THE STRATEGY OF SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT (SBM) by yunisiklil

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									                                               ABSTRACT

         THE STRATEGY OF SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT (SBM) AND
TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT (BBM) PROGRAM
                                        (A Comparative Study)
Afin Masyhuri

          School-Based Management (SBM) is a new system which considered as prominent thing that
surely could produce the expected outputs. It’s conceived conceptually as either of the formal alternative
choices to manage the structure of education establishment which has been decentralized, by placing the
inherent classes as the prime units for the improvement. And besides that, SBM is also the way to
motivate the head of school to be responsible to the student’s quality. Apart from this case, Boarding-
school has quite strategic position in the National education system, even unfortunately there are many
persons don’t get it apparently. The existence of boarding-school among the society has run for a long
time, but it became the reliable education model in the sportive competition. Boarding-school was
acknowledged as institution which has given the genuine contributions for the preservation of values and
religion life which is always acquired in the nation social construction.
          The purpose of this study to know the strategy of School-Based Management and Traditional
Islamic Boarding School-Based Management program and the both obstacle.
          This is literary research, to obtain the significant data the researcher uses the documentary
method in order to get the obvious and valid data concerning the strategy of School-Based Management
and Traditional Islamic Boarding School-Based Management program also the obstacle. To analyze the
data the researcher uses the descriptive, inductive, and comparative method.
          The result of this study truly expound that 1) The strategy of School- Based Management
program: Codifying the principal data and school profile which is more presentative, accurate, valid,
Executing self-assessment, school is to identify its needs and to formulate vision and mission , to plan and
codify either the long-range program or short-range one (annual) together including its budget, the
understanding of sides who concern to the School-Based Management, the weakness of skill in the
process of decision-making, the communication quality, a trust among sides who have interests, the
unwillingness of educational administrator and the teacher in the receiving the intervention of authority,
to mean and interpret the accountability, interrelation of School-Based Management with the social-
economy condition perceived by community, the ambiguity of implementation of School-Based
Management in the circle of Islamic education, as education is belong to region (region’s authority) and
in other side the religion is belong to central government (under authority of central government) and so
on that ought to be anticipated. 2) Meanwhile, the strategy of Traditional Islamic Traditional Islamic
Boarding School-Based Management program: to change the centralistic leadership become
transformative one, participative decision-taking, to embody the conflict management in order to
overcome either internal conflict or external one, re-orientation of traditional cadrezation system become
modern one, for the traditional system is not so effective, to improve the guidelines of curriculum and the
instruction, as the curriculum of pesantren commonly is not systemic and depends on the kiai, in the
financial managemen the boarding-school ought to separate the pesantren’s property and individual
owned for the sole purpose of transparancy. Whether the obstacles of boarding-school are: commonly
boarding-school is in the centralistic leadership and there is no transparancy, the boarding-school
commonly belongs to the individual (family) not community, kiai can easily submit the leadership to his
beloved son on account of heredity factor and he is not elected by community, the curriculum of
traditional Islamic boarding-school is commonly rigid, and it is taken from the place where kiai study,
The unwillingness of Kiai to adopt the innovative and reformative opinion and thought, for he is worry
loss favor of science obtained from his teacher.
          Based on this research, the writer truly expects all educators to know thoroughly and conceive
well the strategy of School-Based Management and Traditional Islamic Boarding School-Based
Management program, for these have given the tremendous contribution particularly in making the
national education successful.
                                      CHAPTER I

                                   INTRODUCTION

A. Background of study

As written in fundamental constitution 1945, Indonesia nation appeared

extremely to be resistance in filling the God’s favors and graces with the

preservation of the country in order to be prosperous, tranquility, and salvation. To

make the country smart ever to reconcile the world with the ceaseless and

convincing planning. And after several decades passed, there were absolutely many

       profound things achieved but, there were many things left and neglected too.

And on the contrary wise, last history and current one obviously indicates

that Indonesia is still in the state of huge challenge. The threat, affliction,

disruption, obstacle, and also the challenges which are certainly emanated from

                                       every direction, ever from inside and outside.

We can stare at disappointing remnants which are not escaping from the

suffusing lost, lacks, disadvantage from every aspect of country life. Whether the

most obvious indicator is about the fulfillment of citizen’s primer necessity which

becomes the determinant factor for the countries advancement, such as the health,

education, and the works. And Beside that, we’re also able to see another people’s

necessities which become the crucial thing for instance, politic, moral decadency,

unfairness, and the culture crisis also the states dignity among the roundabout of

political wheel, globalization but our country is desperately writhing in the state of

                                                                             distress.
In the contemporary life, all of the nations are demanded to be able to have

the superior institution, whether its system, managements, ever the construction is

                      also the fundamental thing for the producing of skilled manpower.

As the nation which possesses the protection and projection system,

Indonesia has profound aims of the national education as written in The National

Education System (Sisdiknas) constitution of Indonesia number. 2 1989 about the

                        National Education System in the chapter II, section 4 as follow: 1

“ Aim of the National Education is to make nation life smart and to improve Indonesian
people intact, the faithful human being, obedient to the god, generous attitude, literate man,
handed-craft, spiritual and physical health, good behavior, self-reliant and responsibility
                                                                 toward society and nation”.



Hence, School-Based Management (SBM) is a new system which considered

as prominent thing that surely could produce the expected outputs. It’s conceived

conceptually as either of the formal alternative choices to manage the structure of

education establishment which has been decentralized, by placing the inherent

classes as the prime units for the improvement. And besides that, SBM is also the

        way to motivate the head of school to be responsible to the student’s quality. 2

The most essential philosophy of SBM in Indonesia is beside the alternative

one, it's also an inferential critic to the centralized education and no expected output

                                                                  produced (skilled manpower)




         1
           Drs. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah, Guru dan Anak Didik Dalam Interaksi Edukatif, (Jakarta:
Rineka Cipta, 2000), p. 25
         2
             Ibtisam Abu-Duhau, School – Based Management ,(Ciputat: PT. Logos Wacana Ilmu, 2002), p.
xvi
Concerning to the decentralization, SBM is explicitly advanced to build up

the effective school, while, the decentralization concept of SBM focuses to the self-

                               managing school, and it's not to the self-governing school.

It’s presumed in this decade happen some remarkable social and culture

transformation in the five significant pillars, there are political, economic, human

and society, culture, saints and technology. And definitely these shafts of socio-

cultural transformation have the tremendous effect for the educational world which

attempt to enhance its quality. Speaking pertaining to the educational world is not

merely confined in the academic spheres, but surely also to the religion and mental

sphere, skilled –manpower. The profile of National Education System (Sisdiknas)

that will be actualized in the decade is quite heavy; hence, the duty is not only

                     belong to the government, ever the society is involved in this case. 3

School-based management (SBM) is a manifestation of the government’s

attempt in the educational advancement as we saw in the first step it emerged just

relied on the quantitative aspect and in the next step qualitative aspect is

emphasized incessantly.4 And these all after requiring some adjacent countries

experience which have succeeded after implementation of SBM system since 1990

                                                                                     up to now. 5

Apart from this case, Islamic boarding-school also has the overwhelming

merits and the tremendous roles in the countries advancement. The history has


        3
         Prof. Dr.H.A.R. Tilaar, M. Sc. Ed. Manajemen pendidikan Nasional, (Bandung:                PT.
Remaja Rosdakarya, 2001), p. 82.
        4
            Drs. H. Abu Ahmadi dan Dra. Nur Uhbiyati, Ilmu Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Rinika Cipta, 2001), p.
261.
        5
            Opcit. Ibtisam Abu-Duhau, p. 3.
mentioned frankly, what a big contributions which have been given by boarding

school toward our country ever in education spheres, society, and the most

particular thing is religion sphere. Then the Islamic Boarding-school was

                                         mentioned as the community development.

Islamic boarding-school has quite strategic position in the National education

system, even unfortunately there are many persons don’t get it apparently. The

existence of Islamic boarding-school among the society has run for a long time, but

it became the reliable education model in the sportive competition. Islamic

boarding-school was acknowledged as institution which has given the genuine

contributions for the preservation of values and religion life which is always

                                          acquired in the nation social construction. 6

Most Islamic boarding-school practices the model of management which

orients to the inculcation of sincerity and volunteerism which is commonly renawed

by term “Lillahi Ta’ala”. This concept inspires the entire activities of Islamic

traditional boarding-school. But unfortunately, the concept was in the profound

disadvantage, primarily the disadvantage was caused by the unbalancing of ability

and the excellent professionalism till the practice of Islamic boarding-school

viewed from the aspect of modern management looks very disorder and inefficient. 7

Contemporarly, Islamic boarding-school is in the inclusive management

many traditional Islamic boarding schools renew its management with the

constructive one, but the principal below can’t be left. Islamic boarding-school is

       6
           Prof. Dr. Abdul Munir Mulkhan, SU. Menggagas Pesantren Masa Depan, (Yogyakarta:
Qirtas, 2003). p. 50-51.



       7
         Dr. H.M. Sulthon, M.Pd. dan Dr. Moh. Khusnuridlo, M.Pd. Manajemen Pondok Pesantren
dalam Perspektif Global, Yogyakarta: LaksBang, 2006. P. 32
very hopefully demanded to afford and produce education in Indonesia more

                        effective definitely by both strategy (protective and projective).

Meanwhile, the protective strategy focused to the precious principal as

                                                                                         follow:

                                                                       8



                                 It means: “preservation of old and good tradition”

And pertaining to the nature of the protective strategy is an attempt of

Educational Institution in the enhancing of the rating quality which is possessed by

student of Islamic boarding-school.           And then it will be protected from some

                                                   negative influences of the environment.

                   While, the projective strategy focused to the principal below:




                                             It means: “to take the new thing better”

We can describe that attempts which have been done by man of Islamic

boarding school to build and advance part of the potential that belong to

founder/head of boarding school ( kyiai), teachers, students of boarding-school, and

                                                                                       society.9



        8
           This principal is more renowned by the conservative attitude, in the case of education,
conservatism basically is the position which endorses the obedient toward institutions and processes of
culture which were examined by the time (that was established and old enough) with the profound respect
surely toward low and role as the basic of constructive social change, see William F. O’neil, Ideologi-
Ideologi Pendidikan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2002), p. 295

        9
          Kh. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, MA. Manajemen Pesantren Pengalaman Pondok Modern
Gontor, (Ponorogo: Trimurti Press, 2005), p. 36-37.
These all the cursory thing pertaining to the School-Based Management

(SBM) and traditional Islamic boarding school- based management (BBM), a

comparative study, the writer tries to research, discuss, and compare the both of

them in order to know either The strategy of School-Based Management and

Traditional Islamic Boarding School-Based Management program, the both

obstacles. And the writer verily expects the result of this research to be a precious

contribution for the teachers and the managers of Education Institution particularly

                                         Islamic Education Institution in Indonesia.




B. Problem Formulation

Based on the mentioned studies in the background of study above, the writer

             describes problems formulation and the problems limitation as follow:

   1. Problem formulation:

       a. How are the strategies of School-Based Management and Traditional Islamic

           Boarding School-Based Management program?

       b. What are the obstacles of School-Based Management and Traditional

           Islamic Boarding School-Based Management?

C. Purpose of Study

                                                    The purpose of this research are:
       1) To know the strategy of achievement of School-Based Management and

           Boarding School-Based Management program.

       2) To know the obstacles of School-Based Management and Boarding School-

           Based Management

D. Significance of Study

                                          And the significances of this research are:

       1) As the contribution for the teachers and managers of Education Institution

          and particularly Islamic Education Institution.

       2) To pursuit the better concept between School-Based Management (SBM)

          and Boarding-School-Based Management (BBM).

       3) As the constructive influence and stimulation for the writer on helping the

          empowerment of education in Indonesia, on account of the first experience

          in the writing thesis.

E. Literary Review

The study of School-Based Management and Traditional Islamic Boarding

School-Based Management was not the new problem in the educational discourse.

Meanwhile, one ever studied pertaining to this theme is Slamet Martono (student of

university of Darussalam Institute of Islamic Studies). He has studied concerning

           the School-Based Management (SBM) but in the aspect school financial.

The writer tries to analyze the strategy of School-Based Management and

Traditional Islamic Boarding School-Based Management program in order to be

                               able to compare them and to know the both obstacles.

F. Theoretical Framework
School-based management (SBM) is conceived as either of the formal

alternative choices to manage the structure of education establishment which has

been decentralized, by placing the classes as the prime units of the improvement. 10

And besides that, SBM is also the way to motivate the head 11 of school to be

                                                          responsible to the student's quality.

And in the improvement of school’s influences there must be a support from

the stakeholder which comprises: The region government, school committee (the

head school, teachers, student’s parents, and prominent figure of the society) and

also the students. The handling of stakeholder in the school level is the prime way in

                              the implementation of School-Based Management (SBM).12

Traditional Islamic Boarding School-Based Management (SBM) is one of

alternatif choice of Islamic boarding-school in the managing various potencies in

order to be endorses factor in the improving Islamic boarding school. But

unfortunately, Islamic boarding-school ever deal with various problem particularly

in the process of improving many potencies, such as human resources with the high

quality is lack, the means of boarding school is quite limited, the accountability of

                                                  soceity’s program is not optimally done. 13

G. Methodology of study


        10
             Drs. B. Suryobroto, Manajemen Pendidikan di Sekolah, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2004), P.195
        11
            Most of people publications addressing managements and leadership improvement in higher
education focus on area and issues that administrators should know to do their job effectively. However,
is on the process and methods of finding,developing, sustaining thoese administrator in their management
and leadership roles. See Marvin W. Peterson. Key Resourses On Higher Education Governance,
Management, And Leadership, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987) , p. 421.
        12
            Dr. E. Mulyasa, M.Pd, Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah, (Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya,
2006), P. 14
        13
          Dr. H.M. Sulthon, M.Pd. dan Dr. Moh. Khusnuridlo, M.Pd. "Manajemen Pondok Pesantren
dalam Perspektif Global",LaksBang, Yogyakarta, 2006. P. 21
  1.    Kind of Study

This study is library research, for the base of data is totally taken from the

books which describe the School-Based Management and Traditional Islamic

Boarding School-Based Management, and the books which describe the School-

Based Management and Traditional Islamic Boarding School-Based Management

are as the primary data. For the addition, the secondary data are definitely taken

from the books which involve School-Based Management and Boarding School-

                                                               Based Management indirectly.



  2.    The Data Source

The documentation method, the term of documentation is kinds of written

and pressed description, which truly can be used for the proof and explanation. 14

In searching the data in some documentations, the writer would like to search for

and observe the written articles such the book, Journal, magazines, articles, the

                                                                                  notes, and etc.

       a. Primary data source as research object as follow:

         1) Dr. E. Mulyasa, M.Pd, “ Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah” , Bandung, PT.

                Remaja Rosda Karya, 2006, P.59

         2) Dr. Fasli Jalal dan Prof. Dr. Dedi Supriadi, “Reformasi pendidikan dalam

                konteks otonomi daerah”, Adicita karya Nusa, Yogyakarta, 2001

         3) Drs. B.Suryosubroto, “Manajemen pendidikan di sekolah”, Rineka Cipta,

                Jakarta, 2004,




        14
             Moh Mazir Ph.D. Methode penelitan. (Jakarta : Ghalia Indonesia, Third edition, 1998) ,. p. 57
  4) Ibtisam Abu-Duhou, School –Based Management (Manajemen Berbasis

     Sekolah), PT. Logos Wacana Ilmu, ciputat, 2002

  5) Jurnal Tsaqafah” Institut Studi Islam Darussalam, Ponorogo, Volume 3,

     no. I, 1427 H.

  6) KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, M.A.”Gontor dan pembaharuan pendidian

     pesantren, PT. raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta, 2005

  7) KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, MA,” Manajemen pesantren pengalaman

     pondok modern Gontor”, Trimurti Press, Ponorogo, 2005

  8) Prof. Dr. Abdul Munir Mulkhan, SU. “ Menggagas Pesantren Masa Depan

     geliat suara santri untuk Indonesia baru”, Qirtas, Yogyakarta, 2003

  9) Prof. Dr. Sudarwaman Danim,” Agenda pembaharuan system pendidikan”,

     Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 2003

  10) Prof. H. D. Sudjana S., S.Pd., M. Ed., PhD. “Manajemen program

     Pendidikan”, Falah Production, Bandung , 2004

  11) Prof. H.A. Malik Fadjar, M.Sc. “Sintesa antara perguruan tinggi dengan

     pesantren, upaya menghadirkan Wacana pendidiakn alternative”,UIN

     Malang, 2004

  12) Oleh: M. Ali Hasan dan Mukti Ali, "Kapita Selekta Pendidikan Islam", CV.

     Pedoman Ilmu Jaya, Jakarta, 2003

  13) Dr. H.M. Sulthon, M.Pd. dan Dr. Moh. Khusnuridlo, M.Pd. "Manajemen

     Pondok Pesantren dalam Perspektif Global",LaksBang, Yogyakarta, 2006.


b. The secondary books are mentioned below:


  1) KH. Imam Zarkasyi di mata umat, gontor press, ponorogo, 1996
  2) Pesantren Beberapa tinjauan dan pengamatan tentang arah pendidikan
    agama. Profil kiai, pesantren, dan madrasah, Badan Litbang Agama,
    Departemen Agama RI. Jakarta, 1981

  3) Jurnal Ilmiyah,”Buana, media Keilmuan, Keislaman, dan pendidikan”,
    UNISMA, edisi XXVII, 2005

  4) Drs. Wasty Soemanto, “Kepemimpinan dan Supevisi Pendidikan”, Bina
    Aksara, Malang, 1982

  5) Drs. M. Ngalim Purwanto “Administrasi Pendidikan”, PT. Mutiara Sumber
    Widya, Jakarta, 1986

  6) Drs. H. M. Ahmad, DKK,:” Pengembangan Kurikulum”, Pustaka Setia,
    Bandung, 1998

  7) Departemen agara RI, sejarah perkembangn madarasah, Jakarta: direktorat
    jendral pembinaan Kelembagaan agama Islam, 1999

  8) Prof. Dr. H.A.R. Tilaar, M.Sc. Ed. “Manajemen Pendidikan Nasional”, PT.

    Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung, 2001

  9) Gr.Terry dan L.W. Rue,”Dasar-Dasar Manajemen” Bumi Aksara.1990

  10)     Prof. Dr. Azyumardi Azra, M.A. “Esei-esei Intelektual Muslim dan
    Pendidikan Islam”, Logos Wacana Ilmu, Jakarta, 1998

c. Methodology data source are the source obtained from the books of

  methodology.

  1) Moh. Nazir, ” Metode Penelitian” Ghalia Indonesia, Jakarta, 1988

  2) Biro penelitian dan kajian ilmiah, “pedoman penulisan skripsi”. Trimurti

        Press. Ponorogo, 2005

  3) Lexy. J. Moleong, M.A, “ Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif, PT. Remaja

        Rosda Karya, Bandung, 2006
              4) Krippendorf Klaus, “Analisis Isi Pengantar Teori dan Metodologi,

                 Translation of Farid Wajidi”, Citra Niaga Rajawali, Jakarta, 1993

              5) Suharsini Arikunto, “Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Prakter”,

                 Bina Aksara, Jakarta, 1987

              6) Nana Sudjana, “Tuntunan Penyusunan Karya Ilmiah”, Sinar Baru

                 Algesindo, 1999

   3.    Method of collecting data

The writer uses the documentary method15 to collect the required data in the

various literatures which discuss the School-Based Management and Traditional

Islamic Boarding School-Based Management, This method will truly formulate

                                         problem concerning the tittle above thoroughly.

   4.    Technique of processing data

        a. Descriptive method. 16 That is a method of research to describe (analyzes,

              interprets, and explains) condition or interrelation. This method is used to

              describe and explain the implementation of School-Based Management and

              Boarding School-Based Management also the excellences and the obstacle.

        b. Inductive method, 17 process of reasoning from the particular to the general as

              opposed to the inverse process of deduction. The basis of induction is the

              assumption that if something is true in a number of observed instances, it is

              also true in similar, but unobserved instances. The probability of accuracy

              depends on the number of instances observed.


         15
           Lexy. J. Moleong, M.A, Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif, (Bandung : PT. Remaja Rosda
Karya, 2006) P. 9
         16
            Krippendorf Klaus, Analisis Isi Pengantar Teori dan Metodologi, Translation of Farid Wajidi,
(Jakarta : Citra Niaga Rajawali, 1993), p. 15
         17
              Nana Sudjana, Tuntunan Penyusunan Karya Ilmiah, (Sinar Baru Algesindo, 1999), p. 5
      c. Comparative method, 18 it’s the method for comparing some thing in order to

             get the similarity and differences. The writer tries to use this method in order to

             compare             the            implementation               of             School-

             Based     Management      and   Traditional    Islamic    Boarding      School-Based

             Management

                                                                              G. System of study

To get some apparent explanation the writer follows the systems in most cases,

                             therefore, the systems of this study comprises four chapters.

                                                               Chapter One; Introduction

Chapter one is an introduction which consist of: Background of study, Problem

Formulation, Aim and significance of study, Literary review, Theoretical

                                             framework, Method of study, System of study.

                                                           Chapter Two; Literary Review

In this case, the writer tries to explore and explain thoroughly the school-based

management which consist of The Nature of the School, The Nature of Management

of Education, The Nature of School-Based Management, Background of

Implementation of School-Based Management, The Aim of School-Based

Management, The Model of School-Based Management, The Model of School-

Based Management in Indonesia, also about the The Nature of Boarding-School,

The history of Traditional Islamic Boarding School, The Types and Characteristic of

Islamic Boarding School, The Two Characters of Education Culture of Islamic

Boarding School in Indonesia and Islamic Boarding School-Based Management



        18
           Suharsini Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Prakter, (Jakarta : Bina Aksara,
1987), P. 211
which consists of traditional Islamic boarding-school and modern Islamic boarding-

                                                                            school.

                                                                   Chapter Three

In this chapter described the Strategy of School-Based Management program,

The Framework of School-Based Management,         The Characteristics of School-

Based Management, The Essential Unsure of School-Based Management, The

Obstacle of School-Based Management program, The Excellences of School-Base

Management, The disadvantage of School-Based Management, The Strategy of

Islamic Boarding School-Based Management Program which consists of The

Management of Traditional Boarding School, The disadvantage of Management of

Traditional Islamic Boarding-school, The Obstacle of Management of Traditional

Islamic Boarding-School, The Management of Modern Boarding-School, The

                         Excellences of Management of Modern Boarding-School.

                                                                     Chapter four

                                   Chapter four is conclusion, and suggestion.




                    SCHOOL –BASED MANAGEMENT AND

                BOARDING SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT

                               (a comparative study)

                                                                         CHAPTER I
                                                             INTRODUCTION

H. Background of study

I. Problem Aim and Significance of study

J. Formulation

K. Literature Review

L. Theoretical Framework

M. method of study

                                                             G. System of study



                                  CHAPTER II

                                                 SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT

   1) School-Based Management

         The sense of Management of Education

         The sense of School-Based Management

         The system of School-Based Management

   2) The case study of School-Based Management

   3) Toward school-based management system.



                                                                 CHAPTER III

                                  BOARDING SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT

   1) the sense of Boarding -school

   2) the sense of Boarding School-Based Management

         Boarding-school and autonomy of education management

         The strategy and Boarding -School management
3) the system of Boarding School-Based Management



                                                                        CHAPTER IV

1) The both equalities and diversities

2) The both excellences and shortages

3) The both roles in development of education in Indonesia.



                                                                         CHAPTER V

                                         Chapter five is conclusion, and suggestion.
                                BIBLIOGRAPHY



a. KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, MA. “Manajemen Pesantren Pengalaman Pondok

      Modern Gontor”, Trimurti Press, Ponorogo, 2005

b. Ibtisam Abu-Duhou “School-Based Management” Logos Wacana Ilmu, Ciputat,

      2002

c. Prof. Dr. Abdul Munir Mulkhan, SU. “ Menggagas Pesantren Masa Depan geliat

      suara santri untuk Indonesia baru”, Qirtas, Yogyakarta, 2003

d. Drs. H. Abu Ahmadi & Dra. Nur Uhbiyati,”Ilmu Pendidikan”, PT. Rineka Cipta,

      Jakarta, 2001

e. Prof. Dr. H.A.R. Tilaar, M.Sc. Ed. “Manajemen Pendidikan Nasional”, PT. Remaja

      Rosdakarya, Bandung, 2001

f. Drs. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah, “ Guru dan Anak Didik dalam Interaksi Edukatif”,

      PT. Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 2000

g. Prof. H. D. Sudjana S., S.Pd., M. Ed., PhD. “Manajemen program Pendidikan”,

      Falah Production, Bandung , 2004

h. Dr. H. Muhaimin, MA, “Arah Baru Pengembangan Pendidikan Islam”, Penerbit

      Nuansa, Bandung, 2003

i. Oxford Dictionary.

j. Marvin W. Peterson."Key      Resourses   On    Higher   Education   Governance,

      Management, And Leadership" Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1987
                                         CHAPTER II
                                         LITERARY REVIEW


A. SCHOOL BASED MANAGEMENT

     1. The Nature of the School

School is considered as ones of the three centers of education 19 which is

demanded to be able to create the excellent outputs. It’s quotation From Gorton

as he expressed that school is a system of organization there are found man in

cooperation, association for the sake of pursuit their aims which is conceived as

the instructional aim. In the design of school organization would be gotten the

team of school administration which comprises the group working out a closer

cooperative program in order to get their organization aim. Meanwhile, the main

aim of the team of administration is to advance the procedure of school’s

wisdom, to overcome the general problems, to utilize all of individual potencies

                                                           which is combined in that team. 20

Then the school can either create the smart outputs, possessing the high

              emotional or prepare the skilled-manpower in various construction. 21




19
   Education is the absorption of adab in the self. The actualization of adab in individual selves
composing society as a collective entity reflects the condition of justice; and justice itself as a reflection
of wisdom, which is the light that is lit from the lamp of prophecy that enables the recipient to discover
the right and proper place for a thing or a being to be., see, Syed Muhammad naquib al-Attas,
Prolegomena to the metaphiysigs of islam an exposition of the fundamental elements of the worldview of
                                            Islam, (Kuala Lumpur : prospecta (M) SDN. BHD, 1995), p. 17
         20
           Gorton, Richart, A., School administration challege and opporunity for leadership, Iowa:
Brown Company Publiser, 1976, in “Jurnal Tsaqafah” Institut Studi Islam Darussalam, (Ponorogo,
Volume 3, no. I, 1427 H.), P. 146
21
   The duty of the school in preparing skilled-manpower of construction are: 1) School giving
the supply of knowledge and handicraft, 2) School is cradle of employers and leaders, 3) School is the
place for anticipating social mobility, 4) The school help social affairs, 5) School is continuer agents and
developer of the cultures, 6) School can help the prosperity of family. See Drs. Ary H. Gunawan,
                                             Sosiologi pendidikan, (Jakarta : Rineka Cipta, 2000), p. 64-70
Hence, the philosophy views concerning the essence of school and

society in our daily life ought to be early understood. School is the integral part

in society, it’s not separated institution from society definitely, the right of life

and it’s life is depended on society, school is the social institution which is

demanded to serve the society in education sphere, the school and society

advancement has correlation one each other, but absolutely one need others,

school is belong to the society and it’s founded on account of societies

                                                                            necessity.22

School is as the front thing in education unit which in educating the

student needed the professional management in accordance with the function of

duty. And the main function of duty of the school is to manage and implement

the school with steps as follow: to arrange some planning and executing school

program, to refer to available budget and enable to be provided, to coordinate

and make school resources compatible toward school program, to do school

management effectively and efficiently, to implements some supervision and

guidance in the school management, to do some evaluation of reaching school’s

target, to arrange school’s report and responsible to the school implementation

periodically. Hence, school couldn’t do alone to improve the quality, efficiency,

education spreads, school autonomy. The World Bank argued that political

condition whether the wisdom of government in the sphere of management of

organization or the leadership of learning and teaching process, human resources

and school administration are School- Based Management component which is




22
     Drs. M. Ngalim Purwanto, MP., Administrasi dan supervis pendidikan, (Bandung : PT.
                                                                Remaja Rosdakarya, 1991), p. 188
very significant to be noticed in the context of schooling                    in Indonesia

                                                                                certainly.23

Those are the cursory things concerning the school that we’re to pay

attention it, as school is determinant factor of the nation development and

                                                                             advancement.

     2. The Nature of Management of Education

Management is a process or a framework of working which involves the

guidance or orientation of some group toward organizational aim or the real

                             means.24 And surely it has five of fundamental functions: 25

        a. Planning: to fix the achieved aims and formulations

        b. Organizing: to classify and determine the important activities and giving

               power and authority to execute those jobs.

        c. Staffing: to fix the necessity of human resources, orienting, filtering, training

               and developing manpower.

        d. Motivating: to orient or channel human behavior to direction of aims.

        e. Controlling: to measure the implementation with the aims, to fix the causes

               of deviations, and taking the corrective acts if it’s necessary.

When the Management of Education is viewed from the sense aspect, it

              has various interpretations which have mutual support one each others.

First, is cooperating to achieve the aim of education, as the aims are

stretched and extended simply until complexly, if the aims are quite complex it



        23
          Bappenas, School Based Management, ( Jakarta: Bappenas berkerja sama dengan Bank Dunia,
1999) in“Jurnal Tsaqafah” Institut Studi Islam Darussalam,(Ponorogo, Volume 3, no. I, 1427 H.), P. 148
        24
             Gr.Terry dan L.W. Rue, Dasar-Dasar Manajemen, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.1990) , p. 1
        25
             Ibid. p. 9-10
often will not be achieved by one man but he must cooperate with another. Such

              a cooperating between school, teachers, staff, student, ever society.

Second, is process to achieve the aim of education which is begun from

              the planning, organizing, orientation, supervision, and assessment.

Third, is management of education with framework of thinking system,

such as input and then continued by management of education which consist of

learning   process,   teachers,   environment,    student,   facilitations,   school

organization and the result is output. These are the important component that we

ought to know its shortage and definitely it must be corrected in order to produce

                                                             the expected outputs.

Fourth: The management of education to be analyzed from leadership

sphere, is how the education administrator could hold on the principal” Tut Wuri

Handayani, Ing Madyo Mangun Karso dan Ing Ngarso Sung Tulodo”, or with

the briefly mean: how to move another and surely by committing the good

                                                                        leadership.

Sixth: It can also be observed from the process of decision-taking. To

overcome the problem should be needed the ability to take the decision. The

mean is how to choose the probability of the best action from a large number of

                                            probability of actions which be done.

            Seventh: it can also be analyzed to the communication sphere.

Eighth: The confined definition is: an activity of administration which

the core value is writing down some thing, documentation of activity, lettering

with various aspects. In fact it is not too false; on account of every aspect of

administration activity with the definition above always need note and
documentation of activity. There are some things to be underlined that the

administration activity does not reflect all of definition of management on mean

                                       of what’s described in the items 1-7 previously. 26

We can also conceive the definition of management of education that will

                                                          be described explicitly as follow:

           a. The management of education can be viewed as the form of cooperation of

                  education personnel to achieve the aim of education. The general aim is such

                  as forming the student personality in accordance with the aims absolutely.

                  These aims can be clarified to another aims, those are: The curricular aim,

                  the aim of common instructional (TIK), and aim of general instructional

                  (TIU).

           b. The management of education is cycle process of embodiment of education

                  which is begun by the planning, and followed by organizing, orienting,

                  implementing, supervising, and assessing about school efforts to pursuit the

                  aim.

           c. The management of education is school efforts to do the management of

                  education systems.

           d. The management of education is the leadership activity, in which taking

                  decision and communication in the school organization as the effort to

                  achieve the aim of education. 27

Even there are multitude definitions of management of education, it’s

quite apparent that the management of education consists of: the management


26
     Drs. B.Suryosubroto, Manajemen pendidikan di sekolah, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2004), p. 15-
                                                                                                   22
           27
                Ibid. p. 27
curriculum, the student, the school personal, managing, means of education, and

                              school financial. These are the crucial things in the school.

       3. School-Based Management.

          a. The Nature of School-Based Management

Depdiknas has formulated the nature of School-Based Management

as the model of management which give the greater autonomy toward school

and motivate the participative decision-taking                  which involve the school

people directly ( teacher, student, the chief of school, employers, parents, and

society) in order to improve the school quality and definitely based on the

                                                      wisdom of national government. 28

According to Bappenas team and the World Bank quoted by Drs. B

Suryobroto, School-Based Management is the alternative form of school

management in the program of decentralization of education program, in

which is marked by the wide autonomy in schools is really realized, the high

participation of society, and in the framework of wisdom of national

                                  education (Tim Bapenas & Bank Dunia, 1999:10)29

Apart from the definitions above, there are several definitions

pertaining to the School-Based Management in which can be a reference also.

"school based management can be viewed conceptually as a formal alternation of
governments structures, as a form of decentralization that identifies the individual
school as the primary unit of improvement and relies on the redistribution of
decision-making authority as the primary means through which improvement might
                                                     be stimulated and sustained"30



28
     Ibtisam Abu-Duhou, School –Based Management (Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah), (ciputat :
                                                           PT. Logos Wacana Ilmu, 2002), p. Xvii
          29
               Op Cit. Drs. Suryosubroto, Manajemen..., p.195
          30
            Malen, ogawa, Kranz dalam Abu-Duhon Ibtisam, School Based Management, ( Paris :
Unesco, 1990 ) in “Jurnal Tsaqafah” Institut Studi Islam Darussalam, (Ponorogo, Volume 3, no. I, 1427
H.), P. 139
                            And another definition from Candoli described:

"school based management is way for forcing individual school to take reponsinility
for what happens to children under their jurisdiction and attending their school. The
concept suggests that, when individual schools are changed with the total
development of educational programmes aimed at serving the needs of the children
in attandance at the particular school, the school personal will develop more cogent
                      programmes because they know the students and their needs.''31

We can also define it as the strategy of management of education

which put forward cooperation among the sides, we’re able to conceive it

obviously as “The Collaborative school Management” which is in the next

advance became the model of the school management named “School-Based

                                                                         Management “.32




        b. Background of practicing School-Based Management

Two factors enable to explain about the attempts to correct the quality

of education currently are either lack or unsuccessful. First, The strategy of

construction so far refer to input oriented. Which it relies on some

assumption, if the all of input of education is perfectly fulfilled, such as

providing the books, the other tools of study, providing the means of

education, training for the teachers and other human resources of the school,

the institution of education will automatically be able to produce the superior

output as expected, but unfortunately this strategy did not totally has function

by seeing the disappointing output of the school. Second, The management of

education currently tends to macro oriented, which is managed by the group



        31
             Ibid. 139
        32
             Op Cit. Drs. Suryosubroto, Manajemen..., p. 195
of bureaucracy          at the center level, until the society’s aspiration toward

                                                  education is not effectively cared. 33

        c. The Aim of School-Based Management.

The aim and mean of implementation of School-Based Management is

                                                                           definitely for: 34

              1) Socializing the basic concept of management of quality improvement

                  based on the school particularly toward society. 35

              2) Obtaining the constructive opinion that the concept is enabled to be

                  implemented easily in accordance with the circumstance of Indonesian

                  environment which has possessed the various cultures, socio-economy of

                  the society, and the complexity of geography.

              3) Increasing insight and perception of society’s knowledge particularly

                  school society, and individual concerning to the education, especially the

                  improvement of education quality.

              4) Motivating the society in order to be involved and to think concerning the

                  improvement of education quality in each school.

              5) Generating the consciousness of society of school in order to participate

                  actively and dynamically in making the improvement of the education

                  quality successful




        33
             Ibid. p. 203-204
        34
             Ibid. p. 205
        35
            If it’s viewed from the school’s necessity, the purpose of relation embodiment between school
and society are: 1) to preserve the school harmony, 2) to improve the education quality in the involved
school, 3) to make the process of study and teaching fluent, 4) to obtain support and aid from the society
which is surely needed in the school advancement and it’s program implementation. See: Drs. M. Ngalim
Purwanto, MP., Administrasi dan supervise pendidikan, (Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, 1991), p.
189
          6) Motivating the appearance of the new thoughts in making the education

              development successful and certainly from the individual and society who

              concern to the education, particularly school society who are in the main

              front line at that development.

          7) Building the awareness that the improvement of education quality is the

              society’s responsibility by all components, focusing to the improvement

              of quality to the schools perpetually.

          8) Sharpening the insight that the education quality in every school has to be

              formulated conceivably and the target of quality which must be achieved

              in every five years and so on until the mission of the school can be

              successfully achieved.

Hence, it was easily understood that politically School-Based

Management is the estuary of all wisdom in education program, while that all

can be obviously seen in the school activities, on account of school is the

latest network of the bureaucracy of education series. School-Based

Management is also the form of execution of decentralization wisdom or the

autonomy of education which has relation with the autonomy of region.

Theoretically, School-Based Management is a concept offering the autonomy

toward school in order to improve and enhance the quality, the efficiency,

even distribution of education (the education can be widespread) till enable to

accommodate the needs of society, and work out a closer cooperative

program among schools, community and government. With this system, the

chief of school, teachers and students obtain the occasion to innovate and

improve some thing pertaining to the curriculum affairs, learning, managerial,
etc in the school. Therefore, the autonomy of education is the essential thing

to create the academic freedom. 36 Operationally, School-Based Management

is an opinion placing the authority of school management in the totality of

                                                                                   system.

Based on the description pertaining to the School-Based Management

above, it’s quite intelligible that the pearl of the wisdoms in education

program will be certainly viewed in the school, on account of school is the

latest network of the bureaucracy of education series, hence, the program

quality would be determined by school, how far the school be able to manage

and      implement         all    education      programs.   Therefore,    School-Based

Management is definitely quite strategic to be implemented for the sake of

                                              improvement of education quality service.

Hence, we can easily know that School-Based Management is either

form of execution of decentralization or the autonomy of education in which

                                                has relation with the autonomy of region.

          d. The Model of School-Based Management

School-Based Management is the form of school alternative as result

of decentralization in education program. Principally, it depends on the

school and society and so far away from centralistic bureaucracy, and it has

potencies to improve society’s aspiration, even distribution, efficiency, ever

                              and the management which is rested on school degree. 37




          36
               Op.Cit. “Jurnal Tsaqafah....”, p. 139
37
     Dr. Fasli Jalal dan Prof. Dr. Dedi Supriadi, Reformasi pendidikan dalam konteks otonomi
                                                   daerah, (Yogyakarta: Adicita karya Nusa, 2001), p.160
School-Based Management demands the commitment of all involved

unsure (school personnel, parents, students, society) in the decisions-taking

pertaining to the education in their school or these are like the organ of the

                                 body which mutually need one each others. 38

While, in the School-Based Management the delegation of

responsibility and authority will be surely different among school. On

account of the School-Based Management offers the freedom which the

school is in the charge of it. Actualized by society’s aspiration, even

distribution, efficiency, ever and the management which is rested on school

degree are totally guaranteed. And school does not have the capacity to act

alone, ignoring the priority wisdom and the standardization which is

formulated by government, on account of the school it’s self is in the shelter/

                                    protection of national education system. 39

       e. The Model of School-Based Management in Indonesia

In the School-Based Management, the chief of school possesses wide

freedom to manage the school, absolutely has to pay attention to the wisdom

                                                  and priority of government.

Whereas the scopes that enable to be offered are: 1) The inclusive

curriculum, 2) The affectivity of learning-teaching process, 3) The supporting

school environment, 4)The resources based on the even distribution, 5) The

standardization in distinctive program, monitoring, evaluating, and test. Some

things described above must become or be one in the four scopes of function



       38
            Ibid.p. 160
       39
            Ibid. p. 161
of school management, there are: 1) management/organization/leadership, 2)

    learning-teaching process, 3) human resources, 4) school administration.40



Based on the circumstance of schooling in Indonesia, the progress one

(advance), medium (sufficient), or minus. There are a large number of

schools enable to implement School-Based Management totally, sufficiently

                                                      (medium), even minimally (minus).41

 The table indicates the degree of school which implements the School-
                             Based Management. 42

                   The

                election of        The form of         Location/region                          Result
The type                                                                    The ability to
                  chief of           society’s           and parent’s                         Requirement
of School                                                                   gather the fund
                school and          aspiration              ability

                  teacher

                   To be         Society has great                          The funds don’t

                elected on       participation also   Region’s income is      rely on the
  Full                                                                                           High
                account of        concerning the             high           government but

               having skill            fund                                   on society

                   To be         Society has great
                                                                            Depend on the
                elected on       participation also   Region’s income is
medium                                                                          fund of         Medium
                account of        concerning the      sufficient (medium)
                                                                             government.
               having skill            fund

                   To be             Society’s        Region’s income is    Depend on the
minimal                                                                                          Low
                elected on       aspiration is lack          lack               fund of




         40
              Ibid. p. 161
         41
              Ibid. p. 162-163
         42
           Dr. E. Mulyasa, M.Pd, Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah , (Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosda Karya,
2006), P.59
                account of                                                     government

                having skill                                                      totally




                         The Component of School-Based Management 43

                                    Learning-teaching                                          Resources and
           Management                                           Human Resources
                                            process                                            administration

                   Providing the    Improving the quality      Disseminating the staff            Identifying and

 management/organization of               of student’s study           and placing the              allocating the

              school leadership                                             personnel                 resources in

                                                                   who are able to fill       accordance with the

                                                               student’s necessities.                       need.

      Arranging school planning              Compiling the       Electing staff having              Managing the

     and formulating the wisdom             compatible and        insights concerning       allocation of school’s

                                    perceptive curriculum               School-Based                       funds

                                              surely toward             Management.

                                            student’s need.

     Managing the operational of    Offering the effective     Making activity for the                Making the

                         school                   teaching.           enhancement of        administrative support

                                                                  profession to whole                   available.

                                                                    staffs available.

      Guaranteeing the effective              Providing the          Guaranteeing the               Managing the

communication will be surely                    program of     prosperity of staffs and      building preservation

      smooth among schools and             advancement of                    students.        and another means.

                        society.    student’s personality.

     Motivating the participation                                       Managing the

                  of community                                 discussion concerning

                                                                   the school’s work.



43
     Op Cit. Jurnal Tsaqafah..., p. 141
  Guaranteeing the preserved

       school and absolutely

                accountable




B. BOARDING SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT

                                                      1. The Nature of Boarding-School.

Boarding School is absolutely the indigenous product of Indonesia in

which possesses the values more than the scientific source, ever becomes agent

of change, besides that, Boarding School has some things incur curiosity that

                                 every one has to learn in order to be literate people.

According to Yacub, Boarding School is viewed as the institution of

Islamic education which commonly uses the non-classical method, it’s

instructor/teacher is person who is literate and sophisticated particularly in

Islamic religion, through the heritages of Islamic religion such as the classic

books and nowadays well-known with the “Yellow Book”, using the Arabic

script but in the ancient Melayu language or Arabic language. These books

usually are the composition of Arabic Ulama’(Muslim religious teacher or

                                                            leader) in the medieval ere. 44

Zamakhsari Dhofier remarked that Boarding School comprises of five

significant unsure: Kiai (the leader/teacher of Boarding School), Santri (the

student of Boarding School), mosque, Boarding School it’s self, the instruction

                                                            of Islamic of classic books. 45



        44
           Muhammad Yacub, Pondok pesantren dan pembangunan masyarakt desa, (Bandung:
angkasa, 1993). p. 65.
45
   Zamakhsari Dhofier, Tradisi pesantren studi tentang pandangan hidup kiai, (Jakarta: LP3ES,
                                                                                           1984) p. 19
And according to KH. Imam Zarkasyi, Boarding School is as the

institution of Islamic education with the dormitory or Boarding School system,

whereas the Kiai is as a central figure, the mosque is as the center of inspiring

activity, and the instruction of Islamic religion is under the guidance of Kiai in

                                    which is imitated by Santri as the main activity 46.

The definition of Boarding School version of KH. Imam Zarkasyi is

more comprehensive; on account of the sense has several excellences

                                                             (superiority) than another’s:

          a.   full residential Islamic Boarding School

          b.   Kiai is as central figure has the multifunction, as the teacher, educator,

               and the guider.

          c.   The Mosque is the center of activity.

          d.   The subjects are not confined only the classic books (Yellow book).



                                             2. The History of Islamic Boarding School

If we try to observe the Pedigree of Boarding School, it possesses the

source of tradition which is verily fervent in environment of Indonesia society.

On account of Boarding School is absolutely the inherent symbol of culture of

education that is belonging naturally to Indonesia. Historically, the education

system of Boarding School was really rooted in the tradition of religious

education when Hinduism and Buddhism meanwhile promulgate its precept and

spread over Indonesia. Since the beginning of 13 th century, the Islamization

occurring in Indonesian archipelago transformed the culture of education to be

46
     Staf Sekretariat Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor, Serba –serbi Pondok Modern Gontor
                                                    Pekan Perkenalan Tingkat II, (Gontor, 1997). P. 2
Boarding School. In this case, the Islamization of archipelago surely gave the

capacity of new sense belongs to Islamic version toward religious education

system of Hinduism and Buddhism. Therefore, etymologically, according to C.C

Berg as quoted by Dhofier, the word “Pesantren” often be referred to Indian

language “Shastri” it means: one who is literate concerning Hindu’s holy books

or one expert in holy books. 47 The term “Santri” is often related to the word

“Sattiri” in the Tamil language, it’s mean: one occupying in poor house (a very

simple house) or religious building generally. 48 The both of term (Shastri and

                           Sattiri) supported the pedigree of Islamic boarding school.



The transformation of Islamic education which included the Islamic

Boarding School emerged from broadening of study’s occasion for the native

people which was occurred in the end of 19 th century, the government of

Netherlands East Indies gave the facilities of education with the gradation

system. First, it’s well-known by term: volkschoolen, or School of People

(School of Village) the period of study was 3 years. This grade was as same as

the Elementary School and then the period of study was added to 2 years.

Second, Junior High School (Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijijs (MULO),

               third, Senior High School (Algemene Middlebare Schoolen (AMS).49

                        3. The Types and Characteristic of Islamic Boarding School




       47
            Op Cit. Dhofier, p. 18
       48
           Departemen agara RI, sejarah perkembangn madarasah, (Jakarta: direktorat jendral
pembinaan Kelembagaan agama Islam, 1999), p 95.
       49
            KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, M.A., Gontor dan pembaharuan pendidian pesantren,
(Jakarta: PT. raja Grafindo Persada, 2005), p. 5
Islamic Boarding School is the shield of our country in order to protect it

form the destructive culture, we are going to comprehend that each Boarding

School have the different characteristic, whether the typology of Boarding

                                           School will be intelligibly expounded: 50

         a. The traditional Boarding School (Salaf) and the Modern Boarding School

             (Khalaf). It’s named by Traditional Boarding School (Salaf) on account of

             teaching system still extremely maintain the Traditional method such as

             Wetonan, Bandongan, and sorogan, without class and age. And it’s named

             by Modern Boarding School (khalaf) on account of teaching system used

             already the class system, curriculum, and the limit of age such as in

             contemporary life.

         b. Boarding School with the formal education (through school): implement the

             curriculum of Department of Religion (Depag) and Department of

             Education and civilization, whether informal education (through out of

             school): is such as Madrasah Diniyyah.

         c. Boarding School is classified based on the amount of Students. If the

             amount of students is approximately 5000, it’s considered as the big

             boarding school, if the amount of student is approximately 3000 up to 5000,

             categorized as the medium boarding school, and if the amount of student is

             lack of 1000, regarded as the small boarding school.

         d. The affiliating Boarding School and disaffiliating Boarding School (either

             with the certain party or organization of Islamic community) such as

             Rabithoh Mah’had Al-Islami (RMI), Muhammadiyah, NU, Persis and so on.

        50
           Dr. Humi Rahim, Arah Baru Pendidikan Islam Di Indonesia , (Ciputat: PT. Logos Wacana
Ilmu, 2001), p. 159
            e. The Boarding School which accommodates santri mukim and santri kalong,

                  santri mukim is student who stay and study at the hostel of boarding school,

                  whether santri kalong is student who stay at boarding school but he studies

                  at the general school.

Dra. Hj. Nur uhbiyati also described that boading school could be
                                                                                                   51
                                                          classified into 2 kinds as follow:

           a. The boarding school which maintains the education system in the natural

                  form. This boarding school doesn’t have a degree as we have known in the

                  school usually. The exist class or the group is a classification of acquired

                  science such a discussing Tafsir, Fiqh, Shorf, and so on.

           b. The boarding school which adapts the contemporary circumstance and the

                  development of advancement in education program. This boarding school

                  establishes the madrasah system in educating the student, besides discussing

                  the holy books as what the first boarding school has done. Therefore, here is

                  the degree of study for the students: MI, MTs, MA, but both of 1 st type and

                  2nd one have the same characteristic. That should be underlined:

                      a. There is Head of Boarding school educating student (Kiai)

                      b. There is student of boarding school

                      c. There is the mosque

                      d. There is hostel/residence.

            4. The Two Characters of Education Culture of Islamic Boarding School

                   in Indonesia



           51
                Dra. Hj. Nur Uhbiyati, Ilmu pendidikan Islam, (Bandung: CV. Pustaka Setia, 1997)
, p. 269
The boarding school will always exist and be able to keep its

                        strength equal to that of all forms of social change because:

                 a. There is the character of culture causing the student do the mastery

                     learning,52 and in this case, the implementation of education surely isn’t

                     confined to the pattern/system of transferring knowledge from teacher

                     toward student, whether these all are the aspect of forming

                     comprehensive personality.      The transfer of knowledge in boarding

                     school isn’t limited by target or time of accomplishment of curriculum as

                     specified in The Main Lines of Education Program (GBPP), but it

                     emphasizes more to the Mastery Learning without any time limitation.

                     The quality aspect is more really cared than the quantity one. 53

                 b. The participation of society is quite strong; basically, the founding of

                     boarding school in Indonesia is generated by the demands and needs of

                     societies their selves. 54

           5. Islamic Boarding School-Based Management

                 a. The Management Traditional Islamic Boarding-School

Traditional Islamic Boarding school-based mangement is one of

alternatif choice of boarding-school in the managing various potencies in



52
   The idea of Mastery Learning was proposed by many pioneers such as: H.C. Marrison (1926),
B.F. Skinner (1954), J.I. Goodlad and R.H. Anderson(1959), John Carrol (1963), Jerome Bruner (1966),
it so happens that the idea of Mastery Learning in Indonesia was introduced by BP3K (Badan
Pengembangan dan Penelitian pendidikan dan kebudayaan) (The Executive Branch or Improvement and
Analyzing of Education and Culture) which was related to the curriculum renewal, (Kurikulum 1975,
PPSP/ proyek perintis sekolah pembangunan dengan pengajaran modulnya) see: Prof. Dr. S. Nasution,
MA., Berbagai Pendekatan dalam Proses Belajar dan Mengajar, (Jakarta: CV. Pedoman Ilmu Jaya,
                                                                                        1995), p. 37.
53
     Dr. Humi Rahim, Arah Baru Pendidikan Islam di Indonesia , (Ciputat: PT. Logos Wacana
                                                                                 Ilmu, 2001), p. 151
          54
               Ibid. p. 152
order to be endorses factor in the improving boarding-school. But

unfortunately, traditional boarding-school ever deal with various problem

particularly in the process of improving many potencies, such as human

resources with the high quality is lack, the means of boarding school is quite

     limited, the accountability of soceity’s program is not optimally done. 55

Therefore, the improvement of human resources, means of

boarding-school, and improvement of accontability are the fundamental

thing ever become the main requirement of advancement of boarding-school

                                                                             potencies. 56

Neither all boarding-school improve its educational system by

expanding its target nor renewing the educational model. There are number

of boarding-school which still extremely defends the system of traditional

education and hold on it characteristics. 57 It just instructs the classic book

and moral guidance. And generally the component of boarding-school

                                                                                consist of:

                a. The head master of boarding school.

                b. Boarding school: comprehending physical requirements and non physical

                    one, the financial of place, preservation, and so on.

                c. The mosque: containing as same as boarding school



        55
          Dr. H.M. Sulthon, M.Pd. dan Dr. Moh. Khusnuridlo, M.Pd. Manajemen Pondok Pesantren
dalam Perspektif Global, Yogyakarta: LaksBang, 2006. P. 21
        56
             Ibid. p. 22
57
    According to Ali Mukti, there are eight characteristics of boarding school, (1) The good
relation between Kiai and students, (2) The students respect to Kiai, (3) Economic and simple, (4) The
spirit of self-aid, (5) Fond of helping and the spirit of brotherhood, (6) The inculcation of discipline is
really emphasized, (7) Daring to suffer from any abomination for the sake of achieving the aim, (8) The
good of religious culture, see: Dra. Hj. Nur Uhbiyati, Ilmu pendidikan Islam, (Bandung : CV. Pustaka
                                                                                      Setia, 1997), p. 269
              d. Ancient book (yellow book): if it’s extended it containing the curriculum

                  with the general sense.

This model is quite superior particularly in producing out put with

the good pesonality, self-reliant, and competensy of mastering islamich

sciences. But unfortunately, out put of traditional boarding-school is not

competitive especially in the modern life. Contamporarly, human resources

with the gool quality and expert are the primer thing, boarding-school which

               has uncompetitive human resouces will be truly marginalized. 58

              b. The Management of Modern Islamic boarding-school

Boarding School-Based Management (SBM) is a management of

education structure establishment, in accordance with the Boarding-school’s

roles, and the head of Boarding-school ( Kyiai) as the leader or he is

demanded to be able to communicate the model of management that will be

built over staff and boarding-school’s stakeholder, impress them, and be

able to build up the inner force of boarding school (students of boarding-

school and teachers) for dealing with the public’s demands to the boarding-

                        school, that will be the responsibility of his leadership. 59

The experiences of public school which implement the system of

School-Based Management in Egypt, New Zealand, California, Victoria,

Canada undoubtedly showed that the characteristic of leadership is quite

significant in determining the model of School-Based Management



       58
            Op.Cit. Dr. H.M. Sulthon, M.Pd. dan Dr. Moh. Khusnuridlo, M.Pd. Manajemen... p.34
       59
           Kh. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, MA. Manajemen Pesantren Pengalaman Pondok Modern
Gontor, (Ponorogo: Trimurti Press, 2005), p. 197
(SBM),60 on account of the leader is fully in the charge of implementation

of administration programs and the improvement of school quality, so it has

                                       good quality and surely to be effective one. 61

One of modern Islamic boarding-school is Gontor Ponorogo as the

renewal is absolutely qualified and consists of various educational aspects in

                                                                    order to be better.

First, The renewal on the institutional aspect, management, and

boarding school organization. Gontor Islamic Boarding School possesses

the Waqf Board (Badan Wakaf) which the head master of boarding school is

as one entrusted with a mandate which is in the charge of Waqf Board

(Badan Wakaf), hence, the Waqf Board (Badan Wakaf)                         deserves to

determine and choose the head master of boarding school surely by all

consensuses/agreements of Waqf Board’s (Badan Wakaf)                         members.

Therefore, Waqf Board (Badan Wakaf) has the five programs pertaining to

the education and construction, these are: The sector of building and

equipment, the sector of Waqf Board (Badan Wakaf) and founds sources,

the sector of cadre, and sector of welfare. 62 With the structure above, the

head master of boarding school (Kiai) and his families don’t utterly deserve

to any materials right from Gontor. And the financial affairs is in the charge

of functionaries of administration office which comprises many senior


         60
            Leadership is an action either among individual or group which causing the good effect of
some one or group, and be progressive toward certain aims, Whether the requirements of leadership are:
humble and simple, fond of helping another, patient and having stable emission, confident, honest, fair
(just), can be trusted, the prophecy in the function. see, Drs. M. Ngalim Purwanto, Administrasi
Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT. Mutiara Sumber Widya, 1986), p. 33-45.
         61
              Op Cit. Ibtisam Abu Duhau, p. 111-112.
         62
              Op Cit. KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, M.A. Gontor dan pembaharuan pendidian pesantren,
p. 11.
teachers and students whom will enable to be changed periodically.

Therefore, the running of education organization can be easily managed and

                               become dynamic, accountable, and objective.

Second, The renewal on the curriculum aspect. The instructed

subject (content) represented the exist curriculum, between the revealed

                                       knowledge and acquired knowledge. 63

Third, The renewal of method and education system, these are by

managing the classical education system which is orderly leaded in the form

of classes on the decided period, this is achieved in order to implement

teaching efficiency, with the little fees and concise time, hopefully boarding

                                  school can produce the superior outputs. 64

The hostel system also endorses the forming of three centers of

education harmony, as the whole student daily activities apart from the

                          formal one is surely done in the hostel/residence. 65

On account of modernization, the boarding school is really expected

to produce human resources having the holistic personality, its mean, the

personality which has equilibrium of five aspects: spiritual, intellectual,

                                                        social, and emotional.

Hence, it could be said that the leadership model of Gontor Islamic

Boarding School is transformational, whereas the head master of boarding

school (Kiai) is totally demanded to be able to communicate the model of

management that will be formed/ built to entire staffs and stakeholders of


       63
            Ibid. p. 11
       64
            Ibid. p. 13
       65
            Ibid. p. 14
boarding school, allure and fascinate their participation, and be able to build

up the power of boarding school (students and teachers) to deal with the

public    demands toward      boarding    school that absolutely      become

responsibility of the head master of boarding school (Kiai). Ever he is as

the decision-maker of management direction which will be implemented

                                                                       one.66




         66
           KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, MA., Manajemen pesantren pengalaman pondok modern
Gontor, (Ponorogo: Trimurti Press, 2005), p. 198
                                             CHAPTER III

            THE STRATEGY OF SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT AND
     TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT
                                             PROGRAM
                                      (A Comparative Study)



A. SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT (SBM)

       1. The Stragety of School-Based Management Program

Before discussing the implementation of School-Based Management,

here is report of World Bank pertaining to the current education in our country.

At least there are four fundamental problems which become the states

obstruction in educational affairs on accordance with the report of World

                                                                                      Bank.67

First: The organizing of elementary education was really complex

(complicated-system) which the two department one each other have the similar

authority, there are Department of National Education (Depdiknas), it’s in the

charge of educational subject (content), and the technical quality like the

qualified curriculum, teacher certification, testing, text book evaluation, the

advisability of instructions means. Depdagri, it’s in the charge of empowerment

of human resources, material, and another resources that is usually named by

“3M”. Besides that, for the school of religion Religious Affairs (Depag) was in



67
     Dr. Fasli Jalal dan Prof. Dr. Dedi Supriadi, Reformasi Pendidikan Dalam Konteks Otonomi
                                              Daerah, (Yogyakarta: Adicita karya Nusa, 2001), p. 154-155
the charge of a state-owned school or private school totally. This dichotomy of

management caused the fatal effect; the confusion of responsibilities division

and the managerial roles, the delay and split of planning system and feeing, the

struggle of authority among teachers between the two institutions. These cases

                              definitely were not efficient at least for 4 elements:

       a. The outcome of educational quality is surely ignored as it’s out of both

           department scopes to liquefy its funds sources.

       b. The improvement of quality is hampered as the equipment which is provided

           by official is often inappropriate with the schools need and demand.

       c. The teacher’s carrier is often uncertain, as the promotion of Elementary

           School teacher to be Junior High School teacher ought to involve the both

           departments.

       d. The dichotomy of administration finally doesn’t incur the conducive

           circumstance to execute the wisdom coordination, planning, and an

           implementation to achieve the aim of obligatory study of elementary

           education.

Second, The practice of management was very centralistic in the level of

Junior High School, in spite of these all become the full-responsibility of

Department of Education and Culture (Dekdikbud) , the centralistic practice or

the financing program, and investigation planning were presumed as obstacle of

                  achieving the aim of obligatory study of elementary education.

Third, The budgeting practice was split and rigid, the construction budget

was prepared by three units, there are Bappenas,Depdiknas, Depdagri, whether

the routine budget was prepared by Depkau, Depdiknas, and Depdagri, and
Depag has also the educational budget. It was suffusing matters but

complicated-system, and to accomplish the budget is absolutely needed the long

                                                                   time approximately a year.

Fourth, The management in the school level was ineffective; in Indonesia

currently the chief of a state-owned school had the confined autonomy

particularly in the managing of school management and resources. In another

aspect, the chief of school was not furnished with leadership ability; however,

the good leadership is a crucial thing especially in the decentralization model. To

                        get the societies supports the good leadership is really needed.

         a. An Attempt to Overcome the Institutional disadvantage.

     The five aspects projected by World Bank to overcome the weakness: 68

               1) The local empowerment, in fact, the system of decentralization would be

                    executed by government on year 1996, and it was merely an experiment,

                    and on year 1997 the new wisdom was decided; giving the responsibility

                    toward chief regency in order to make the program of obligatory study

                    successful, although planning of this wisdom would be implemented in

                    the entire regions, but meanwhile was still in West Java only. 69

         68
              Ibid. p. 156-158
         69
             The main decentralized things in School-Based Managements are: (a) Knowledge,
decentralizing the decision pertaining to the curriculum includes the decision concerning aim and target of
education. (b) Technology, decision-decentralizing pertaining to the means of learning-teaching. (c)
Power, decentralizing of authority in the decision-making. (d) Material, decision-decentralizing pertaining
to the utilizing of facilities (means), embodiment and school equipments. (e) People, decision-
decentralizing pertaining to human resources, includes the developing of professionalism concerning the
process of learning-teaching also endorsing it. (f) Time, decision-decentralizing pertaining to the
allocation of time. (g) Financial, decision-decentralizing pertaining to the allocation of financial.(Caldwel
dan spinks, 1992, p. 4-5) in Ibtisam Abu-Duhou, School-Based Management, (Ciputat: PT. Logos
Wacana Ilmu, 2002), p. 19
              2) Re-deciding the responsibility of long-term plan.

              3) Building up the institutional ability.

              4) Giving the greater autonomy with the accountable management (in the

                  school). The greater autonomy ought to be given toward chief of school

                  in order to utilize the resources and school-based improvements

                  strategies on accordance with the certain circumstance; however, the

                  society must elect the chief of school who has the handicraft and

                  characteristics as needed by autonomous school generally.

              5) Funding system which guarantees the even distribution and efficiency,

                  the ways:

                  a)   Matching grant: giving the funds based on level of societies ability

                       to improve the program of ever distribution.

                  b) Performance-based grants: the regency proposes some thing in

                       order to improve the elementary education in its region, if it’s

                       approved by central official, it will obtain the donation.

                  c)   Unrestricted grants: concerning the unlimited construction which is

                       determined on accordance with the amount of students.

          b. The Strategies of School-Based Management are as follow: 70

              1) Codifying the principal data and school profile which is more

                  presentative, accurate, valid, and systematically containing various

                  aspects of academics, administrative, (students, teachers, and staffs) also

                  the financial.



70
     Drs. B.Suryosubroto, Manajemen pendidikan di sekolah, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2004), p.
                                                                                               215-216
             2) Executing self-assessment to analyze the power and shortage pertaining

                  to school’s resources, school’s personnel, and working in order to

                  improve and achieve the target of curriculums and the result achieved by

                  student concerning either intellectual and handicraft aspect or another

                  one.

             3) Based on that analysis the school is to identify its needs and to formulate

                  vision and mission which intends to provide the good quality of

                  education exactly for its student on accordance with the concept of

                  construction of national education which will be achieved. And some

                  thing to be underlined, how do the students learn, providing the

                  resources, and managing the curriculum which containing the indicator

                  of achievement of quality improvement.

             4) However, begun from the vision and mission also the aim of quality

                  improvement school and society plan and codify either the long-range

                  program or short-range one (annual) together including its budget. While

                  the program accommodates number of activity programs which will be

                  executed on accordance with the decided-national wisdom by

                  considering the principal keys of planning, either it’s decided in that year

                  or in the next one. 71



71
   Duhou delivered some arguments, first, School is developed for the sole purpose of fulfilling
demands of many sides, they are government, education experts, parents, student his own self, and all
societies who certainly trust it. Hence, it’s quite fair if they participate in formulating ideas and thought
on the process of decision-deciding pertaining to various schools’ wisdom in order to improve school
quality. Second, Reformation of education is verily directed, so the implementation of education can be
more democratic, or extending the people involvement in the process of important decision-making that
will be implemented in the advancing program, till school is more aspirative toward public’s idea and
opinions, then support of public surely increase more and their responsibility toward school absolutely
increase too, for they are actively involved. Third, The more societies are involved in participating
education, the more funds will be easily gotten by school on account of them, and student obtain
        c. The Institutional and the Managing of School-Based Management

School-Based Management which is actualized in the from of

        development of schools autonomy definitely demands the creating of

arrangement (planning) also the new institutional culture, 72 these cases

                                                                    surely comprises: 73

               1) Establishment (formation) of chief of school committee 74who functions

                  as the coordinating institution in order to accommodate either aspiration

                  or needs of school’s stakeholder, also the committee which functions as

                  school-helper in order to improve the works for actualizing the

                  educational service and result of study with high quality.

               2) Advancement of school strategic plan 75 which describes the school

                  advancement on the prospective of 3 up to 4 years later. Moreover, in this

                  planning is surely formulated the school’s vision and mission, the

                  analysis of school institutional position (advantage, disadvantage,

                  occasion, challenges), also the strategic issues which are dealt with,


tremendous advantages for there are many learning-teaching activity donated by society. See, Dr. Dede
              Rosyada, MA., Paradigma Baru Pendidikan Demokratis, (Jakarta: Kencana, 2004), p. 274
        72
            The implementation of School-Based Management must be provided the supporter/endorser
means in order to be successfully implemented, these are: preservation of national integrity, even
distribution of education for entire levels and sides (men-women, poor-rich, and so on), standardization,
evaluation, and test, see Dr. Fasli Jalal dan Prof. Dr. Dedi Supriadi, Reformasi Pendidikan Dalam Konteks
Otonomi Daerah, (Yogyakarta: Adicita karya Nusa, 2001), p.162
        73
             Jurnal “ Tsaqafah” Institut Studi Islam Darusslam, (Ponorogo, volume 3, no. I, 1427 H.) p.
149
74
  (a) Objectivity toward relations and human conducts, (b) To be perceptive in communication
and social, (c) Explicitness (affirmation), (d) Be aware of own self, (e) Instructing, see , Gr.Terry dan
                                        L.W. Rue, Dasar-Dasar Manajemen, (Bumi Aksara, 1999), p. 41
        75
             The educational plans comprise: planning of education system, curriculum, and it’s
instruction, extension, correction, it’s part balance, and additional efforts such as researching and
producing the lesson book, see: Adam curle, Identitas Profesional perencanan Pendidikan, (Jakarata:
Bhratara Karya Aksara, and UNESCO, 1982), p. 3
                 formulating the school priority programs, formulating the targets of

                 school advancement, achieving the targets, controlling and evaluating of

                 achieving the target of advancement. The school strategic plan is

                 executed by school committee.

              3) Advancement of school annual plans 76 which describes the school

                 operational activities also the plan of school budget. Moreover, school

                 annual plans are compiled by school committee.

              4) Execution of internal monitoring and the self-assessment which is

                 regularly done, also reporting its result to the forum of school committee.

                 The result of internal monitoring and self-assessment is very necessary

                 for the matters of knowing school advancement, the reached result and

                 achievement, obstacles also the serious disruptions which the school

                 dealt with.

              5) Compiling the annual report describing the implementation of school

                 annual plans. School annual plans is discussed in the forum and surely by

                 the consensus of school committees. While, these cases are containing

                 the aspects which are to be reported also the format of reporting, and the

                 man who does that ever how to do that, these are some things to be

                 seriously discussed. Moreover, school annual report is undoubtedly

                 useful for school its self ever for its stakeholder. School annual report is a



        76
            In this case should be used some approaches: (a) “Social demand approach”, approach based
on the social demand or social needs of education, (b) “Man-power approach”, that the economic growth
is truly become impetus (motivation) for nation construction comprehensively, (c) “Rate-of-return
approach”, it’s also named by “cost-benefit”, the principal that some body properly knows it, particularly
in the money-using matters when he want to obtain result (advantage) which is more than outcome, but
unfortunately, it’s quite difficult to be implemented in education program, see: Drs. St. Vembriarto,
Pengantar Perencanaan Pendidikan, (Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pendidikan Paramita, 1985), p. 46-49
              precious occasion (for school) to prove its accountability toward

              stakeholder (particularly student’s parent). Through this media, they will

              obtain the honest and wise information ever the objective one. School

              annual report which was discussed and approved by school committee,

              furthermore, it will be delivered to the official of national education (in

              the level of regency).

       d. The Simple Way of Achieving School-Based Management program

Indonesia has perceived the remarkable difficulties, particularly

pertaining to some educational matters there are many obstacle ever

disruption, but School-Base Management lately became solution. Moreover,

the good strategy is surely determinant factor of implementation of School-

Based Management in Indonesia. Long-range strategy is ones of the brilliant

one. As we have known that the long-range strategy is training of

manpower, allocating donation to the school directly, the both aspect have

                                                               some reason:

          1) The allocation of donation to the school directly is the main priority,

              definitely for the practice of autonomy of region.

          2) The implementation of School-Based Management certainly need the

              qualified-manpower, at least be able to manage also comprehend well the

              principals of School-Based Management.
               3) The recommendation of World Bank also referred to two aspect above,

                   the 1autonomy of chief of school in managing school financial is quite

                   lack, also the lack of management ability. 77

The World Bank recommended the importance of giving the

autonomy to the school with the accountable management, its mean, the

developing of School-Based Management perfected by three principal

                                                                               elements: 78

               1) The chief of school is elected by society, on account of society is part of

                   school element; ever they are involved in determining the school

                   wisdom.79

               2) The appreciation toward chief of school passed in managing school.

               3) The program of modeler training for the chief of school.

And for the certain cases, school is still under the guidance of

central government such as: (a) Knowledge related to curriculum, aim and

educational target, (b) Technology related to media, sources and the

instrument of learning-teaching, (c) Authority (particularly in decision-

making), (d) Material, the utilizing of facilitation, procurement (provisions),



        77
             Op. Cit. Dr. Fasli Jalal dan Prof. Dr. Dedi Supriadi, Reformasi…, p. 163-164
        78
             Ibid. p. 159
79
   Elsbree clarified 3 factors concerning school ought to have some relations with society; (a)
Factor of nature change, aim, and teaching method in the school, (2) Factor of society, which demands the
change and renewals in education, and school surely needs some donation from society, (3) Factor of
development of democracy idea of society concerning education, whether the importance of school’s
relation with community leslie W. Kindred asserted: (a) To show the learning quality and student’s
growth. (b) To get the purpose (aim) and to advance the quality of societies life-style. (c) To allure the
society in helping school, see, Tim dosen Jurusan Administrasi pendidikan FIK IKIP Malang,
                                              Administrasi pendidikan, (IKIP Malang, 1988), p. 225- 227
also equipment, (e) The allocation of human resources, (f) The allocation of

                                                                    time and funds.80

It’s inevitable that in the western states, the mega trends of

education which orient to the decentralization and School-Based

Management has fluently run for 20 years up to present. The willpower of

this system was exactly moved by some politicians and economy experts to

produce skilled-manpower in order to improve national productivity also to

strengthen the structure of economy. The recourses are assembled and

administered for the school self-management based on the needs and

amount of students, the chief of schools and school committees are in the

charge of its distribution. The quality of financial management in the school

level surely determines the affectivity of learning environment, includes the

knowledge (curriculum), content, technology, person, and time. The role of

“leadership” is the emphasized thing and the overwhelming demand as

leadership influents many aspect of school’s work. The transformational

leadership seems quite good as it affords the empowerment, trust, synergy,

accountability in the school but however, the realization of justice is

definitely exist to be core value for the whole system of School-Based

                                                                      Management.81

      2. The Framework of School-Based Management



          80
               Op. Cit. Duhou, School-Based Management...., p. Xx

81
     Ibtisam Abu-Duhou, School –Based Management (Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah), (Ciputat:
                                                           PT. Logos Wacana Ilmu, 2002), p. 123
                                   The framework of School-Based Management:82

          a. Resources save the operational fee/ administration, the financial management

                ought to be purposed to:

                 1) Strengthen school in determining and allocating the fund on accordance

                     with the decided priority scale for the improvement of quality process.

                 2) The separation between academic fees from establishment process.

                 3) Reducing of center bureaucracy needs.

          b.     Accountability which purposes to convince that the societies donation is

                obviously utilized on accordance with the determined wisdom in order to

                improve the educational quality ever to provide some information pertaining

                to the done-activities.

          c. Curriculum, based on the standard of curriculum which is fixed nationally,

                school is in the charge of improving curriculum either its content or delivery

                process.

          d. School personnel, school is surely involved ever in the charge of recruitment

                process (determine the kind of needed teacher), also the structural guiding of

                school’s staff (chief of school, his vice, teachers and another staffs).



   3. The Characteristics of School-Based Management

                              Brown described 6 effective characteristic of SBM: 83

          a. Autonomy, flexibility, and accountability. 84

          82
               Drs. B.Suryosubroto, Manajemen pendidikan di sekolah, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2004), p.
211-214



          83
               Op. Cit. Duhou, “Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah”, p. 100
          b. Planning by chief of school and school societies. 85

          c. The usage of new role by chief of school.

          d. The effective environment of school/ school environment is effective.

          e. Cooperation and collegiality among staffs.

          f. The affectivity of chief of school is emphasized demand.

      4. The Essential Unsure of School-Based Management.

Murphy delivered many quotations concerning the essential unsure of

school autonomy with the School-Based Management system, as follow:

                                                                       (Murphy: 1995:13)86

          a. According to Lindqust and Mauriel in his article entitle,” School-Based

               Management”, the fundamental characteristic of School-Based Management

               is delegation.

          b. According to Garm in his writing entitle, “School finance, the economic and

               politic of public education” the essence of School-Based Management is the

               expropriation of responsibility of school decision from the central

               government and region to the school it’s self.

84
   Some thing must be noticed in accountability are: (1) Implementation of integrated and
qualified management in education. (2) Implementation of management of education professionalism. (3)
improving the welfare, implementing the system of advancement of teacher’s career. (4) Establishing the
implementation of education legality. (5) Make the work of institution of education accreditation optimal.
                             see, “Dr. Fasli Jalal dan Prof. Dr. Dedi Supriadi, “Reformasi…”, p. 105-107
          85
             Hallingerm Murphy and Hausman asserted that the process of re-finding public education
requires the planners and education wisdom-maker to: (1) Decentralize the schools organizational
structure (School-Based Management). (2) Give some authority to the teachers, parents, and student to
reform and direct the education system. For instance: the teachers and parent have the great influence
particularly in decision-making in the circle of school, some responsibilities and new roles for the
teachers. (3) Transform the process of learning-teaching which develops in class room, for instance:
changing the model of psychologist teaching which is extremely defended with the teaching prospective
“sociologist-oriented”, acknowledging that knowledge of professional handicraft is undoubtedly
significant. For the obvious explanation, see, Duhou “School-Based Management”, p. 27
86
     Murphy: 1995: 13, in Dr. Dede Rosyada, MA. “ Paradigma pendidikan demokratis” (Jakarta:
                                                                             Kencana, 2004), p. 268
        c. According to Crosby in his article entitles “Teacher’s Opinion of School-

              Based Management” the foundation of School-Based Management is the

              distribution of authority in the decision taking.

        d. According to David J.L in his writing entitle, “School Education

              Leadership”, the backbone of School-Based Management is delegation of

              authority of management from the central government and region the school

              it’s self.

        e. According to Mojkowski and Fleming in their article entitles, “School-site

              Management”, the core of School-Based Management is developing of

              responsibility of decision-taking toward school’s stakeholder and executed in

              the school.

    5. The Obstacle of School-Based Management program.

As we have known before, that chief of school is undoubtedly as the

determinant factor of making school successful 87, it’s interesting to conceive the

James A.F Stoner’s opinion in Wahjosumjo, as he intelligibly expounded the

eight principal duties which ought to be executed by either chief of school or

                                                                           manager as follow:

        a. Managers work with and through other people

        b. Managers are responsible and accountable

        c. Managers balance competing goals and set priory

        d. Managers must think analytically and conceptually

        e. Managers are mediator


         87
          The main function of chief of school: to create the circle of learning-teaching until the teacher
can comfortably teach and students can easily study, see, Drs. Hendidat Soetopo dan Drs. Wasty
Soemanto, Kepemimpinan dan Supevisi Pendidikan, (Malang: Bina Aksara, 1982), p. 19
         f. Managers are politicians

         g. Managers make difficult decision. 88

The requirements above are the main factor of implementing the strategy of

School-Based Management. According to Moharrom in Saiful Sagala described

that the requirement of School-Based Management are the need of change, re-

designing the educational organization, also the process of change as the process

of study. School-Based Management has oriented to the involvement of school’s

actors totally for the sole purpose of repairing the school’s works, contextually,

it’s very important to understand the process of change, whether school will

                                                                        adapt over the change.



It’s often occurred that School-Based Management undergoes failures, on

account of innovation is done separately from curriculum and teaching context,

and developing the decision-making system based on the place by creating the

new role for the managers, correcting the system of learning evaluation, and

stakeholders are often confused by the decision which is expected by student and

                                                                                     societies.89

The strategy of School-Based Management needs to decide the phases of

implementation by considering the short-term priority, medium-term, ever the

long-term priority. That strategy prepares the human resources with the training


         88
         Wahjosumidjo, Dasar-dasar kepemimpinan dan komitmen kepemimpinan abad XXI, (Jakarta:
LAN-RI, 2000), p. 6



         89
               Op. Cit. Jurnal “ Tsaqafah” Institut Studi Islam Darusslam, (Ponorogo, volume 3, no. I, 1427
H.), p. 144.
also allocating the donation directly to the school by paying attention to various

aspects such as society’s participation, staffing (manpower), chief of school and

teacher, the budget containing the sources and its utility, curriculum, content

(subject) and assessment, means of education. The implementation of School-

Based Management surely adapts with the objective condition in the school and

                                                                        stakeholder.

The real obstacles and challenges of implementation of School-Based

                                                                 Management are: 90

       a. The understanding of sides who concern to the School-Based Management

              (what and how School-Based Management is)

       b. The weakness of skill in the process of decision-making.

       c. The communication quality.

       d. A trust among sides who have interests

       e. The unwillingness of educational administrator and the teacher in the

              receiving the intervention of authority.

       f. To mean and interpret the accountability.

       g. Interrelation of School-Based Management with the social-economy

              condition perceived by community.

       h. The ambiguity of implementation of School-Based Management in the circle

              of Islamic education, as education is belong to region (region’s authority)

              and in other side the religion is belong to central government (under

              authority of central government) and so on that ought to be anticipated.




       90
            Ibid. p. 153
Although there are many occasion to embody the autonomy, but actually the

region dealt with the multitude obstacles, such as: there are lack of professional

manpower in the regional government either their quality or quantity to execute

their authority and accountability surely from several affairs which are trusted to

                                                                                     region.91

    6. The advantages of School-Based Management program

Some thing concerning the advantages of School-Based Management

will be better if we refer to Edmon, Umaidi’s opinion as they expounded that the

                        character and excellences of School-Based Management are:

        a. The circle of schools are saved and managed orderly (conducive).

        b. School has the good leadership

        c. School vision and target of quality which will be achieved.

        d. The high expectation of school personnel (chief of school, teacher, and

             another staffs including the students) to have and achievement.

        e. The perpetual development of school staffs on accordance with the demand

             of IPTEK (science, knowledge, and technology).

        f. The executing of evaluation ceaselessly particularly toward various

             academicals aspects and administrative, and utilizing the result for the sole

             purpose of enhancing the quality.

        g. There are communication 92 and intensive support from society. 93

        91
           Jurnal Ilmiyah, Buana, media Keilmuan, Keislaman, dan pendidikan, (UNISMA, edisi XXVII,
2005), p. 33



        92
           The importance of communication: (1) The need to reduce the uncertainty, (2) To get some
information, (3)To strengthen the conviction pertaining to the way taken by certain organization, (4) To
utilize the functional authority. For obvious one see, Prof. R. Sondang P. Siagaan “ Organisasi
Kepemimpinan dan Perilaku Administrasi”, (Jakarta: Gunung Agung, 1983). p. 128
If School-Based Management is successfully inculcated, school will have

the certain characteristic which is on accordance with the inherent characteristic

                                                   of School-Based Management, such as:

       a. The collaborative planning and the good evaluation

       b. The circle of learning is truly conducive.

       c. Determining the aim and school expectation obviously and based on the self-

              evaluation.

       d. The preservation of orderliness and discipline in order to afford the

              conducive circle of learning. 94

   7. The Disadvantages of School-Based Management

According to Prof. Dr. Sudarwaman Danim, the basic shortage of our

                                                                            education: 95

       a. Sector of management and school’s managing

       b. Funding affairs.

       c. Cultural affairs, its mean, the reformation of education will be really

              determined by educational society in certain institution where they are.

       d. Geographic factor, particularly for the university which is out of Java.

And in view of the main matters concerning the implementation of

elementary education are viewed from every aspect and direction, even from

political aspect, technical aspect, educational aspect, cultural, and professional



       93
            Op. Cit. Drs. B.Suryosubroto, p. 197
       94
            Ibid. p. 201
       95
           Prof. Dr. Sudarwaman Danim, Agenda pembaharuan system pendidikan, (Yogyakarta:
Pustaka Pelajar, 2003), p. 6-8
one.96 Hence, we’ve to know the disadvantage of School-Based Management

                                                                                accurately.




B. TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT

    1. The Strategy of Traditional Islamic Boarding School-Based Management
       Program

Before discussing the implementation of Boarding School-Based

Management, the writer tried to quote the idea of Prof. Dr. Azumardi Azra as he

   expounded, in any case there are three principal function of Boarding-School:

        a. Transmission of Islamic knowledge.

        b. Maintenance of Islamic knowledge.

        c. Reproduction of Ulama’ 97.

Therefore, boarding school is absolutely as the indigenous educational

institution is explicitly demanded to produce the skilled-manpower on

accordance with the Islamic precept. And the important thing that boarding

school ought to endorse and support the program of SISDIKNAS that ones of its

missions are producing the holistic personality (insan kamil) or skilled-

                                                      manpower with the high quality.

        a. The Management of Traditional Islamic Boarding School.

        96
          Prof. Dr. H.A.R. Tilaar, M.Sc. Ed., Manajemen pendidikan nasional, (Bandung: PT. Remaja
Rosdakarya, 2003), p. 46
        97
          Prof. Dr. Azumardi azra, Esai-esai intelektual muslim dan pendidikan Islam, (Jakarta: Logos
Wacana Ilmu, 1998), P. 5
            1) The leadership in traditional Islamic boarding-school.

The leadership of traditional Islamic boarding-school tends to Gestalt

system, for there are number of unique things which are apperent. For

instance, the traditional Islamic boarding-school which embodied the

“madradah”, the head master of boarding-school is allowed to execute the

authority and make the decision formally as chief of “madrasah”. In the

other side, the traditional Islamic boarding school which doesn’t establish

the formal school, the duty of head master of boarding-school probably just

giving some direction, coordination (deliberation) for implementing the

boarding-school’s programs. The technic affairs are given to the directed

staff (the manager of boarding-school, teacher, and so on). Commonly, on

account of schope of boarding-school is truly quite complex, it’s often

occurred that the format of leadership of boarding-school is quite flexibel, it

                                    depends on the capacity and capability of Kiai. 98

Hence, in the compiling the strategy the head master of boarding-

school is definitely expected to involve the other sides who has relation with

it in order to compile the issue priority which is settled. And be able to be

inspirator for the sole purpose of achievement of dynamic learding

community. In the context of educational boarding-school, the condusive

learning circumstance must be endorsed by the work of Kiai, teacher,

students, parents synergically on accordance with their capacity and ability.

                          In this case, the good skill of Kiai is undoubtedly hoped. 99

       98
          Dr. H.M. Sulthon, M.Pd. dan Dr. Moh. Khusnuridlo, M.Pd. "Manajemen Pondok Pesantren
dalam Perspektif Global",LaksBang, Yogyakarta, 2006. P. 61
       99
            Ibid. p. 50
         2) The decision-taking of traditional Islamic Boarding-school

Generally, the decision-making of educational institution tends to the

“rasional-scientific”, but the decision-making of traditional boarding-school

is “emotional-subjective”. The head master of traditional Islamic boarding-

school would not be in the great hurry particulary in the decision-taking.

They don’t just consider some thing logically, but the inner/lustrous is some

thing could not be ignored, tawassul to their teachers, they don’t forget to

surrender to god and execute the istiharah to Allah almighty. The type of

this decision-making is more extremely indicate the culture of Islamic

boarding school and it is the inherent model of leadership in traditional

                              boarding-school particularly in our country. 100

There are multitude affairs in Islamic boarding-school ever from

head master, teacher, students, and community. Most heads master of

traditional Islamic boarding-school are not accustomed to prepare the

meeting agenda systematically, and finally it will need long time to achieve

the wanted item, but it’s hampered. Hence, the assistance is expected to note

                               and write down the core result of meeting. 101




         3) The conflict management


       100
             Ibid. p. 51
       101
             Ibid. p. 53
The management activity of Islamic boarding-school absolutely will

have the conflict potencies which the attention of Kiai is truly needed. For

there are many community of Islamic boarding-school consist of head

master, students, parent, teacher, enterpreneur and so on who carry the

different interest that easily incur some conflict. If the smallest conflict is

really neglected it will annoy the program of management of boarding-

                                   school especially learning-teaching process. 102

                           The effective method to overcome the conflict: 103

              a) Structural approach: the conflict is submitted to upper organization of

                   boarding-school.     Therefore,    the    structure   of     boarding-school

                   organization must be well-designed untill the individual, group,

                   organization unit have the leader who is in the charge of that all.

              b) The group approach, which the more dominant group can lead the

                   conflict-overcoming by preparing the solution which can be easilly

                   received by the whole component of boarding-school.

              c) Bargaining among conflict doer, which the conflict is brought over the

                   meeting in order to look for the sharp solution.

              d) Changing organizational relationship.

              e) Solving problem apporach.

              f) Improving the communication among unit.

         4) Cadrezation




       102
             Ibid. p. 67
       103
             Ibid. p. 70
The weakest side of traditional Islamic boarding school management

is function of cadrezation. It’s generally done by imitation method. The

selected student of Islamic boarding-school which is considered has ability

is deputized in some boarding-school activity which is done by senior

student in order to pay attention that. Hopefuly the cadre can absorb the

scientific capacity and the whole manners which are done by senior student

that is imitated by him. But unfortunately, the reality has proved that the

             method is very ineffective, the cadre doesn’t qualify it optimally. 104

The system of traditional cadrezation can’t be ignored ceaslessly

without any renewal, if it’s truly occurred the Islamic boarding-school will

lose it’s ability to appreciate the society’s demand (the boarding-school with

the high quality). The proper thing to do is executing the re-orientation

particularly in the cadrization system in boarding-school by implementing

the system of modern cadrezation which is endorsed with the reational-

scientific apporach by paying attention to the original value of boarding-
                                                                                     105
                                                                           school.




                                      Moreover, the way of cadrezation are: 106

                    a) Selection of potencial cadre as soon as possible.




104
      Ibid. p. 65
105
      Ibid. p. 51
            106
                  Ibid. p. 59
               b) General education and particular one which support the cadre’s needs in

                    order to execute the duty for the future in boarding-school.

               c) The gradual evaluation, ever it is concerning the personal academic

                    ability and social.

               d) The remedial education particularly for the cadre who perceive the fact

                    of having fallen behind.

               e) The volunteer practice, in order to employ/ practice the educated cadre

                    who is expected.

               f) The cadre certification, to determine cadre’s qualification.

          5) The process of developing of Traditional
                                            Islamic boarding school curriculum
There are two proper processes to be achieved in the developing of

boarding-school curriculum, those are the improvement of guidelines of

curriculum and instructional improvement. The traditional Islamic

boarding-school has been in the profound difficulties concerning these

processes, for the planning of curriculum is not systematically prepared,

ever its curriculum is based on its Kiai. 107 The curriculum is taken from

     the place when Kiai studied. The teaching methods are as follow:108

                  1) Bandongan: The method which Motivates the student in order to be

                     more self-reliant: the head master of boarding school tries to read the

                     holy book (kitab kuning and so on), translates and expounds it

                     concisely. In the same time the students try to listen up and imitate the

                     read holy book.

        107
              Ibid. p. 147
        108
            Dr. Humi Rahim, Arah Baru Pendidikan Islam di Indonesia , (Ciputat: PT. Logos Wacana
Ilmu, 2001) p.151
                     2) Sorogan: Teaching method which is not done by student and kiai their

                        selves, ever surely with another students of boarding school             (

                        together).

Recently, the government gave the trust to traditional Islamic

boarding-school and the program of obligatory study of elementary school

for nine years. It can be understood that traditional boarding-school ought to

execute the school functions, such as implementing the planned education

and instruction, the systematization is the important one, also the

                                     improvement of curriculum in boarding-school.109

             6) The financial management of traditional Islamic boarding-school

There are many Islamic boarding-school doesn’t separate the

boarding-school properties and individual owned, although it has been

known that funding of Islamic boarding-school will definitely appear from

individual property, for another sources doesn’t qualify well. It’s wise to say

that the separation of Islamic boarding-school properties and individual

owned is the important thing to do in order to make the good management,

because the transparancy will be absolutely known over this way. The

individual properties that is involved in the managing of boarding-school

ought to be done in the form of hibah, infaq, another constribution these are
                                                                                        110
                                             managed with another sources orderly.




109
      Op.Cit., Dr. H.M. Sulthon, M.Pd. dan Dr. Moh. Khusnuridlo, M.Pd. "Manajemen....., p. 147
           110
                 Ibid. P. 259.
In this case the writer tried to quote the opinion of Dr. A. Malik Fajar,

                 M.Sc. pertaining to the system of boarding school commonly. 111

              1) From the leadership aspect boarding school is still extremely in the model

                 of centralistic leadership and the hierarchy which is centered in one Kiai,

                 the pedigree of boarding school truly has the unique history, it’s usually

                 on effort of Kiai him self. Hence, in the advancement of boarding school

                 later the figure of Kiai absolutely influence it ever he is as the determiner

                 one (centralistic), this model will surely incur the authorized

                 management, the renewal is difficult thing as it depend on the

                 characteristic of Kiai. Some thing to be noticed that this model is not

                 quite prospective for the continuity of boarding school in the future, as

                 there are many well-known boarding schools finally just so-so

                 disappeared for the Kiai passed away.

              2) The disadvantage in the aspect of methodology, it was commonplace to

                 be known that boarding school has the overwhelming tradition surely in

                 the transmission of classic knowledge. However, because there is lack of

                 improvement of methodology, the process of transmission just affords the

                 scientific accumulation. Muhammah Tholhah Hasan, the muslim

                 intelligence of Nahdlotul Ulama’ (NU) ever he criticized, that the

                 teaching tradition as mentioned above will truly cause the weakness of

                 creativity.

              3) Occurring the disorientation, its mean, the boarding school loses an ability

                 to define and reposition it’s self particularly in the social reality that
        111
          Prof. H.A. Malik Fadjar, M.Sc. Sintesa antara perguruan tinggi dengan pesantren, upaya
menghadirkan Wacana pendidiakn alternative ,(UIN Malang, 2004), p. 4
                 massive change always definitely occurs. 112 In this context of change,

                 boarding school perceives the dilemmatic problem either to maintain it’s

                 self or to adopt and absorb the new culture which come from out of

                 boarding school because of needs. However, boarding school is certainly

                 demanded to perform reorientation toward role of education, religion, and

                 social.

Although its development is accordance with the process of

Islamization, and also it’s exactly as the Islamic symbol, Islamic boarding

school basically as the original product of Indonesian culture. And after

embodiment of analysis pertaining to the boarding school for 3 decades,

boarding school really flourished either in villages or in cities. The data of

DEPAG (department of religious) from year 1977 up to 1997 proved that

advance of boarding school’s amount: 224% and advance of student’s

                                                                         amount: 261%. 113

If we try to inquiry the transmission of knowledge in the circle of

Islamic boarding school, commonly knowledge cultivation is the stressed

thing than the advancing of knowledge, for this reality has the interrelation

112
    In the book of “Pesantren” entitle “ The Pesantren Tradition”: A Study of role of Kiai in the
maintance of the traditional ideology of Islam in Java. Zamahsari Dhofier (the Australian National
University), a dissertation with 400 pages, pertaining to the principal tradition of pesantren and it’s
development, form 19th -20th century rested on the role of kiai in the maintance of Islamic tradition in
Java. These all were based on the Islamic thought which was advanced by ulama’ in 7 th up to 13th century.
It also can be said that the principal thing of this dissertation acquired the internal evolution of pesantren
tradition and Islamic tradition in Java in the end of 19 th century up to present. The purpose is in order to
know: (1) the attempt of kiai in the maintance and developing the pesantren, (2) the attempt of kiai in
making the pesantren be able to fulfill modern-life demands, (3) the contribution of pesanren in the
maintance and implementing the unity of ideology of Ahlussunah, the kiai tries to preserve (maintain) and
implement the unity of Ahlussunnah. see, Pesantren Beberapa tinjauan dan pengamatan tentang arah
pendidikan agama. Profil kiai, pesantren, dan madrasah, (Jakarta: Badan Litbang Agama, Departemen
                                                                                       Agama RI. 1981), p. 17
         113
            Dr. Humi Rahim, Arah Baru Pendidikan Islam Di Indonesia ,(Jakarta: PT. Logos Wacana
Ilmu, 2001), p. 145-146
with the 2 main function of boarding school: transmission of knowledge and

maintenance of Islamic tradition. And nevertheless, students of boarding

school don’t obtain yet the social recognition if they just study in a boarding

school in their region, they ought to go to another region to look for science

                                     till enable to occur the scholar exchange. 114




        b. The weakness of Traditional Islamic
                                              Boarding-school Management 115
              1) Boarding-school is indigenous Islamic institution which was emanated

                 from the style of sufism (Islamic mysticism), whether its shortcome is

                 making the Sufi master as the pattern, till in the commonsense it seems

                 quite dirty, careless and lack of attention to worldly needs.

              2) Moreover, the teaching method of boarding-school commonly are

                 Sorogan and Wetonan, we can definitely obtain its shortage, lack of

                 ability in the logical reasoning, for the doctrine is merely memorizing

                 some thing, and there are many students who don't conceive and

                 comprehend well the lesson they memorized.




        114
             Op. Cit. Prof. Dr. Azumardi azra, Esai-esai intelektual muslim dan pendidikan Islam,
(Jakarta: Logos Wacana Ilmu, 1998), p. 89
        115
            M. Ali Hasan and Mukti Ali, Kapita Selekta Pendidikan Islam, (Jakarta: CV. Pedoman Ilmu
Jaya, 2003), p. 97-98.
             3) And the most instructed books in the boarding-school generally are

                yellow book (kitab kuning), the shortage is alien from the contemporary

                problem occured in the society, as the subject just rests on the one

                sources. And besides that it will truly need the long time, till students

                loss the precious occasion to learn another scientific book which it

                currently flourished.

             4) Some thing concerning the means, it was commonplace that boarding-

                school has no sufficient means in order to facilitate the teaching-learning

                activity. It's also an apperent weakness.

             5) The boarding-school commonly belongs to the individual, family and

                certain group, the shortage is undoubtedly more dominant, for it will

                incur the authority leadership, the transparacy is definitely not cared, the

                revival is not easily accepted save there is the owner's consicousness and

                it's exclusive looked.

             6) Some thing pertaining to the advancement, Traditional Islamic boarding-

                school has flourished over the country, unfortunetly not all Traditional

                Islamic boarding-school has the similar quality in educating its student.

             7) The religious tradition of Traditional Islamic boarding-school is quite

                powerful, but the fanatism toward certain opinion without caring to the

                another school of thought is become a shortage, if there are Fiqh affairs

                the quarrel will truly occured, one blames another.

       c. The Obstacles of Traditional Islamic
                                                                              116
                                           Boarding-School Management


       116
           Dr. H.M. Sulthon, M.Pd. dan Dr. Moh. Khusnuridlo, M.Pd. Manajemen Pondok Pesantren
dalam Perspektif Global,( Yogyakarta: LaksBang, 2006), P. 30-65
          1) The transformative leadership has apparently proven        the success in

              every institution. Unfortunately, the Traditional Islamic boarding-school

              is generally in the centralistic leadership which it only relies on the

              dignity. Most Traditional Islamic boarding-school has the mono-

              management and mono-administration, there is no delegation of authority

              to the unit of work in some organization.

          2) The Traditional Islamic boarding- school is belonging to the individual

              it's not utterly comnunal owned. The authority of head master of

              boarding-school (Kiai) is quite overwhelming and undisturbed. The

              factor of heredity is also very powerful till the Kiai can trust his

              leadership to his beloved son and there is no component of boarding-

              school protests.

          3) The model of curriculum tends to adapt the curriculum of Traditional

              Islamic boarding-school where Kiai acquired science and it's treated

              rigidly.

          4) The unwillingness of Kiai to adopt the innovative and reformative

              opinion and thought, for he is worry loss favor of science obtained from

              his teacher.

      d. The Management of Modern Islamic Boarding-School (Gontor)

The management of Gontor Modern Islamic Boarding-School truly

has the similarity with the School-Based Management (definitely in the

context of system), there are human framework, curriculum framework,

resources framework, accountability framework, and stake holders are really
involved in its implementation. And Gontor undoubedly has the

      transformational model of leadership that will be intelligibly clarified: 117

               1) The head master of boarding school is a manager, he is as the planning-

                  maker in the institution, 118 also as the coordinator of activities, distributor

                  of duties, motivator of teachers119 and staffs, and the most important thing

                  is as the guider 120, manager and director.

               2) The head master of boarding school is also as the controller of

                  curriculum, personnel, students, financial, means, facility, and general

                  administration.




         117
           KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, MA, Manajemen pesantren pengalaman pondok modern
Gontor”, (Ponorogo: Trimurti Press, 2005), p. 202
118
    Anderson and Bowman asserted that planning is: A process to prepare set of decisions for the
future act. The function of planning, (1) to decide the aim and mean of organization, (2) the estimate of
environment (the sources and obstacle) on accordance with the mean and purpose that will be achieved,
(3) determining the approach that will achieve the certain mean and purpose. Whether the contents of
planning are: (1) mean and purpose, the wanted thing as result of education program, (2) program and
service, concerning the kind of learning activity and its endorser service that will be organized, (3)human
resources, concerning his performance, interaction, specialization, attitude, ability, growth, and
satisfaction if helped and improved, (4) physical service, concerning the used activities of model of its
distribution, (5) financial, (6)organization structure, (7)social context. For the apparent explanation, Prof.
Dr. Oteng Sutrisno, M. Sc. Ed., Adminstrasi pendidikan dasar teoritis untuk praktek prefoessional,
                                                                       (Bandung: Angkasa, 1987), P. 162-173
         119
              According to Pullias dan Young (1988), Manan (1990), Yelon dan Weinstein (1997), in any
case there are 19 roles of teachers that can be obviously identified: (1) As the educator, (2) As the teacher
(instructor), (3)As the guider, (4) As the trainer, (5) As the advisor (counselor), (6) As the innovator, (7)
As model and good example, (8) As personal, (9) As the researcher, (10) As the motivator of creativity,
(11) As the view (perception) generator, (12) As routine employer, (13) As the tent mover, (14) As the
story deliverer, (15) As the actor, (16) As the emancipator, (17) As the evaluator, (18) As the preserver,
(19) As the culminator. See, Dr. E. Mulyasa, M.Pd., Menjadi Guru Professional ,( Bandung: PT. Remaja
Rosdakarya, 2006), p. 37-64
120
    California State Department of Education decided that characteristics of guider are: (1) an
ability to cooperate with another, (2) to be friendly, spirit, confident to be better, (3) an ability to inculcate
the trust to another and make rapid communication, (4) adjustment and soul-matured, (5) be able to
endure objectively in the humanity relation, (6) assessment and righteous measurement, (7)willing to
work more than just duty, (8)knowing various problem and wants to overcome it, (9) having willpower to
improve in every work, see Prof. Dr. Atta Mahmud Hana, Bimbingan pendidikan dan pekerjaan, (Jakarta:
                                                                                  Bulan Bintang, 1978), p. 246
              3) The head master of boarding school is as leader who motivates, guides,

                 direct, moves and convinces the whole followers.

              4) The head master of boarding school is also as the supervisor, he ought to

                 be perceptive in every direction, in the cases of supervising, evaluating,

                 and analyzing and be able to give some solution.

              5) The head master of boarding school is as innovator, he is truly expected to

                 move for the sole purpose of advancement and development.

              6) The head master of Islamic boarding school is as motivator, he is able to

                 reach out the valuable income for the teachers, staffs, and manager of

                 institutional units, students, society, ever government.

              7) The head master of Islamic boarding school is as evaluator, 121 he is able

                 to control many activities, and either it’s executed by individual or group.

Hence, to implement and manage these all are very difficult save kiai

who has qualification follow, and he is certainly expected one in making

                                                boarding school program successful:

              1) Sincerity

              2) Hard worker.

              3) Having wide and matured perception (thought perception and scientific

                 perception)

              4) Having the good mentality and high bravery.




        121
            The importance of evaluation: (1) to know the advance the student, (2) to know the degree of
efficiency of education methods which is used by education for certain time/period, for the obvious one
see, M. Buchori, M.Ed., Teknik-Teknik Evaluasi dalam Pendidikan,( Bandung: Jemmars, 1983), p. 6
             5) Be able to act firmly on accordance with sunnah and discipline of

                  boarding school.

             6) Having the high idealism, not mere the pragmatism.

             7) To be visionary.

             8) Always be initiative-taker.

             9) Be able to make and utilize the network.

             10) Can be trusted as can do.

             11) Honest and transparent. 122

             1) The Institutional Aspect.

The institutional aspect and organization of Gontor establish the

new system by trusting/giving boarding school to whole Muslim at year

1958 which was represented by an institutional named by Waqf Board

(Badan Wakaf). This institution was trusted to 15 alumni who really

conceive and understand well pertaining to the principal value and the

main lines of boarding school direction. And these institutions are: Waqf

Board (Badan Wakaf), Islamic Teaching Training College (KMI),

Darussalam Institute of Islamic Studies (ISID), Guidance and Counseling

Department, The Family Association of Darussalam Gontor (IKPM),

The Foundation for Maintenance and Waqf Enlargement (YPPWPM),

The Construction of Pondok, The Cooperation of Boarding School,

                                                                 BKSM.123

             2) Management Aspect.

       122
             Ibid. p. 198
       123
             KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, M.A. Gontor dan pembaharuan pendidian pesantren,
(Jakarta: PT. raja Grafindo Persada, 2005), p. 177
The management aspect there are many peoples say that one of

boarding school weakness is management aspect. The management of

traditional Islamic boarding school is commonly exclusive, centralistic,

familial relationship. Gontor Modern Islamic boarding school tries to

overcome the inherent shortage by implementing the different

management as done in another one generally. The management of

Gontor is truly executed by regarding to the principal of transparency,

accountability, and togetherness. 124 The principal of transparency serves

as basis for the whole management of education activity and the

instruction in boarding school, for instance, a transparency in planning

and implementing some programs and also a transparency in

                              implementing the financial management. 125

We can stare at the financial transparency in Gontor Modern

Islamic Boarding School. The head master of Islamic boarding school

doesn’t only deliver the financial report, the program implementation,

also some wisdom to the Waqf Board (Badan Wakaf) ever he ought to

      deliver some report to entire students of boarding school frankly. 126

             3) Curriculum Aspect

The curriculum of Gontor Modern Islamic Boarding School

always be observed and renewed in every time by considering at the




       124
             Ibid. p. 123
       125
             Ibid. p. 123
       126
             Ibid. p. 124
advancement and changes occurred out of boarding school also refer to

                                                                          the principal:

“Al-mukhafadatu ala alqodim assolih wal akhzu bil jadiidil ashlah”.

The change is rapidly done particularly if it’s pertaining to the general

curriculum, however, if it’s concerning the religious curriculum it will be

carefully done. The renewal of curriculum is done by integrating both of

them till the instruction of general science (kauniyah) is not apart from

the religious value, and the contrariwise, the instruction of religious

sciences are improved on accordance with the development of general

                                                                            science.127

Moreover, the academicals curriculum128 implemented in

        ITTC/KMI is divided into various programs of study as follow: 129

                    a) Arabic language which comprises: al-Imla’, Thamrin al-Lughah, al-

                        Muthala’ah, Nahwu, al-sharf, al-Balaghah, Tarih al-Adab, and al-

                        Khat al-Arabi.

                    b) Dirasah islamiyyah which contains: al-Qur’an, al-Tajwid, al-Tauhid,

                        al-Tafsir, al-Hadits, Musthalah al-Hadits, al-fiqh, Ushul al-Fiqh, al-

                        Faraidl, al-Din al-Islami, Muqaranant al-Adyan, Tarikh al-Islam, al-

                        Mantiq, and translation (al-Tarjamah).




        127
              Ibid. p. 126
128
    The function of curriculum: (1) As an instrument to achieve aim of education wanted, (2) As
the guidelines to manage the education activities which is implemented in the school, see, Drs. H. M.
                          Ahmad, DKK, Pengembangan Kurikulum, (Bandung: Pustaka Setia, 1998), P. 97
        129
              Op. Cit. KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, MA., Manajemen pesantren............... P. 143
                   c) The education science which consists of: al-Tarbiyah wa al-Ta’lim,

                        it’s delivered by Arabic language, and Psychology of education

                        which is delivered by Indonesia language.

                   d) English language which is comprises: Reading and Comprehension,

                        Grammar, Composition, and Dictation. The whole subjects are

                        delivered by English language.

                   e) Exact science which comprises: Arithmetic and Mathematics

                   f) The Realm sciences which consists of: Physics and Biology

                   g) The Historical science which comprises: National and International

                        history, Geography, Sociology, and General Psychology.

                   h) Indonesian sciences which consists of Indonesia language, State

                        structure, the mark “e” up to “h” are delivered by Indonesian

                        language.

If we stare at the curriculum instructed in Gontor we will

definitely remember some thing remarked by Syed Naquib Al-Attas

                           pertaining to the aim of education for the Muslims,

“The aim of Muslim education is the creation of the “good and righteous man”
who worships Allah in the true sense of the term, builds up the structure of his
earthly life according to the Islamic low and employs it to subserve his fait”. 130

Also about the knowledge we learn, he explicitly expounded that,

“The source of knowledge, according to the Islamic concept, fall into

                                                                         two categories:



130
      Syed Muhammad al- Naquib al- Attas, Aims and objectivities of Islamic education, (Jeddah:
                                                                 King Abdulaziz University, 1997), p. v
                a) Devine revelation where Allah teaches that man cannot, by him self,

                    be rightly guided to the divine truth and that life cannot be regulated

                    in the proper manner in the absence of stable and unchangeable

                    injunctions inspired by Allah, the wise and the all-knowing whose

                    knowledge encompasses all.


                b) The human intellect and its tools which are constant interaction with

                    the physical universe on the levels of observation, contemplation,

                    experimentation and application. Man s free to do as he pleases

                    subject to the condition that he remains fully committed to the

                    Qur’an and the Islamic low. 131


Therefore, the curriculum of education in boarding school surely

contains the various activities in all aspect that become unity of

curriculum which certainly can’t be separated. It manages the life of

students for the sole purpose of achieving the aim of education and

instruction wanted. And it’s wise to say, “The totality of activities which

has the value of education in various aspects till what are seen, heard,

                            felt, experienced by students are education”. 132

             4) Aspect of Methodology

Methodology is the crucial thing in an education. If there are

curriculums neatly codified but the methods of teaching are disorder, it

will never achieve the wanted aim. And the soul of teacher is also

                                                                        131
                                                                              Ibid. p. Vii
       132
             Op. Cit. KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, M.A. Gontor dan pembaharuan pendidian
pesantren, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2005), p. 126
absolutely become determinant factor in this case, for it was obvious that

teacher who has high idealism and who is just pragmatism will surely

produce the different outputs. In view of the duties of teachers is neither

merely transferring knowledge nor transmitting one, ever it’s more than

that, the teachers ought to transform student’s personality and mental

attitude,133 when matters above are achieved, the ideal education

                                                     undoubtedly will occurred. 134

The methodology aspects which are practiced in Gontor consists

of the good model (example), conditioning, directing, giving an

assignment, awareness, and instruction. 135 That all truly describes that

either step of leadership management or organizing of boarding school 136

involve stakeholder, (student boarding school, parents, teachers, the

functionaries of boarding school, head master of boarding school and his




         133
               Ibid. p. 134
         134
             Education is the social process which society draws up within the framework of its
philosophy and for which it lays down objectives that are achieved through stages and aims which
education tries to realize. Education is the means of societies in the preparation of the individual for the
work which benefits him and is reflected on society in the form of prosperity and progress. For the clear
explanation see, The Education conference book, planning, implementation, recommendations and
abstracts of presented papers, A Conference on towards the construction of a contemporary Islamic
Educational Theory, ( Fattah-Amman: Islamic Studies and research, 1991), p. 143
         135
               Ibid. p. 134
136
    In the matters of organization, KH. Abdullah Mahmud ever said that KH. Imam Zarkasyi
(founder of Gontor) was persistent in defending the discipline. The concept used by him in the case of
organization was “organism of work”, by assuming the organization is such as a body that definitely will
need one each others for the sake of reaching the work program that was planned. The method which was
often done in the organization: (1) control of implementation of whole programs. (2) recommended whole
student to be face to face intently and intensively. For the apparent explanation see, KH. Imam Zarkasyi
                                                 di mata umat, (ponorogo: gontor press, 1996), p. 814 -815.
families), the approved things is not merely level of Kiai’s wisdom but a

                 good model (example) is verily significant to be imitated. 137

It was apparent that Management in Gontor is truly qualified, if

there is question, “how great the role of boarding school in endorsing the

System of National Education (SISDIKNAS)?”. Let’s stare at the

constitution number 2 at the year 1989 pertaining to the System of

National Education (SISDIKNAS). First, education in conscious attempt

and it’s planned, second, as an implementation of circle of study and

learning process till the student can actively improve their personalities

(cognitive, affective, psychomotor). Third, learning process which is

available on certain stripe, level, and kinds of certain education. Fourth,

the devotion of educated-manpower based on religion, social, culture,

aspiration, potencies of society, as an implementation of aim of

                education it’s self from the society, by them, and for them. 138

The general certainty of education is in fact summarized in the

standard of national education which consists of contents of education/

instruction, process, manpower of education, means and equipment,

management, feeing, and evaluation of education that ought to be

continually executed. But unfortunately, the government just endorses

and accredits the boarding school in this recent days, the government

pays attention to the boarding school for their self-reliance, and produced

the success outputs on accordance with the aim of System of National



       137
             Op. Cit., KH. Abdullah Syukri Zarkasyi, MA,” Manajemen pesantren..…” p. 226.
       138
             Ibid. p. 30
Education (Sisdiknas). 139 Some of education activists desperately

                                                     complain for this occurrence.

The essence of autonomy of education is a trust given to the

societies in order to manage some education and they are directly

involved, such as, leader, teachers, students, and parents. 140 They will

surely know more concerning the needs and the real ability of student

and the real needs of school. The aspect of management which becomes

a target of autonomy comprises the education and instruction, financing,

                                  means and equipment, and human resources.

        e. The Advantages of Modern Islamic Boarding-School Management

The managment of Modern Islamic Boarding-School is more

effective particularly in producing the output with high quality, if its

implementation is truly qualified (there are human framework, curriculum

framework, resources framework, and accountability framework) and on

account of Boarding School-Based Management has the same framework

with the School-Based Management, it will definitely has indifferent

                                      excellences with School-Based Management.

There are some quotation form Edmon. Umaidi as they argued that

                                               the character of this management are:

         139
             According to Matsuhu in the Dr. Ahmad Tafsir, Ilmu pendidikan dalam perspektif Islam 8
principals depict the main characteristic of aim of boarding school education: (1) having a wisdom on
accordance with the Islamic precept, (2) having the leaded-freedom, (3) self-management, (4) having the
high sense of togetherness, (5) honour to parents and teacher, (6) loving sciences, (7) self-reliant, (8)
simplicity, see Dr. Ahmad Tafsir, Ilmu pendidikan dalam perspektif Islam ( Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosda
Karya, 2001), 64
         140
            To know apparently the character (nature) of relationship between school and community, (1)
the essence of community is as an interaction between individual and element of environment also the
social powers, (2) the character (nature) of education process as the function and social urgency, see Drs.
Hery Noer Aly, MA. Dan Drs. H. Munzier S. MA., Watak Pendidikan Islam, (Jakarta: Friska Agung
Insani, 2000), p. 188.
                1) Circle of boarding school will be save and order,

                2) Boarding school possesses visions and target that will be achieved,

                3) Boarding school has the strong leadership,

                4) There is high expectation from boarding school personnel (head master,

                    teacher, and another one includes students in order to have the good

                    achievement,

                5) There is developing of boarding school staffs incessantly on accordance

                    with the demand of science, knowledge and technology (IPTEK),

                6) There is some evaluation which is done ceaselessly particularly

                    pertaining to the aspect of academic and administrative, and utilizing it’s

                    result for enhancing the quality,

                7) There is communication 141 and intensive support from the society. 142




         141
             Kind of school relation with the society: (1) Educative relation: a cooperation in the case of
educating, among teachers in the school and parent at home, (2) Cultural relation: a cooperation between
school and society in order to guide and advance the society’s culture around school, (3) Institutional
relation: a relation between school with the another formal institution, either state-owned institution or
private one, see, Drs. M. Ngalim Purwanto, MP., Administrasi dan supervise pendidikan, (Bandung: PT.
Remaja Rosdakarya, 1991), p.194-195.
         142
               Op. Cit. Drs. B.Suryosubroto, p. 197
                                      CHAPTER IV
                                       CLOSING
A. CONCLUSION
After studying concerning School-Based Management and Traditional Islamic

 Boarding School-Based Mangement (in a comparative study) and after noticing the

                             content thoroughly the writer explicitly want to conclude:

 1. Basically, the strategy of School-Based Managment is not so elaborative, for the

    program will be truly successful            if the stakeholder is in the tremendous

    consistence. And the significant point of strategies of School-Based Managment

    are:

    a. Codifying the principal data and school profile which is more presentative,

           accurate, valid, and systematically containing various aspects of academics,

           administrative, (students, teachers, and staffs) also the financial.

    b. Executing self-assessment to analyze the advantage and disadvantage

           pertaining to school’s resources, school’s personnel, and working in order to

           improve and achieve the target of curriculums and the result achieved by

           student concerning either intellectual and handicraft aspect or another one.

    c. Based on that analysis, the school is to identify its needs and to formulate

           vision and mission which intends to provide the good quality of education

           exactly for its student on accordance with the concept of construction of

           national education which will be achieved. And some thing to be underlined,

           how do the students learn, providing the resources, and managing the

           curriculum which containing the indicator of achievement of quality

           improvement.

    d. Begun from the vision and mission also the aim of quality improvement

           school and society plan and codify either the long-range program or short-
        range one (annual) together including its budget. Meanwhile, the program

        accommodates number of activity programs which will be executed on

        accordance with the decided-national wisdom by considering the principal

        keys of planning, either it’s decided in that year or in the next one.

The real obstacles and challenges of actualization of School-Based Management

                                                                                 are:

     a. The understanding of groups which concern to the School-Based

         Management (what and how School-Based Management is)

     b. The weakness of skill in the process of decision-making.

     c. The communication quality.

     d. A trust among groups which have interests

     e. The unwillingness of educational administrator and the teacher in the

         receiving the intervention of authority.

     f. To mean and interpret the accountability.

     g. Interrelation of School-Based Management with the social-economy

         condition perceived by community.

     h. The ambiguity of implementation of School-Based Management in the circle

         of Islamic education, as education is belong to region (region’s authority)

         and in other side the religion is belong to central government (under

         authority of central government) and so on that ought to be anticipated.

 2. The strategy of Traditional Islamic Boarding School-Based Management will be

    briefly mentioned, but there are many weaknesses in this management. Number

    of traditional Islamic boarding-schools have changed its method by the modern

    one, for the traditional management perceived the little progress. the traditional
    Islamic boarding-school is generally in the centralistic leadership which it only

    relies on the dignity. Most traditional Islamic boarding-school has the mono-

    management and mono-administration, there is no delegation of authority to the

    unit of work in some organization. These will definitely make the management

    disorder. The transformatif leadership is the effective one. The decision-taking is

    not participative it’s on accordance with the Kiai, the participative decision-

    taking will make boarding-school in the good progress, there are conflict

    management to overcome some conflict in traditional boarding-school, executing

    the re-orientation in the cadrization system by implementing the system of

    modern cadrezation which is endorsed with the reational-scientific apporach, for

    the cadrezation management of traditional boarding-school is inffective. There

    are two proper processes to be achieved in the developing of traditional Islamic

    boarding school curriculum, those are the improvement of guidelines of

    curriculum and instructional improvement. The traditional Islamic boarding-

    school has been in the profound difficulties concerning these processes, for the

    planning of curriculum is not systematically prepared, ever its curriculum is

    based on its Kiai. The curriculum is taken from the place when Kiai studied.

    Concerning the financial management, traditional Islamic boarding-school has to

    separate the boarding-school properties and individual owned in order to make

    the good management (the good accountability and transparancy).




The obstacles of traditional Islamic Boarding School Management is very

                                                       important to be known:
      a. The transformative leadership has apparently proven the success in every

         institution. Unfortunately, the traditional Islamic boarding-school is

         generally in the centralistic leadership which it only relies on the dignity.

         Most traditional Islamic boarding-school has the mono-management and

         mono-administration , there is no delegation of authority to the unit of work

         in some organization.

      b. The traditional Islamic boarding- school is belonging to the individual it's

         not utterly comnunal owned. The authority of head master of traditional

         Islamic boarding-school (Kiai) is quite overwhelming and undisturbed. The

         factor of heredity is also very powerful till the Kiai can trust his leadership to

         his beloved son and there is no component of traditional Islamic boarding-

         school protest.

      c. The model of curriculum tends to adapt the curriculum of traditional Islamic

         boarding-school where Kiai acquired science and it's treated rigidly.

      d. The unwillingness of Kiai to adopt the innovative and reformative opinion

         and thought, for he is worry loss favor of science obtained from his teacher.

B. SUGGESTION

    For the educators they have to conceive well the strategy of School-Based

 Management and Boarding School-Based Management for these programs are quite

                      useful particularly in making the national education succesful.

  The writer suggests all observers and educators, especially whom concern in

 educational affairs to follow up the study of strategy of School-Based Management

 and Boarding School-Based Management on account of the writer confesses that in

								
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