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									                                         LESSON 6.6c

Unit 6. Energy and Information and Communication Technologies
Topic: Sound
Time Frame: 9 days


      General Objective
      Explain how sound waves are produced, transmitted, propagated and received

      Specific Objectives
      Explain how sound is received using a model of the human ear


      A. Lesson: The Human Ear: Parts and Functions

      B. References
         Ministry of Education and Culture. (1981). Physics in your environment: High
              school science IV (1st ed.). Manila: Author.
         Department of Education, Culture, and Sports, Instructional Materials Corporation.
              (1992). SEDP science & technology IV. Quezon City: Author.

      B. Material
         Activity 6.6 paper


      A. Motivation
         1. Recall how sound travels in different materials.
         2. Introduce the lesson for the day by discussing that what we call sound
            corresponds to frequencies to which our ears are sensitive to; that is, only those
            frequencies that can be detected by the human ear from 20-20,000 Hz.
            Frequencies higher than 20,000 Hz are called ultrasound and those lower than
            20 Hz are referred to as infrasound.

      B. Activity Proper
         1. Divide the class into small groups of four members each.
         2. During the pre-activity discuss with the class how the activity is to be done
            using the jigsaw strategy as follows:
            In this strategy, the class is divided into small groups labeled as home groups,
            say groups 1,2,and 3 etc. with 6 members in each group. The six members of
            each home group are identified as, say A,B,C,D, E, and F. All the A’s in the

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             home groups are given the same topic to research on; the B’s, another topic; the
             C’s another and so on. These letter groups -- group A, group B, are now the
             expert groups. The figure below illustrates these groupings. The members of the
             expert groups share the results of their research among themselves. Then they
             go back to their home groups where each member shares his “expertise” with
             the rest.

                      Figure 6.6.1. Grouping in the jigsaw strategy

         3. Let them do Activity 6.6
         4. After the activity let each home group present their work to the class.

      C. Discussion
         1. Make a summary of the important parts of the human ear and their functions.
         2. Discuss how a person makes sense of the sounds received by the ear.

     Write your insights for the day in your journal.

     1. Review the wave properties of light.
     2. Study the wave properties as they are exhibited by sound.
     3. Describe situations/applications which demonstrate the properties of sound.

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Teacher’s Handout 6.6

                    Figure 6.6.2. The Human Ear: Parts & Functions

                                          The Pinna

The outer ear called the pinna is one the major parts of the human ear. It is as funnel-like
shaped structure used to collect sound waves from the environment the collected sound
waves are directed into the ear canal.

                                        The Ear Canal

A tube-like structure where the sound waves pass through from the pinna to the eardrum is
known as the Ear Canal.

It serves not only to transmit sound waves but also to protect the eardrum from shock and

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                                        The Eardrum

On the other end of the canal is the eardrum or tympanum. It separates the outer ear from the
middle ear, so that air pressure is controlled and will not rapidly equalize between the two.
The eardrum is a membrane that is set in s motion by the air vibrations. This vibration of the
eardrum causes the three little bones in the middle ear to move.

                                       The Middle Ear

The middle ear contains an intricate set of connected bones commonly called the hammer
(malleus), anvil (incus) and stirrup (stapes) because of their resemblance to such objects.

The bones convert the small amplitude vibrations of the eardrum into larger amplitude
oscillations and transfer them to the inner ear through the oval window.

                                        The Inner Ear

The inner ear includes the semicircular canals which are important in controlling balance and
the cochlea. It is in the cochlea that sound waves are translated into the nerve impulses and
that pitch and loudness discrimination is made.

                            Eustachian Tube and Auditory Nerves

Eustachian tube and Auditory Nerves are structures connected to the ear and hot part of the
ear itself.
Eustachian tube is a tube connecting the middle ear to the throat. The end of it leading to the
throat is normally closed. It opens during swallowing and yawning to permit air to enter and
leave so that internal and external pressures are equalized.

You have probably experienced a “stopping up” of the ears with a sudden change in
atmospheric pressure.     (For example, during rapid ascents or descents in elevators or
airplanes). Swallowing opens the Eustachian tubes and relieves the excess pressure
difference on the middle ear.

                                       Auditory Nerve

The ear is connected to the brain by the auditory nerve. Nerve impulses are send from the
inner ear to the brain through the auditory nerve.

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                                        Activity 6.6
                                  Parts of the Human Ear

  In this activity, you will
   1. identify the major parts and functions of the human ear.
   2. describe how sound travels in the human ear.


   An illustration of the parts of a human ear (see Figure 6.6.2)


   1. Each member of a home group is assigned to make a summary of the description and
      function of a part of the ear: pinna , ear canal, ear drum, middle ear, inner ear, and
      Eustachian tube and auditory nerves based on the assignment the previous day.
   2. Each member of a home group joins an expert group. The members of the expert
      group share their summary among them, taking down notes from their discussion.
   3. The expert groups break up and the members return to their home group after 10
   4. Each home group prepares a poster on how sound travels in the human ear by using
      the attached illustration and the information shared by each member.
   5. Present your group’s poster to the class.

Guide Questions

   1. What are the major parts of the ear?
   2. Explain how swallowing relieves the pain in the ear during the rapid ascents or
      descents of the airplane.
   3. Describe how sound travels to the ear.

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