The People's Republic of China and the Republic of by fnp14158

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KNOW       Know
 Communist Party of China (CPC)
 People’s Republic of China (PRC)
 Republic of China (ROC)
 Import
 Export
 Tiananmen Square
 The People‘s Republic of China is one of the largest countries. With a
  population of over 1.3 billion, roughly one-fifth of the
  world's total population.
 The PRC is involved in a long-running dispute over the
  political status of Taiwan ROC. The CPC's rival during the Chinese Civil
    War, the Kuomintang (KMT), retreated to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its civil war
    defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling
    power of the Republic of China (ROC). The term "Mainland China" is often used to denote the
    areas under PRC rule, but sometimes excludes its two Special Administrative Regions: Hong
    Kong and Macau.
   If the ROC declared formal independence from the
    PRC, guess what the response would be from the
    PRC?
 Because of its vast population, rapidly growing economy, large research
  and development investments, China is often considered as an
  emerging superpower. It has the world's fourth largest economy. China is also a
  permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and Asia-Pacific Economic
  Cooperation. Since 1978, China's market-based economic reforms have helped lift over 400
  million Chinese out of poverty, bringing down the poverty rate from 53% of population in 1981
  to 8% by 2001. However, China is now faced with a number of other
  economic problems, including an aging population, an increasing rural-
  urban income gap, and rapid environmental degradation.
 China plays a major role in international trade. The country is the
  world's largest consumer of steel and concrete. It is also the world's
  second largest importer of petroleum.
 Think-Pair-Share

 What island group is China fighting for
 control from their former enemies?
 PRC        VS
                  ROC


Communist        Democratic


Command            Market
Economy           Economy
 After the Chinese Civil War, mainland China underwent a series of
  disruptive socioeconomic movements starting in the late 1950s with
  the Great Leap Forward and continued in the 1960s with the Cultural
  Revolution that left much of its education system and economy in
  shambles.
 Reforms on the mainland have led to some relaxation of control over
  many areas of society. The PRC government still has almost
  absolute control over politics, and it continually seeks
  to eradicate threats to the social, political and
  economic stability of the country. Examples include the fight
  against terrorism, jailing of political opponents and journalists,
  custody regulation of the press, regulation of religion, and
  suppression of independence/secessionist movements.
 Tiananmen Square is a large
  public square in Beijing,
  China, on the southern edge of the Inner or
  Tatar City. The square, named for its Gate of
  Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen), contains the
  monument of the heroes of the revolution, the
  Great Hall of the People, the museum of history
  and revolution, and the Mao Zedong Memorial
  Hall.
 Amassive demonstration for
  democratic reform, begun
  in Tiananmen Square by
  Chinese students in April, 1989. It
  was brutally repressed on June 3 and 4, 1989.
 The demonstrators were joined by workers,
  intellectuals, and civil servants, until over a
  million people filled the square.
Tiananmen Square
 Martial law was declared on May 20. The
 protesters demanded the government resign, but
 the government answered on the nights of
 June 3 and 4 with troops and tanks, killing
 thousands to quell a "counter-revolutionary
 rebellion.“
 Think-Pair-Share

 How and Why did the students at
 Tiananmen Square upset the
 Communist Government?
China
 Statistics
 Exports: $1216 billion (2007)
 Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment,
    textiles and clothing, footwear, toys,, plastics, iron and
    steel
    Exports - partners: US 21.0%, EU 18.1%, Japan 12.4%,
   Imports: $953.9 billion (2007)
   Imports – commodities: oil, optical and medical
    equipment, organic chemicals.
   Imports - partners: Japan 16.8%, EU 12.4%, US 7.9%,
 Currency yuan (CNY)
 Exchange rate (2007)
   CNY :$ USD = 7.61
     CNY :¥ JPY100 = 6.47
     CNY :€ EUR = 10.55
     CNY :£ GBP = 15.23
 GDP per capita $2,034
 Agriculture (11.7%), industry (48.9%), services (39.3%)
    Economy
 Beginning in late 1978, the Chinese leadership began
  reforming the economy from a Soviet-
  style centrally planned economy to a
  more market-oriented economy that is
  still within a rigid political framework under Party
  control (Mixed Economy). The reforms
  allowed a wide variety of small-scale enterprises to
  flourish, and promoted foreign investment. These
  changes resulted in mainland China's shift from a
  planned economy to a mixed economy.
 The government
  now emphasizes
  personal income
  and consumption
  and focuses on
  foreign trade.
 Chinese
  economic
  development is
  among the fastest
  in the world.
 Think-Pair-Share

 By moving their economy away
 from a Command Economy to a
 Mixed Economy; what do the
 leaders of China hope to
 accomplish?
 Mainland China has a reputation as being a low-
 cost manufacturer, which caused notable disputes in global
 markets. This is largely because Chinese
 corporations can produce many products far more
 cheaply than other parts of Asia or Latin America.
  There has been a significant rise in the Chinese standard of living in
 recent years. Today, 10 percent of the Chinese population is below the
 poverty line.
 International trade makes up a sizeable portion
 of China's overall economy.
 An entrepreneur is a person who has
 possession over a company, enterprise, or
 venture, and assumes significant
 accountability for the inherent risks and the
 outcome.

 What do you think is the level of
 Entrepreneurship in China?
 China's global trade exceeded $758 trillion at the
 end of 2006. The vast majority of China's imports
 consists of industrial supplies and capital goods,
 notably machinery and high-technology equipment,
 the majority of which comes from the developed
 countries, primarily Japan and the United States.
 About 80 percent of China's exports consist of
 manufactured goods, most of which are textiles and
 electronic equipment, with agricultural products and
 chemicals constituting the remainder. Out of the five
 busiest ports in the world, three are in China.
 Think-Pair-Share

 Why do companies chose to do
 business in China?
 By the 1990s and 2000s, agriculture remained the
 largest employer in China, though its proportion of
 the workforce steadily declined. Women have been a
 major labor presence in China since the People's
 Republic was established. Some 40-45 percent of
 all women over age 15 are employed.
 While the PRC is regarded as a
  Communist state by many political
  scientists, simple characterizations of
  China's political structure since the 1980s
  are no longer possible. The PRC
  government has been described as
  authoritarian, communist, and
  socialist, with heavy restrictions
  remaining in many areas, most
  notably in the Internet and in the
  press, freedom of assembly, freedom
  of reproductive rights, and freedom
  of religion.
 The country is ruled under the
  Constitution of the People's Republic of
  China. Its incumbent President is Hu
  Jintao and its premier is Wen Jiabao.
 The country is run by the
  Communist Party of China
  (CPC), which is guaranteed
  power by the Constitution.
  There are other political
  parties in the PRC, referred to
  in China as "democratic
  parties", which participate in the
  People's Political Consultative
  Conference and the National
  People's Congress. There have
  been some moves toward
  political liberalization, in that
  open contested elections are now
  held at the village and town
  levels. However, the Party
  retains effective control over
  government, the CPC wins by
  default most of the time.
  Low Cost
Manufacturing


  Moving
   from
command         Economics   China
 to Mixed
Economy
 Unitary- a form of government in which power is held by
  one central authority.
 Confederation-voluntary associations of independent
  states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to
  certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish
  some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation.
 Federal-a form of government in which power is divided
  between one central and several regional authorities.


 Which one is China today????
 Autocratic-government in which one person possesses
  unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the
  government.
 Oligarchic-Government by the few, sometimes a
  government in which a small group exercises control
  especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has
  very limited role.
 Democratic-Government in which the supreme power is
  vested in the people and exercised by them directly or
  indirectly.

 Which one is China today????
  Low Cost
Manufacturing


  Moving
   from
command         Economics    China
 to Mixed
Economy




Communist       Government




 Unitary        Oligarchic
 Parliamentary-system of government having the real
  executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members
  of the legislature who are individually and collectively
  responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister
  elected by the legislature.
 Presidential-a system of government in which the president
  is constitutionally independent of the legislature.

 Which one does China have today????
 With a population of over 1.3 billion,
  the PRC is very concerned about its
  population growth and has
  attempted to implement a strict
  family planning policy. The
  government's goal is one child per
  family, with exceptions for ethnic minorities and
  flexibility in rural areas, where a family can have a
  second child if the first is a girl or physically disabled.
  The government's goal is to stabilize population growth
  early in the twenty-first century, though some
  projections estimate a population of anywhere ranging
  from 1.4 billion to 1.6 billion by 2025.
 The policy is resisted, particularly in rural areas,
  because of the need for agricultural labor and a
  traditional preference for boys.
  Low Cost
Manufacturing


  Moving
   from
command         Economics    China
 to Mixed
Economy




                                Current
Communist       Government
                                 Issues



 Unitary        Oligarchic     Population
 In 1986, China set the long-term goal of
 providing compulsory nine-year basic
 education to every child. Many parents
 often invest large portions of the family's
 income on education. Private lessons and
 recreational activities are popular
 among the middle-class families who
 can afford them.
  Low Cost
Manufacturing


  Moving
   from
command         Economics    China
 to Mixed
Economy




                                Current
Communist       Government                  Education
                                 Issues



 Unitary        Oligarchic     Population
 The Ministry of Health oversees the health needs of the
  Chinese population. An emphasis on public health and
  preventative treatment characterized health policy since
  the early 1950s. At that time, the party started the Patriotic
  Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving
  sanitation and hygiene, as well as attacking several diseases.
 Health care in China is largely private fee-for-service.
  Low Cost
Manufacturing


  Moving
   from
command         Economics    China
 to Mixed
Economy




                                Current
Communist       Government                  Education
                                 Issues


                                             Public
 Unitary        Oligarchic     Population
                                             Health
 Despite significant improvements in health and the introduction of western
                     PRC has several emerging
  style medical facilities, the
  public health problems, which include
  respiratory problems as a result of widespread air
  pollution, and millions of cigarette smokers, a
  possible future HIV/AIDS epidemic, and an
  increase in obesity among urban youths. Estimates of
  deaths in China from environmental pollution are 760,000 people yearly
  from air and water pollution. China's large population and close living
  quarters has led to some serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as
  the 2003 outbreak of SARS (a pneumonia-like disease) which has since
  been largely contained.
                    3-2-1
 Name three problems facing China today.
 Name two types of industries in China
  today.
 Name the type of economy in certain port
  cities in China today.
 Air Force (470,000 airmen; 2,556 jet
  fighters; 400 ground attack jets.)
 Ground Force (Army) (1.9 million
  men; 14,000 tanks; 14,500 artillery
  pieces & 453 helicopters)
 Navy (250,000 sailors; 63 submarines;
  18 destroyers; 35 frigates)
       Nuclear Weapons Worldwide
       ***Estimates




 Country             Suspected Weapons   Suspected Total Weapons

 China            250                            400
   France         350                            350
   India          60                             60+?
   Israel         100-200                        200+?
   Pakistan       24-48                          24-48
   Russia         6,000                          10,000
   United Kingdom 180                            85
   United States  8,646                          10,656
 Draw an Economic Continuum line on the Left Side of
 your Notebook with Market on one side and
 Command on the other:

 Market                                  Command

 Where on the above Economic Continuum would
 China be today?
            Economic Continuum line


 Market                                Command


                                China


1. China= Command/Mixed
Regional                Regional
Authority               Authority



             Central
            Authority

Regional                Regional
Authority               Authority
Regional                Regional
Authority               Authority


            Central
            Authority




Regional                Regional
Authority               Authority
Regional                Regional
Authority               Authority




             Central
            Authority




Regional
Authority               Regional
                        Authority
 Unitary- a form of government in which power is
  held by one central authority.
 Confederation-voluntary associations of
  independent states that, to secure some common
  purpose, agree to certain limitations on their
  freedom of action and establish some joint
  machinery of consultation or deliberation.
 Federal-a form of government in which power is
  divided between one central and several regional
  authorities.
 Which is China today?
 Autocratic-government in which one person
  possesses unlimited power and the citizen has
  little if any role in the government.
 Oligarchic-Government by a few, a government in
  which a small group exercises control especially for
  corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has very
  limited role.
 Democratic-Government in which the supreme
  power is vested in the people and exercised by
  them directly or indirectly.
 Which is modern China?
 Essay (3rd – 6th periods)
   Write a 5 paragraph essay describing
    the government and economy of
    modern China and what life is like for
    Chinese citizens.
 Write a 5 paragraph essay describing the government
  and economy of modern China and what life is like for
  Chinese citizens.
1. Write a 5 paragraph letter to the leaders of China as
    the President of the United States detailing their
    mistakes in leading China and how to fix them.
2. Write a 5 paragraph letter as the leaders of China to
    the United Nations explaining your decisions as the
    leaders of Communist China today.
3. Write a 5 paragraph letter as a Chinese citizen to the
    United Nations explaining your life under the rule of
    Communist China today.
   China’s One Child Policy.
    http://faculty.harker.org/adm/population/studentpages/china1/index.html March 6,
    2008
   Modern China.
    http://marketplace.publicradio.org/display/web/2007/09/12/location_beats_cost_for_ch
    ina_construction/ March 7, 2008.

								
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