatograph         mass
they may pose adverse health
                                                                                     spectrometer (GC-MS)
and environmental effects, but
                                                                                       instrument.      Forty
also because a great deal remains
                                                                                        different compounds
to be learned about these
                                                                                        were analyzed; most
pollutants due to the limited amount
                                                                                        of which are from the
of available ambient monitoring
                                                                                       list of compounds
studies. A significant number of the
                                                                                       classified as HAP’s by
pollutants monitored by Pinellas
                                                                                     the U.S. Environmental
County’s Air Toxic Monitoring                      Air Monitoring Section
                                                                                  Protection Agency. Some
Program are HAP’s. For 2000, these pollutants,
                                                        of the non-HAP’s, such as various freon
measured at two monitoring sites, are classified
                                                        compounds, are significant “greenhouse
as volatile organic compounds (VOC’s).
                                                        gasses”. A summary of these VOC pollutants is
Monitoring of toxic airborne metals was
                                                        displayed in Table 4 on the following page.
discontinued in 1998.




                                                                    Various daily activities of the
                                                                    Air Monitoring Section.




                                                   14
                            Pinellas County 2000 VOC Data Summary
                                 24 Hour Max Concentration                       Annual Average Concentration
                          Azalea Park Gateway Azalea Park Gateway Azalea Park Gateway             Azalea Park Gateway
 Compound                   (ppbv)     (ppbv)      (µg/m ) 3
                                                                    (µg/m )
                                                                         3
                                                                              (ppbv)   (ppbv)       (µg/m3)   (µg/m3)
  Freon 114                   nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† vinyl chloride              nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† methyl bromide            1.17        0.85        4.52         3.32          0.08      0.08        0.32     0.32
† chloroethane              0.12        0.37        0.31         0.96          0.03      0.04        0.08     0.10
  Freon 11                  5.79        1.47       32.55         8.25          0.68      0.42        3.80     2.35
† 1,1-dichloroethene          nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† methylene chloride        0.31        0.28        1.07         0.98          0.14      0.14        0.48     0.50
  Freon 113                 0.11        0.11        0.80         0.81          0.08      0.08        0.63     0.65
† 1,1-dichloroethane          nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
  cis-1,2- dichloroethylene   nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† chloroform                0.21        0.09        1.04         0.45          0.04      0.04        0.21     0.18
† 1,2-dichloroethane          nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† 1,1,1-trichloroethane     0.41        0.10        2.23         0.53          0.06      0.05        0.34     0.25
† benzene                   1.16        1.73        3.69         5.52          0.34      0.68        1.08     2.18
† carbon tetrachloride      0.12        0.11        0.77         0.68          0.10      0.09        0.60     0.58
† 1,2-dichloropropane         nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† trichloroethylene         1.37        0.09          nd         0.47          0.05      0.03          nd     0.16
† cis-1,3-dichloropropene     nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† trans-1,3-dichloropropene   nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† 1,1,2-trichloroethane       nd        0.11          nd         0.61            nd      0.02          nd     0.09
† toluene                   3.00        4.32       11.29        16.28          0.80      1.57        3.02     5.90
† 1,2 dibromoethane           nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† tetrachloroethene         0.12        0.18        0.81         1.19          0.03      0.04        0.22     0.25
† chlorobenzene               nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† ethylbenzene              0.41        0.40        1.76         1.72          0.11      0.18        0.50     0.79
† m & p -xylene             1.29        1.33        5.60         5.78          0.39      0.61        1.68     2.66
† styrene                   0.39        3.98        1.68        16.97          0.08      0.40        0.35     1.69
† 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane nd            nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd
† o-xylene                  0.44        0.46        1.92         1.98          0.11      0.19        0.47     0.82
  1,3,5-trimethylbenzene 0.21           0.23        1.04         1.15          0.05      0.08        0.23     0.39
  1,2,4-trimethylbenzene 0.75           0.83        3.71         4.10          0.19      0.31        0.93     1.52
  1,3-dichlorobenzene       0.04        0.03        0.22         0.16          0.01      0.01        0.06     0.05
† 1,4-dichlorobenzene       0.08        0.05        0.49         0.29          0.02      0.02        0.15     0.11
  1,2-dichlorobenzene       0.02          nd        0.10           nd          0.01        nd        0.04       nd
† 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene    0.04          nd        0.33           nd          0.02        nd        0.11       nd
† hexachloro-1,3-butadiene    nd          nd          nd           nd            nd        nd          nd       nd

† Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s).
nd = below the method detection limit ppbv = parts per billion by volume µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter




Table 4: Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in 2000




                                                               15
   PERMITTING AND COMPLIANCE                              any combination of hazardous air pollutants.
                                                      Compliance staff inspects permitted and
T     he Permitting and Compliance Program
      oversees both permitted and
unpermitted sources of air
                                                        unpermitted sources, investigates citizen’s
                                                           complaints, compiles annual emission
pollution within Pinellas                                      inventories for air pollutants, inspects
County. These include                                                 gasoline stations and tanker trucks
toxic and hazardous sources                                              for vapor recovery, and enforces
as well as oil fired power                                                    the County’s Comprehensive
plants, waste incineration                                                       Air Quality Ordinance.
facilities, gasoline stations,                                                  During 2000 the staff
paint and coating operations, dry                                                processed twenty-seven (27)
cleaners and other sources that emit                                             consent orders, which result
volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). Permitting and Compliance Section          from an enforcement action
                                                                       that requires the facility to make
Permitting staff review state permit applications     corrective changes and/or pay a penalty. Total
for air pollution sources to ensure compliance        penalties collected in 2000 were $33,883 (see
with control standards. In 2000, the permitting       table 5).
staff conducted 100 permit reviews that
consisted of 17 major and 83 minor facility           Asbestos/Air Toxics staff inspects permitted and
source permits, with seven (7) facilities issued      unpermitted sources, investigates complaints,
waivers. Multiple reviews may be completed on         (see table 6) inspects demolition and renovation
one permitting action. A major facility is one        projects for proper removal and disposal of
that emits 100 tons/yr. of criteria pollutants, or    asbestos material, and cooperates with state and
10 tons of any single hazardous air pollutant, or     local agencies for asbestos notifications. Other
25 tons of any combination of hazardous air           activities include computer modeling to evaluate
pollutants. A minor facility is one that emits less   potential air toxics emission impacts,
than 100 tons of any criteria pollutant, and          development of an air toxics control program
either less than 10 tons of a single, or 25 tons of   and special section projects.

            Compliance Activities                                       Citizen’s Complaints
  Type                                   Quantity           Type                                   Quantity
  Asbestos Investigations                     108           Asbestos                                     32
  Asbestos Removal Projects                   403           Fugitive Dust                                85
  Compliance Inspections (Unpermitted)         74           Miscellaneous                                19
  Compliance Inspections (Permitted)          441           Odor                                        117
  Gasoline Service Station Inspections        418           Open Burning & Smoke                         20
  Gasoline Tanker Drops                        16           Paint Fumes                                  44
  Test Report Review                          138           Sandblasting                                 18
  Consent Orders                               27           VOC Fumes                                    13
  Warning Letters                              93

  Penalties Collected                    $ 33,883           Total Complaints                            348

Table 5: Compliance Activities                             Table 6: Citizen’s Complaints


                                                     16
              Point Source Inventory                                        tons per year were derived from activity levels
                                                                            provided in each source’s Annual Operating
   T   he Air Quality Division prepares an
       annual emissions inventory of all
permitted stationary point sources, which are
                                                                            Report and, when available, from specific source
                                                                            testing information. Quality assurance checks
                                                                            of input data included reviews for completeness,
required to submit an annual operating report.
                                                                            accuracy and reasonableness. EPA’s Compilation
Minor sources, such as concrete batch plants,
                                                                            of Emissions Factors Manual (AP-42) and
animal crematories, and human crematories, are
                                                                            Source Codes and Emission Factor Listing for
not required to submit annual reports.
                                                                            Criteria Air Pollutants (FIRE v5.0) were used to
Estimates of actual emissions of particulates,
                                                                            provide the appropriate emission factors on a
oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, carbon
                                                                            “best fit” basis (see table 7).
monoxide, and volatile organic compounds in

        2000 EMISSION INVENTORY OF STATIONARY POINT SOURCES
                      PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA1
                                                                                                                  Volatile
                                                                      Oxides of          Oxides of    Carbon      Organic
                              Particulate          Particulate         Sulfur            Nitrogen    Monoxide    Compound
Source Category                   (PM)              (PM10)              (SOx)              (NOx)       (CO)        (VOC)

                                                         Manufacturing Process
Fiberglass Boat Mfg.              0.03                0.04                0.0               0.0        0.0         313.2
Misc. Manufacturing               1.2  3
                                                      3.23
                                                                          0.8               2.8        10.1        54.4

                                                                Surface Coating
Coil Coating                      0.1  3
                                                      0.13
                                                                          0.0               1.5        15.2         0.9
Paper Coating                     0.1  3
                                                      0.13
                                                                          0.0               1.5        1.3         37.2
Plastic Coating                    0.0                0.0                 0.0               0.0        0.0          7.9
Misc. Surface Coating             0.0  4
                                                      0.04
                                                                          0.0               0.3        0.0         81.7

                                                                 Solvent Use
Graphic Arts                      1.43                0.13                0.0               0.7        0.6         155.6
Asphalt Plants                    2.44                0.83               20.1              19.9        8.9         44.72
Misc. Solvent Use                 0.43                0.34                0.0               0.1        0.1         270.6

                                                             Combustion Sources
Electric Utilities               479.84              340.64           18,637.6            3,461.0     406.9        48.8
Municipal Waste                   13.2   3
                                                     13.1   5
                                                                        115.3             1,344.5      73.0        21.3
Misc. Combustion                  16.2   3
                                                      7.94
                                                                          8.1              32.2        35.0         3.4
TOTAL                            514.8               366.2            18,781.9            4,864.5     551.1       1,039.7

1. Emissions are reported in tons per year (tpy)         2. TOC (Total Organic Compounds) not VOC
3. Total PM or PM10                                      4. Filterable PM or PM10
5. PM10 not specified for Municipal Waste



Table 7: 2000 Permitted Point Source Inventory

                                                                       17
       PLANNING AND ANALYSIS                               Throughout the year, various air quality issues
                                                          and policies come before our elected and
       he Air Quality Planning and
  T    Analysis Program is responsible
for development reviews, policy
                                                             appointed officials on the Board of County
                                                                  Commissioners and the Metropolitan
                                                                     Planning Organization. In these
analysis, air monitoring site                                          instances, the Division provides
analysis and coordination of the                                        technical support and expertise at
Division’s public education                                               meetings, workshops and public
and outreach program                                                       hearings to provide a clear
which develops public                                                       understanding of the issues and
information material and                                                    their potential impact on
provides public speakers.                                                   Pinellas County. This includes
Other planning activities                                                  policy analysis and briefings
include projects such as                                               regarding changes to federal and
preparing the Division’s annual air Planning and Analysis Section   state regulations, local air quality
quality report, air quality transportation analysis, permitting issues and revisions to the Florida
development of emission inventories and special State Implementation Plan.
research projects.




                                                                         Representative brochures
                                                                         developed by Planning
                                                                         and Analysis Section in
                                                                         cooperation with Pinellas
                                                                         County Department of
                                                                         Public Affairs.




                                                    18
                  ADMINISTRATION                 coordination, media relations and clerical
                                                 support. Table 8 and Figure 13 show the
        dministration         supports      key Division’s expenses and revenue from sources
   A    administrative and daily operational other than local county taxes for fiscal year
 needs. Staff is responsible for maintaining the 1999/2000.
 division’s budget and federal grants, program
 and policy development, interagency
       Fiscal Year 1999/2000 Expenses
       Local Air Pollution Control Fund
                  (License Plate Fee)

 Personnel Services                      $ 472,515
 Operating Expense                         191,254
 Subtotal                                  663,769
            Air Pollution Recovery Fund
 Operating Expense                        $ 48,494
 Capital Outlay                             59,655
 Subtotal                                  108,149
             Air Quality General Fund
 Personnel Services                      $ 804,510
 Operating Expense                          59,880
                                                                                              Administration Section
 Subtotal                                  864,390
            Total Expenses $ 1,636,308
                                                             Program Revenue
 Table 8: Fiscal Year Expenses                                 Fiscal Year 1999/2000

                                         FDEP Asbestos Fee Pass-Thru         $18,320                                  Total
                                        FDEP Title V Program Contract                       $182,382                Revenue
                                                                                                                   $1,280,464
                                        FDEP Air Monitoring Contract            $59,022
                                           EPA Section 105 Air Grant                         $203,170
                                        EPA Section 103 PM2.5 Grant                $70,747
                                    Air Pollution Recovery Trust Fund              $38,708
                                     Local Air Pollution Control Fund                                                              $708,115
                                                                        0   100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000
                                                                                                   Dollars

                                   Figure 13: Revenue / External Funding Sources



                  Regulations and Special Projects
 Regulatory Update for 2000                      began a broader strategy that includes a national
                                                 assessment of ambient air toxic concentrations
          Urban Air Toxics Strategy              and the development of a national monitoring

W      hile the U.S. Environmental Protection network. In 1999, the EPA published an
       Agency (EPA) continues to develop rules Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy in the
for sources of air toxic emissions, the EPA also federal register. The Strategy is a plan outlining


                                                               19
actions to address air toxics in urban areas. It           nationwide. The data is used to determine a
includes developing regulations that address the           county’s compliance with National Ambient Air
sources of air toxic emissions, initiating pilot           Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone,
monitoring projects in urban and rural areas,              particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon
characterizing risks to the public, and enhancing          monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. Pinellas
education and outreach programs to inform the              County continues to be in compliance with
public.                                                    NAAQS for all six pollutants.
In July 2000, the EPA proposed new regulations   In 1997, EPA promulgated a new NAAQS for
to control the emissions of hazardous air        ozone, based on a 8-hour average, that would be
pollutants (HAP’s) from mobile sources. The      more protective of public health than the 1-hour
proposed regulations address hazardous           ozone standard. EPA’s authority to implement
pollutant levels in fuels, engine and vehicle    the new standard was challenged and appealed
emissions standards, and provide a commitment    and finally escalated to the level of the Supreme
to evaluate additional controls in the future.   Court. Despite the uncertainty regarding when
Also, the EPA and state and local air agencies,  they would be able to fully implement the new
drafted an air toxics monitoring concept plan.   8-hour ozone standard, in March 2000, the EPA
                                                 issued guidance on determining 8-hour ozone
The plan called for one-year, pilot city studies in
urban and rural areas, nationwide. Four major    nonattainment boundaries. The Florida
metropolitan areas were selected: Providence,    Department of Environmental Protection
RI; Detroit, MI; Seattle, WA; and the Tampa      (DEP) asked EPA to wait until all 1999 through
Bay area. Each pilot city study will measure     2001 ozone data are available before making any
                                                 designation for the Tampa Bay area. The
ambient levels of 18 air toxics representing a core
list of HAP’s. One year of monitoring data,      exceptional conditions caused by wildfires in
expected to begin collection in 2001, will be    Mexico and Central America in 1998 cast
used to characterize air toxic levels in urban   uncertainty on ozone data for that year. In
areas, and compare them to the estimated         contrast, the Pinellas County Environmental
ambient air toxic concentrations calculated      Management, Air Quality Division prepared a
through the National Air Toxics Assessment       technical analysis based strictly on the EPA
currently under development.                     guidance. However, due to the pending court
                                                 decisions, it is very likely that ozone designations
Overall, the EPA is taking a very prudent
                                                 for the 8-hour standard will be determined in
approach to reducing air toxic emissions by
                                                 2002.
involving state and local air quality programs
and the affected industries. New or revised Meanwhile, in order to maintain a level of public
emission standards are based on available health protection, the EPA reinstated the 1-hour
technology, whereas future review or assessment ozone standard in those areas where the standard
of progress will be based on reducing health and had previously been revoked. The Tampa Bay
environmental risks.                             area is currently in compliance with the NAAQS
                                                 for ozone and does not appear to be in danger of
                NAAQS Status                     violating the 1-hour ozone standard in the near
                                                 future.
T    he EPA annually reviews ambient air
     monitoring data collected in counties


                                                      20
     National Air Toxics Assessment                              toxics across the contiguous United States,
                                                              3. Estimating population exposures across
                                                                 the contiguous United States, and
  U     nder the Clean Air Act (CAA)
        Amendments of 1990, the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is
                                                              4. Characterizing potential public health risk
                                                                 due to inhalation of air toxics in 1996,
required to reduce lifetime cancer risks from                    including both cancer and non-cancer
major sources of 188 hazardous air pollutants                    effects.
(HAP’s) to one in one million. The CAA requires              There are certain limitations to the assessment:
that over time EPA regulations for major sources             the analysis is based on 1996 data only, it assesses
should “provide an ample margin of safety to                 only 33 air toxics plus diesel exhaust; it only
protect public health.” Benchmark concentrations             addresses inhalation exposures and risks; it does
are the amount of a pollutant below which there is           not capture localized impacts and risks; and
likely to be no public health concern. For a                 finally, it focuses on average population risks for
carcinogenic hazard, EPA uses a benchmark                    ambient outdoor exposure only. There are also
concentration of one in a million excess probability         uncertainties inherent in the assessment,
of contracting cancer over a lifetime of exposure.           including: the quality of the emission in
For non-carcinogens, EPA’s benchmark                         inventories and other data sources; the range of
concentrations are based on long-term or short-              error and uncertainty within the dispersion and
term exposure. For long-term exposure, the                   exposure models; the uncertainty and variability
inhalation reference concentration is used to                in Unit Risk Estimates; and the uncertainty in
represent that level. For short-term exposure, the           reference concentrations used for non-cancer
benchmark chosen is a Level of Concern                       risks. In general terms, on a national scale, mobile
developed for the Superfund program divided                  and area sources are responsible for a majority of
by a factor of 1000, for added safety. The Level             the health risks identified in this initial NATA
of Concern is indicative of levels of airborne               study.
concentrations of chemicals for which no serious
irreversible health effects are expected to occur               Pinellas County’s review of the NATA study
after exposure to the pollutant for 30 minutes.              and available ambient air toxics monitoring data
                                                             has identified a list of HAP’s which are estimated,
   EPA is currently conducting a National-scale              from models, to be present in concentrations
Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) that includes 33                exceeding public health protective screening
air toxics that present the greatest threat to public        thresholds, or benchmarks, across the region.
health in the largest number of urban areas. The             Ambient median exposure concentrations of
goal of NATA is to identify those air toxics that            diesel emissions, benzene, formaldehyde, carbon
are of greatest potential concern, in terms of               tetrachloride and acrolein have been identified,
contribution to population risk. The results will            from the study, as having the greatest impact on
be used to set priorities for the collection of              ambient air concentration in Pinellas County.
additional air toxics data. The assessment also              Motor vehicles are significant contributors to
includes diesel particulate matter that is used as a         emissions of these pollutants.
surrogate measure for diesel exhaust.
                                                                A national news release from the
The assessment includes four steps that look at              Environmental Defense Fund, on July 12, 2001,
the year 1996:                                               “Diesel Cancer Risk Dwarfs All Other Air Toxics
  1. Compiling a national emissions inventory                Combined,” indicated that the dominance of
     of air toxics emissions from outdoor                    diesel exhaust in air pollution is a revelation,
     sources,                                                since earlier air toxics studies did not analyze for
  2. Estimating ambient concentrations of air

                                                        21
it. Diesel pollution comes from both diesel             automobile exhaust emissions. It is important to
vehicles on the roads, like trucks and buses, and       remember that these compounds have certain
from offroad equipment like bulldozers and              limitations and uncertainties inherent in the
heavy construction equipment. A review in               NATA models, and that health effects described
Journal of Air & Waste Management1 cited diesel         take into account all exposure routes, not just
as being one of the largest contributors to             inhalation. Therefore, there may be very little
environmental pollution problems worldwide,             risk or no risk at all from the above-mentioned
with diesel emissions contributing to the               HAP’s. As mentioned in NATA, the study was
development of cancer; cardiovascular and               “not designed and is not appropriate”
respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water,    specifically, for identifying local- or regional-
and soil; reductions in visibility; and global          scale air toxics “hot spots,” nor is it appropriate
climate change. Diesel exhaust contains                 for identifying localized risks or individual risks
hundreds of different chemical compounds, with          from air toxics.
over 40 of them listed by EPA as harmful to
                                                           The success of the NATA study depends, in
human health or the environment. EPA’s Mobile
                                                        part, on compiling ambient monitoring data
Source Control Programs, including national
                                                        needed to characterize air toxics concentrations
low emission vehicle (NLEV), reformulated
                                                        and depositions, which occurs through the
gasoline (RFG), Tier 2 motor vehicle emissions
                                                        validation and adjustment of the models used in
standards and gasoline sulfur control
                                                        the assessment to simulate real-world conditions.
requirements, and the proposed heavy-duty
                                                        Therefore, EPA is establishing a national
engine and vehicle standards and on-highway
                                                        network for collecting additional data by
diesel fuel sulfur control requirements, are
                                                        providing grant dollars to support the analysis of
designed to reduce emissions from mobile
                                                        existing and new ambient air toxics monitoring
sources. EPA projects that between 1990-2020;
                                                        data. Four urban area pilot projects and six small
these programs will reduce on-highway diesel
                                                        community pilot projects were funded for this
emission by 90 percent 2.
                                                        purpose. The Tampa Bay Area, consisting of
   Of the other HAP’s modeled in NATA for               Pinellas County and Hillsborough County, were
Pinellas County, benzene is the only known              selected as one of the four large urban pilot
human carcinogen, and is found in emissions             projects, to monitor ambient HAP emissions
from burning coal and oil, vehicle exhaust, and         during 2001. This project, Tampa Bay Region
evaporation from gasoline service stations.             Air Toxics Study (TBRATS), utilizes EPA
Acrolein is formed from the breakdown of                approved air toxics sampling methods to
certain pollutants. Exposure may occur from             measure ambient concentrations of 18
smoking tobacco or breathing vehicle exhaust or         compounds listed as “core” pollutants, from the
polluted air around oil or coal power plants.           33 urban HAP’s, from the NATA study.
Carbon tetrachloride is a common contaminant
found in building materials and at landfills. In
Pinellas County, monitored levels are much
lower than modeled estimates from the NATA              1
                                                          Lloyd, AC and TA Cackette. Diesel Engines:
study. Thus, carbon tetrachloride may or may            Environmental Impact and Control. J. of Air & Waste
not be a concern in Pinellas County. Further            Management. 2001. 51 (6) 809-847.
evaluation is needed to make any prudent                2
                                                          Federal Register: 66 (61). 2001, March 29. Control of
decisions on the hazards of carbon tetrachloride.       Emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants From Mobile
Formaldehyde is found in emissions from power           Sources: Final Rule.
plants, manufacturing facilities, incinerators and


                                                   22
Motor Vehicle Inspection Program                       understanding of air pollution in the southeastern
                                                       United States, specifically that ozone formation
                                                       is driven by the emissions of nitrogen oxides
  T     he Florida Motor Vehicle Inspection
        Program (MVIP) began on April 1, 1991
and ended on June 29, 2000. For the nine years
                                                       (NOx), indicates the need for control programs
                                                       to address NOx. Although the MVIP did not
of operation, the inspection and maintenance           test for NOx, vehicle repairs to correct for high
(I/M) program contributed to the improvement           HC and CO levels, indirectly resulted in reduced
of air quality and the reduction of motor vehicle      NOx emissions by 2%. However, according to
emissions in Pinellas County. In 1991, 13% of          the 2000 Florida Legislature, this minimal
the registered vehicles in the County failed the       reduction was not enough to justify the cost and
exhaust emissions test and/or the anti-tampering       inconvenience to the consumer. In addition, the
inspection; by 2000, the number of failing             U.S. EPA proposed lower emission standards for
vehicles was down to 5%. This improvement in           new vehicles and cleaner gasoline standards that
emission test performance from motor vehicles          will become effective in 2004. Therefore, new
registered in the County is due, in part to the        motor vehicles will be cleaner in the coming years.
education and awareness regarding the routine          As a result, the MVIP contracts were not renewed
maintenance needs for automobiles and the              and the program terminated.
retirement of older, high polluting vehicles. The         Motor vehicles continue to be a significant
older vehicles lacked the emission control             contributor to air pollution levels in Pinellas
technologies incorporated in newer cars through        County and the Tampa Bay area. Ozone levels
the 1980’s and 1990’s. In 1981, cars were              remain marginally below the national standard.
equipped with a better-designed catalytic              If, in the future, the area fails to maintain
converter, and by 1986, multi-point fuel               compliance with the national air quality
injection was common in most new cars. In              standards for ozone or fine particulate matter, an
addition, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990         I/M program will again be considered in any
required stricter emission standards beginning         control strategy assessment.              Future
with 1994 models. Each year older cars with            nonattainment of the standards does not
deteriorating emission controls are removed from       guarantee a return of the program. However,
our roadways and thus, the average motor vehicle       carefully constructed I/M programs remain a
emissions from all the cars driving today are          cost-effective measure in reducing emissions from
lowered.                                               motor vehicles.
   A technical analysis of the MVIP1 completed
by the Air Quality Division in March 1999
illustrated the declining effectiveness of the
exhaust test procedure utilized in the program. 1 “Evaluation of Potential Changes to the Florida Motor
The MVIP used an idle-mode test for Vehicle Inspection Program”, Pinellas County
hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) Environmental Management, Division of Air Quality,
emissions. This procedure is very capable of March 1999.
detecting high polluting vehicles but not as
effective in detecting emissions moderately above
the vehicle standards. In addition, a better



                                                  23
                                   REFERENCES

Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume 1, Fifth Edition, AP-42. Research Triangle
      Park, NC; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and
      Standards.

1990 Clean Air Act as Amended. Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.
      Government Printing Office, November 1990.

Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in the Ambient
     Air, 2nd Supplement. Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.
     Government Printing Office, June 1988.

Motor Vehicle Inspection Program 1999 Annual Report. Tallahassee, FL; Florida Department of
      Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, December 1999.

Air Quality Data Handling System - II Statistical Reports. Clearwater, FL; Pinellas County
       Department of Environmental Management/Air Quality Division, 1999.

Pinellas County 1987 - 1999 Annual Air Quality Reports. Clearwater, FL; Pinellas County
        Department of Environmental Management/Air Quality Division.

Source Classification Codes and Emission Factor Listing for Criteria Air Pollutants (FIRE v5.0).
       Research Triangle Park, NC; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality
       Planning and Standards, August 1995.

National Air Pollution Emission Trends, 1900-1998. EPA-454/R-00-002. Research Triangle Park,
       NC; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and
       Standards, March 2000.




                                               24
        Department of Environmental Management

                 AIR QUALITY DIVISION




 1)   Peter Hessling          18)   Gary Robbins
 2)   Mike Ojo Thomas         19)   Alain Watson
 3)   Erika Tuchbaum          20)   Jose Rodriguez
 4)   Chris R. Brodeur        21)   Cinder Berrian
 5)   Brennan H. Farrington   22)   Deb Price
 6)   Jimeng Fu               23)   Debbie Palumbo
 7)   Mike Hudson             24)   Mary Evans
 8)   Bill Travis             25)   Shea Jackson
 9)   Wayne Martin
10)   Michael Liadis          (Not pictured): Tammy Allen
11)   Jeff Morris
12)   Tom Stringfellow        Photographer: Joan Panabaker,
13)   Matt McCann             Pinellas County Department
14)   Michele Long            of Public Affairs
15)   Vicki Taylor
16)   Pwu-Sheng Liu
17)   Nancy Galliher


                                          25
                                  This document is printed on recycled paper.

Pinellas County complies with the Americans with Disabilities Act. To obtain accessible formats of the document, please contact
                  the Department of Environmental Management at: (727) 464-4761/TDD (727) 464-4106

				
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