Forage Options for Fish and Pigs in Vietnam by zme54159

VIEWS: 119 PAGES: 36

									                                Forage Options for Fish and Pigs in Vietnam
                                Vu Thi Hai Yen1 and Le Hoa Binh2




THE provinces of the northern midlands and moun-                  small areas for supplementing their animals when
tains of Vietnam are generally considered to be the               penned, especially in the dry season.
poorest areas in the country. The intermontane val-
leys of the north are intensively cultivated and
heavily populated but the surrounding hills and                       Discovering New Uses for Forages —
mountains are mostly infertile and used for forestry                              Feeding Fish
and upland crops such as maize and cassava.                       By 1998, 53 farmers were testing forages in small
Farmers in these areas have diverse agricultural sys-             plots but were also discovering new ways of using the
tems, often comprising a mix of lowland and upland                forages. From 30–80% of farmers in the northern low-
crops. Most farmers also keep a wide range of ani-                lands and intermontane valleys raise carp (grass carp,
mals such as chickens, pigs, ducks, fish, buffalo and             common carp and mud carp) in small ponds — fish
cattle to supplement their diets and incomes.                     that feed on plants (Figure 2). Some of these farmers,
   In 1997, the Forages for Smallholders Project was              working with the FSP, discovered that several
asked to work in the midlands of Tuyen Quang prov-                varieties of forage grasses appeared to be excellent
ince (Figure 1) to start developing forage options                fish feed. This proved to be an exciting discovery for
with farmers to feed their buffalo and, to a smaller              them. As one explained: ‘If we do not provide feed
extent, other ruminants. The farmers had limited land             for our buffalo, they can still find feed somewhere, but
areas for planting forages but were interested to test            if we do not feed our fish, they die!’

                                                         106° E




                                                                                 Tuyen Quang
                                                                                   Province




                                                                                                          21°N
                                                                                Hanoi




                                                                             200km




Figure 1. Location of Tuyen Quang.

1District   Agriculture and Rural Development Office, Tuyen Quang, Vietnam
2National    Institute of Animal Husbandry, Hanoi, Vietnam. Email:fspvietnam@hn.vnn.vn




                                                          281
   In the project area (Ham Yen district), fish ponds          The normal practice is to cut green feed for the pigs
are commonly 600–900 m2. To feed the fish in a                 once or twice a day (including leaves of peanut,
pond of 800 m2, a farmer would typically cut about             sweet potato banana and cassava). Many of the green
30–40 kg of plant material each day, consisting                feeds need to be chopped or cooked to make them
mainly of native grasses (such as Eleusine indica.,            palatable to the pigs and are not always available. A
Echinochloa spp. and Hymenachne spp.), banana                  growing number of farmers are expanding their areas
(leaves and stems), cassava (leaves and roots), fresh          of Stylosanthes guianensis ‘Stylo 184’ as a pig feed,
rice straw and maize leaves (after harvest). A well            mainly because it is highly palatable, nutritious, per-
managed and fed pond of this size could yield the              sistent and productive.
equivalent of 4 tons of fish per hectare per year,
bringing the farmer 3–4 million Dong (US$250–300)
per year which is equivalent to the income of two              Returning to Traditional Uses for Forages —
high-yielding rice crops from 2500 m2 of irrigated                           Feeding Buffalo
paddy.                                                         In 1998, the provincial agriculture department
   Traditional feed resources for fish are becoming            banned the free grazing of livestock in order to
increasingly scarce, so many of the farmers working            reduce damage to crops. This has stimulated many
with the FSP have started to expand their forages.             farmers to reconsider planting forages suitable for
They generally prefer the grasses Panicum maximum              buffalo, including Brachiaria brizantha ‘Marandu’,
‘Simuang’, Paspalum atratum ‘Terenos’ and Setaria              which farmers had earlier evaluated and rejected
sphacelata ‘Solander’, because they are high-                  only because they could not use it to feed their pigs
yielding, easy to cut, persistent, and stay green into         and fish.
the cool dry season. Another important characteristic
of good fish feed is that grasses need to have smooth,
soft leaves and float on the surface of the water                         Two Important Lessons…
where the carp feed.                                           1. Developing forage ‘solutions’ has been a
   By July 1999, the project was working with 173                 process, not a ‘once off’ transfer of technology
farmers. Most of these were planting between 400–                 Initially, farmers evaluated forages for buffalo but
1000 m2 of forages around their ponds or near their               very quickly developed different forage systems
houses. Rapid expansion of forage systems to new                  to solve more-important needs: the feeding of fish
farmers (largely by vegetative propagation) is                    and pigs. As farmers gained experience with
expected to continue because of intense local                     growing and using forages, they found new uses
demand.                                                           for them. Some farmers are now integrating
                                                                  forages into their farming system to control soil
    Discovering New Uses for Forages —                            erosion (e.g. hedgerows) and improve soil fertility
                                                                  through the introduction of legumes. In 1999,
                Feeding Pigs
                                                                  other farmers diversified into either breeding or
It is also common for smallholder farmers in Ham                  fattening local catttle and are planting P. max-
Yen to keep 1–3 sows, selling up to 10 pigs a year.               imum and other grasses and shrub legumes (e.g.




Figure 2. Floating grass for fish in Tuyen Quang, Vietnam (Cartoon – Dave Daniel)




                                                         282
Gliricidia sepium), along field edges for this pur-         2. A common major benefit of forages for
pose. The lesson we learned is that it is often                farmers has been labour savings
impossible to predict the directions that on-farm              Researchers tend to think of the benefits of forage
technology development will take. Therefore, it is             in terms of improved productivity of animals and
necessary to offer a broad range of technology                 improved natural resource management. Farmers
options to farmers at the beginning, actively                  frequently have other equally important objec-
involve farmers in the development process and                 tives. In Tuyen Quang, they have commented on
remain flexible in the way we respond to the                   the labour saving benefits of planting forages, not
innovations they develop.                                      just the better feed supply.




                                                      283
                                Forage Options for Smallholders raising
                                Sheep or Goats in Indonesia
                                T. Ibrahim1, Tugiman1, Ibrahim2 and R. Hutasoit1




SHEEP and goats are managed differently from cattle               These are Marenu (sheep) in North Sumatra and
and buffalo. In many areas, smallholder farmers keep              Makroman (goats) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
small ruminants in barns for most of the time and                 (Figure 2).
only take them out for short periods for grazing.
Most of the feed for small ruminants is cut-and-carry
forage, and farmers have to spend considerable time                                Site Descriptions
gathering sufficient feed.
   Although much of the feed consists of grasses and              Both areas are in the humid tropics with only a short
herbs (as for cattle), sheep and goats eat feeds such             dry season in most years (Table 1). Soil fertility is
as tree leaves that are not always accepted by cattle.            poor and farmers are more dependent on income
An example is the leaves of Gliricidia sepium which               from livestock than similar farmers in more fertile
are always palatable to sheep and goats whereas                   upland areas.
cattle sometimes need to be trained to eat foliage of                Farmers in Makroman migrated to this area from
this species (Figure 1).                                          Java in 1974 and the farming system is relatively
   The Forages for Smallholders Project (FSP) has                 stable, with food security ensured by lowland rice.
been working with smallholder farmers who raise                   Most farmers have been able to secure additional
sheep and goats in several locations in Southeast                 agricultural land to the originally allocated 2 ha.
Asia. Two Indonesian sites are featured in this paper.            Marenu is a new transmigration area (first settlers




                               Figure 1. Sheep eating Gliricidia sepium in Marenu, Indonesia.

1Assessment    Institute for Agricultural Technologies, Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Email: tatang@indosat. net.id
2Livestock   Services, Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia




                                                            284
arriving in 1995) which was designed with emphasis                       additional cut-and-carry feed. Before the FSP started
on sheep production. Farmers received 20 sheep and                       working with farmers at these sites, the cut feed con-
planting material of king grass (Pennisetum hybrid).                     sisted mainly of naturally occurring grasses which
While some farmers have concentrated on increasing                       were cut along roadsides, fields and other vacant
animal numbers and income from animal sales,                             areas by all family members. The time needed to cut
others are dependent mainly on off-farm income.                          sufficient feed varied with feed availability from 1–2
Income from sheep sales is low, even in families                         hours in the wet season and 2–4 hours in dry months.
with larger flocks, since they are in the process of                     At both sites, farmers were growing king grass, but
building up their flocks.                                                yields were low because of the low soil fertility, and
                                                                         many plants died during dry periods.
                                               Southeast Asia
                                                                                    Developing Forage Options
             Lao
                              Southern China                             The FSP has been working with farmers at Marenu
                                                                         for three years and Makroman for four years to
           Thailand
                                                                         develop forage technologies. The pattern of forage
                          Vietnam                                        development has been similar at both sites:
                                                     Philippines         • Initially, farmers evaluated a range of species in
                                                                            small plots near their house.
                                                                         • After 1–2 years, most farmers started to plant
                                                                            grasses in cut-and-carry plots or rows, and tree
                                                                            legumes as living fences of along existing fences
                   Malaysia                                                 (Table 2).
                                    Makroman
                                                                         Table 2. Proportion of farmers planting forages in dif-
   Marenu                                                                ferent systems (based on a survey conducted in 1999).

                                                                                                             Marenu        Makroman
                                Indonesia                                                                    (n = 81)       (n = 51)

                                                                                                               (% of farmers)1
                                                                         Cut-and-carry plots or rows           90              94
                                                                         Legume covers in annual crops          0              18
Figure 2. Location of Makroman and Marenu project sites.                 Ground covers for erosion control      5               0
                                                                         Hedgerows                              0               4
                                                                         Living fences (tree legumes)          73              61
   In Makroman, goats are kept mainly in the barn
and are fed cut-and-carry feed. In Marenu, farmers                       1Column totals exceed 100% since many farmers are using
graze sheep for 3–4 hours per day and provide                            more than one forage system.

Table 1. Site characteristics.

                                                                                      Makroman                          Marenu

a) Physical
   Annual rainfall (mm)                                                                2750                               2350
   Dry months (<50mm)                                                                   0–4                               1–3
   Soil fertility                                                                moderately infertile                   infertile
   Soil pH (H2O)                                                                      4.6–4.8                           4.6–4.8
   Aluminium saturation (%)                                                             64                                 85
b) Agricultural system1
   Farm size (ha)                                                        0.5–1 ha lowland plus 1–2 ha upland       1 ha upland
   Main crops                                                                    rice, cassava, maize            vegetables, rice
   Number of sheep or goats per family2                                                   10                           21
                                                                                        (9–14)                       (4–45)
   Income from sheep and goats (% of family income)                                      26%                          22%
1Means   based on data from 40 farms in Makroman and 60 farms in Marenu.
2Mean   and (range in parenthesis).



                                                                   285
• The area of king grass declined over the last two                    annual crops such as maize and cassava to sup-
  years to less than 25% of the original area planted,                 press weeds and provide feed for their animals.
  being replaced by better-adapted forage species.                     Others are growing Stylosanthes guianensis ‘Stylo
• Farmers experimented with many varieties but                         184’ to improve egg production of local chickens.
  some species are becoming more popular than                          In Marenu, some farmers are using king grass as a
  others (Table 3). Paspalum atratum ‘Terenos’ is                      dense fence around chicken yards. In many
  used extensively by many farmers at both sites.                      instances, farmers grow forages inter-cropped
  Open-ended evaluation showed that farmers liked                      with upland crops such as cassava and maize, or
  ‘Terenos’ since it has a high leaf yield, is easy to                 along field boundaries and home gardens.
  cut, regrows fast following cutting, and is liked by
  sheep and goats. Setaria sphacelata ‘Lampung’ is
  also a preferred variety by many farmers in                        The FSP has been working directly with more
  Makroman where it is adapted. Following initial                 than 100 farmers at Makroman and 85 at Marenu
  reluctance because of a concern about poor palata-              who each plant up to 5000 m2 of forage for their
  bility, farmers at both sites have ‘discovered’ the             sheep and goats. The areas planted with forages and
  usefulness of Gliricidia sepium varieties and                   the number of farmers adopting forages for use on
  many farmers are now planting this species in                   their farms are both increasing at both sites.
  rows as fence lines, and around fields and houses.
  Small ruminants tend to prefer legumes to grasses
  and, in response, farmers growing forages for                                     Lessons Learned
  small ruminants tend to plant more legumes than                 Farmers raising sheep and goats are:
  do farmers growing forages for cattle and buffalo.
• Many farmers prefer to feed a mix of forage                     • dependent on cut-and-carry feed, and are very
  varieties to their animals rather than feeding only               interested in growing forages that reduce the time
  one or two varieties.                                             required to cut feed for their animals;
• Several novel forage options have been emerging.                • adopting tree legumes to a much larger extent than
  In Makroman, some farmers are using Centro-                       farmers raising cattle and buffalo since their
  sema pubescens ‘Barinas’ as a cover crop in                       animals particularly like leaves from tree legumes.


Table 3. Forage varieties used by many farmers in Marenu and Makroman for feeding small ruminants (based on a survey
conducted in 1999).

                                                                                        Marenu1           Makroman

Albizia falcataria                                                                         •
Andropogon gayanus ‘Gamba’                                                                                    •
Brachiaria brizantha ‘Marandu’ and CIAT 16337                                              •                 ••
Brachiaria humidicola ‘Tully’ and ‘Yanero’                                                 •
Centrosema pubescens ‘Barinas’                                                                                •
Gliricidia sepium ‘local’, ‘Retalhuleu’, ‘Belen Rivas’, ‘Monterrico’                       ••                ••
Leucaena leucocephala ‘local’ and ‘K636’                                                    •                 •
Paspalum atratum ‘Terenos’                                                                 •••               •••
Paspalum guenoarum ‘Bela Vista’                                                            ••
Pennisetum purpureum and Pennisetum hybrids                                                ••                ••
Setaria sphacelata ‘Lampung’                                                                                 •••
Stylosanthes guianensis ‘Stylo 184’                                                        •
1•   = few farmers, ••• = many farmers.




                                                            286
                               Forage Options for Smallholder Farmers in
                               Shifting Cultivation Farming Systems of
                               Lao PDR
                               P. Phengsavanh1, Sukan2, H. Phimmasan3,
                               V. Phimphachanhvongsod1, V. Phengvichith1 and
                               S. Novaha4




Figure 1. The mosaic of shifting cultivation in northern Laos.


SHIFTING cultivation is the dominant land-use in the             fallow vegetation is shrubby. When the fallow is
northern uplands of Laos and occupies up to 80% of               slashed and burned, little of the organic matter is
the cultivated land in the whole country (Figure 1).             returned to the soil and consequently soil fertility is
Typically, secondary vegetation in steep upland                  declining (Roder et al. 1997). The shrubby fallows
fields is slashed and burned, and the fields are sown            produce huge quantities of seed which increases the
to annual crops such as upland rice, maize or a cash             weed problems in the subsequent crops. As a result,
crop. These are grown for one to three years and the             at least two rounds of weeding are necessary to grow
field is then left fallow for 3–15 years.                        upland rice, which can take from 140–190 person-
   In the past, the traditional system of long rotations         days/ha, amounting to >50% of the total labour input
(>15 years fallow) resulted in forest fallows, which             into these crops (Roder et al. 1995). Furthermore,
supported efficient nutrient cycling and sustainable             farm sizes are declining, with each family now only
land use. With increasing populations, however,                  cropping 0.5–2 ha each year.
fallow periods are becoming very short in most areas                Often the area cultivated by a family is limited by
(often no more than 3–5 years) and the resulting                 the amount of labour available to provide the huge
                                                                 inputs required to maintain the crop. Pressure on
1National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute,
                                                                 land resources also forces farmers to cultivate
Vientiane, Lao PDR. Email: FSP-Lao@cgiar.org                     steeper and more marginal lands leading to
2District Agriculture and Forestry Office, Xieng Ngeun,
Luang Phabang, Lao PDR
                                                                 increasing soil erosion and associated downstream
3District Agriculture and Forestry Office, Pek, Xieng            siltation. The combined pressures on land and human
Khouang, Lao PDR                                                 resources have led to declining crop yields and
4Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office, Xieng               greater susceptibility of upland communities to risk
Khouang, Lao PDR                                                 (Figure 2).




                                                           287
      Population               Government policies                                                    The Role of Livestock in Shifting Cultivation
       increase                limiting deforestation
                                                                                                      Most farmers in the uplands of Laos keep small
                                                                                                      numbers of cattle, buffalo and small animals such as




                                                          Increasing instability and risk
               Shortening fallow periods                                                              pigs for one or more of the following reasons:
                                                                                                      • there is a constant market demand at relatively
                                                                                                         stable prices (livestock commonly provide 50–70%
                                                                                                         of all household income);
                                                                                                      • large livestock can walk long distances to market;
 Declining soil fertility
and increased erosion
                                       Increased weed
                                      problems in crops
                                                                                                      • manure can be used to fertilise crops and home
                                                                                                         gardens (especially as farmers try to intensify pro-
                                                                                                         duction from their small areas of good land);
                                                                                                      • livestock give a high profit per unit of labour;
                                                                                                      • ruminant livestock utilise an otherwise unused
             Declining upland crop yields
                                                                                                         feed resources.
Figure 2. Shifting cultivation is becoming environmentally                                               Traditional management systems tend to be low
and socially unsustainable.                                                                           input, being mainly free grazing with cattle returning
                                                                                                      to the village only occasionally, or limited grazing
   Weeds, rodents, insufficient rainfall and the inter-                                               where cattle return to the village each night. Long-
linked problems of land availability and shortening                                                   cycle rotational grazing systems are common, with
fallows are the main problems identified by farmers                                                   communities designating whole areas to remain
in the shifting cultivation areas of northern Laos.                                                   fallow for one or several years and be used for
   Rural communities and government/development                                                       grazing.
organisations in Laos are looking at a range of                                                          As shifting cultivation systems intensify livestock
strategies that together will help stabilise shifting                                                 numbers are increasing, since many farmers see live-
cultivation. These include:                                                                           stock raising as a ‘stepping stone’ out of poverty and
                                                                                                      out of reliance on labour-intensive and unproductive
• intensifying lowland rice production;
                                                                                                      farming systems. As this happens, however, farmers
• encouraging sedentary agriculture in the uplands,                                                   are increasingly experiencing some of the following
   where possible;                                                                                    problems:
• promoting cash crops, fruit trees and farm forestry;                                                • Livestock destroying crops, which is a common
• developing infrastructure, access to markets and                                                       cause of conflict in villages. In some places, free-
   social services;                                                                                      grazing is banned or limited to particular areas,
• improving land use planning and land tenure;                                                           and commonly farmers devote a lot of labour to
• developing better livestock systems.                                                                   building fences each year.



Table 1. Expected (G) and emerging (✔) forage options for shifting cultivation systems.

             Forage species currently being                                                                         Forage options
                 evaluated by farmers
                                                           Cut-and-                                    Grazed     Living   Hedgerows Improved      Erosion
                                                          carry plots                                   plots     fences              fallows      control

a) Grasses
   Andropogon gayanus ‘Gamba’                                                               G   ✔        —          —          ✔           —          —
   Brachiaria brizantha ‘Marandu’                                                           G   ✔        —          —          ✔           —          ✔
   Brachiaria decumbens ‘Basilisk’                                                          G   ✔        —          —          ✔           —          —
   Panicum maximum ‘Simuang’                                                                G   ✔        —          —          ✔           —          —
   Setaria sphacelata ‘Solander’                                                            G   ✔        —          —          —           —          —
b) Legumes
   Stylosanthes guianensis ‘Stylo 184’                                                      G✔           —          —          —           G          —
   Calliandra calothyrsus ‘Besakih’                                                          G           —          G          —           —          —
   Gliricidia sepium ‘Retalhuleu’                                                           G✔           —          G          —           —          —
   Leucaena leucocephala ‘K636’                                                              G           —          G          —           —          —

G = In 1997, the FSP expected these options to be of interest to farmers.
✔ = Options that are actually emerging on-farms in 1999.



                                                                                                288
• Loss of traditional grazing land to protected/                they have confidence in the varieties will they begin
   planted forests or cropping resulting in feed short-         to experiment with integrating them into their
   ages in the wet season (when this land is normally           farming systems. This has certainly been the case in
   used for grazing).                                           northern Laos, but many farmers are now beginning
• Insufficient feed in the dry season. It is common             to experiment with forage integration.
   to meet farmers who spend 1–3 hours each day                    The challenge now is to work with farmers to
   cutting grass for their animals.                             develop integrated forage systems that not only pro-
   These problems are motivating many farmers to                vide benefits for feeding livestock but capitalise on
experiment with better management of their livestock,           the potential benefits for natural resource manage-
including the use of planted forages as a supplement            ment (in particular, soil fertility improvement and
to the diminishing traditional feed resources.                  weed control).
                                                                   A new project (the Forage and Livestock Systems
                                                                Project; FLSP) funded by AusAID and managed by
   Forage Options for Shifting Cultivation                      CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical)
Since 1997, the Forages for Smallholders Project has            has been designed partly to focus on this goal in
been working with farmers in shifting cultivation               northern Laos from 2000–2005. In particular, the
areas of Laos to help them integrate forages on their           FLSP will use participatory approaches to tech-
farms. Initially, we expected particular forage                 nology development to integrate forage and
systems, such as the use of legumes for fallow                  improved livestock management strategies into
improvement, to emerge but farmers invariably                   upland farming systems that will:
started testing forage species in small plots before            • increase income by improving the productivity of
moving on to evaluate forage systems (Table 1).                    small and large livestock;
   By the end of the 1999 wet season, 395 farmers               • increase labour efficiency and reduce workloads
were evaluating forages with 204 new farmers                       of both men and women farmers in the livestock
having joined in the 1999 wet season. Of the farmers               production systems;
who had been evaluating for two or more years, 85%              • enhance sustainable cropping systems by
had started to expand their areas, mostly for pro-                 increasing soil fertility and reducing soil erosion;
viding cut feed. No farmers have shown interest in                 and,
large areas of planted forages for grazing (Table 1).           • sustain livestock production within the national
Instead, farmers addressed specific feeding problems               policy of stabilising shifting cultivation.
such as saving labour on cutting or providing forage
for sick animals by planting forages for cut-and-
carry as a supplement to their traditional feed                                      References
resources.                                                      Roder, W., Phengchanh, S., Maniphone, S., Songnhikong-
                                                                  suathor, K. and Keoboulapha, B. 1995. Weed manage-
                                                                  ment strategies aimed at reducing labour for upland rice
                    The Future                                    production. Proceedings of the International Rice
                                                                  Research Conference, 13–17 February 1995, IRRI, Los
Across all countries and farming systems where the                Baños, Philippines.
Forages for Smallholders project has been operating             Roder W., Phengchanh, S. and Maniphone, S. 1997.
in Southeast Asia, we have found that farmers do not              Dynamics of soil and vegetation during crop and fallow
immediately adopt integrated forage systems, but                  period in slash-and-burn fields of northern Laos.
experiment first with forage varieties. Only once                 Geoderma 76: 131–144.




                                                          289
                            Integration of Sheep and Utilisation of
                            Fodder Trees in Rice-based Cropping
                            System in Tarlac Province, the Philippines
                            E.E. Victorio1 and F.A. Moog1




“OUR problem in the village is purely religious; tech-         (1995). Thirteen farmer-cooperators were selected,
nicians come and preach like gods!” (Adapted from a            based on expressed willingness to raise sheep under
T.R.E.E.S. editorial cartoon). Farmers live on experi-         a repayment-in-kind arrangement, whereby two
ence; they learn by doing. Researchers and exten-              female lambs had to be repaid for each ewe received.
sionists, on the other hand, are concerned with                Each farmer was provided with the number of ewes
delivering services and aim to augment the farmers’            he or she wanted to raise.
incomes.                                                         To prevent inbreeding, a ram was provided by the
   So, how do we introduce to the farmer an animal             Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI), the custody of
he or she knows only from the Bible? Worse, in                 which was rotated annually among cooperators,
addition to the animal, is the task of persuading the          while repayment sheep were extended to new
farmer to grow fodder tree species and to cut-and-             cooperators.
carry the foliage. At the same time, we need to show
that one technology is better than another technology          Feeding practices
including putting the technology to test!
                                                               Fodder tree supplementation practices were intro-
                                                               duced among farmer cooperators. Pre-identified
                     Objectives                                fodder tree species were Leucaena leucocephala,
                                                               Gliricidia sepium, Bauhinia sp., Samanea saman and
The project aimed to promote the integration of                Pithecellobium dulce. The farmer cooperators were
sheep-raising in rice-based cropping systems. It               left to make their own decisions regarding feeding,
sought to highlight the acceptability and economic             provided that records covering their daily activities
viability of sheep-raising in these systems as a means         were kept for monitoring by researchers. Sheep were
of augmenting farm income. The study also sought               weighed monthly by the research team and the live-
to demonstrate the advantage of involvement of                 weight gain (LWG) and average daily gain (ADG)
farmers in research.                                           were calculated.

                   Methodology                                 Data analysis

Sheep distribution                                             Farmer records were regularly monitored through
                                                               field visits made by the researchers. These records
The study area is a rain-fed lowland rice village in           were organised, assessed and analysed.
Tarlac, the Philippines, and the study was conducted
from 1994 to 1998. An account of the early stages of
this study was published by Victorio and Moog                                      Observations
                                                               Farmers’ records showed that sheep were tethered
                                                               like local ruminants on rice straw and weeds associ-
                                                               ated with rice during the rice growing period and
1Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture,         supplemented with rice stubbles, standing legumes
Diliman, Quezon City, the Philippines. Email: famoog@          and crop residues after the rice harvest. Fodder tree
globe.com.ph                                                   species were used for supplementary fodder.




                                                         290
               Results and Discussion                          grazed under coconuts with ADG ranging from 27 to
                                                               67 g at different times of the year (Moog 1994). The
Sheep integration                                              low ADG obtained from the sheep with the fodder
Raising sheep in this lowland rainfed farming system           tree supplement was likely owing to inadequate
required at least two hours labour per day during the          quantity of fodder tree leaves provided to the sheep,
rice-growing period for cut-and-carry, and one hour            averaging only 190 g of fresh leaves per animal per
per day after the rice harvest for tethering and               day.
watering.
   The project started in the second quarter of 1994           Table 2. Mean liveweight gain of sheep in rice-based
with four cooperators, increasing to ten in 1995, 12           farming system (October 1994 to December 1995).
in 1996 and 13 in 1997 and 1998. Eleven of the
farmers treated the sheep like any other ruminants,            Treatment                 Initial weight    LWG     ADG
                                                                                              (kg)         (kg)     (g)
except for keeping them in semi-confinement.
Weeds included in the sheep’s diet were predomi-               Traditional feeds             11.5          13.2     28
nantly Echinochloa spp. and Cyperus rotundus.                  Traditional feeds plus        14.1          16.9     36
                                                               fodder tree supplements
Benefits
Without raising sheep, farmers would have had to                  To demonstrate further the benefits of a fodder
spend much time weeding paddy bunds and fields.                tree supplement, an on-site study was conducted
Over a four-year period, farmers involved in the               during the dry season. Only two farmers volunteered
project saved a total of 2640 man-days (Table 1).              to participate in the five-month trial. Sheep were pro-
                                                               vided with larger amounts of tree leave supplements,
Table 1. Labour-saving generated from raising sheep.           and gained weight at 2.5 to 3 times the rate of the
                                                               sheep fed with smaller amounts in the earlier trial
Year                   Number of          Number of            (Table 3).
                       cooperators        man-days
                                                               Table 3. Average daily gain of sheep supplemented with
1994 (Jul–Dec)              4                  76              tree leaves.
1995                       10                 647
1996                       12                 777
1997                       13                 842              Farmer                Supplement              Fresh ADG
1998                       13                 298                                                         tree leaves (g)
Total                      13                2640                                                          provided
                                                                                                          (g/hd/day)

   Average daily gain of the supplemented sheep was            Farmer A (17 sheep) Leucaena, S. saman,       230      81
higher than that for those provided with traditional                               P. dulce
feed (Table 2). However, overall weight gains of the           Farmer B (1 ram)    Leucaena,                 515    111
sheep were lower than those obtained from sheep                                    Bauhinia, Gliricidia


Table 4. Benefits to farmers from sheep raised.

Farmer-cooperator                      Disposal                                Use

M. Valdez                              sold (3 sheep)                          bought food for the family;
                                                                               bought 4 pieces GI sheets for cow shed
A. Estavillo                           sold (3 sheep)                          bought food and clothes
W. Manzano                             sold (2 sheep)                          bought school supplies and food
R. Fabros                              slaughtered (1 sheep)                   for son’s wedding
F. Ganapin                             sold (3 sheep)                          bought food, fuel oil and fertiliser
                                       slaughtered (1 sheep)                   for brother’s death
J. Fabros                              sold (1 sheep)                          to finance new animal shed
                                       slaughtered (2 sheep)                   birthday and son’s graduation
L. Valdez                              sold (2 sheep)                          bought dining set; domestic expenses
                                       slaughtered (1 sheep)                   brother’s visit
C. Salonga                             exchanged 1 sheep for 2 goats           bought additional animals to raise
T. Castro                              sold (1 sheep)                          bought rice
J. Micu                                slaughtered (5 sheep)                   for special occasions




                                                         291
            Development of a Market                              and growing alternative to traditional meats and local
                                                                 markets develop quickly.
Mutton is becoming popular in the village and appar-
ently substitutes for other meat on special occasions               In small farms, a flock of two or three ewes and a
(Table 4). It provides an additional source of income            ram is manageable, considering the scarcity of
for smallholder farming families. In the town market,            fodder during the rice-growing season. In rice-based
price has been pegged at PhP 90/kg.                              systems, the availability of tree fodder can be
                                                                 improved by promoting the planting of tree legumes
                                                                 as living fences. Fattening of sheep during the dry
              Problems encountered                               season can be practiced and sheep should be ready
A farmers field day was conducted to demonstrate                 for marketing before planting the rice crop.
opportunities to supplement sheep with fodder trees.
All farmers who attended the field day expressed
interest in fattening sheep after the rice harvest, from                             References
October to June, to take advantage of the available
                                                                 Moog, F.A. 1994. Sheep production on natives pastures
forage biomass in the area.
                                                                   under coconuts at different stocking rates. In: Alo,
   When farmers were reluctant to adopt supplemen-                 AM. P. and Villar. E.C. ed. Terminal Report of Small
tary feeding with tree forage it was often due to con-             Ruminant/Coconut Systems Project — Philippines,
flict of use. Some farmers in the village use fodder               47–54.
trees for fuel wood. Some farmers hesitated to feed
                                                                 Victorio, E.E. and Moog, F.A. 1995. Sheep production in
Leucaena for fear that psyllid insects on the foliage
                                                                   rice-based farming system with fodder tree supplemen-
might cause death to their animals.                                tation. In: Wong, C.C. and Ly, L.V., ed. Enhancing
                                                                   Sustainable Livestock-Crop Production in Smallholder
                    Conclusions                                    Farming Systems. Proceedings of the Fourth Meeting of
                                                                   Forage Regional Working Group on Grazing and Feed
Sheep-raising has good potential for expansion in                  Resources of Southeast Asia, Nha Trang, Vietnam,
rice-based cropping system. Mutton is an acceptable                20–24 March 1995, FAO, 213–220.




                                                           292
                             An On-Farm Trial on Integration of Cattle
                             under Coconuts in Albay, the Philippines
                             F.A. Moog1, H.E. Diesta1, A.G. Deocareza1 and
                             J.H. Losa2


COCONUT land in the Philippines is potentially avail-                                   Results
able for the expansion of the livestock industry. With
a low national average production of 49 nuts/tree/               Liveweight gains ranged from 22–142 kg/head/year,
year, one of the options to increase land productivity           with an average daily gain of 0.06–0.38 kg/head.
is to integrate livestock, particularly cattle, under            From an average of 183.3 kg/head, cattle liveweight
coconuts. Earlier studies of the Bureau of Animal                soared to 266.5 kg (mean ADG – 0.23 kg) (Table 1).
Industry (BAI) showed that cattle on improved grass                 Liveweight gain of the cattle was directly related
pastures like signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens)                to the improved feeding regimes carried out by the
and humidicola (B. humidicola) can produce live-                 farmers. The animals of farmers 1 and 5 performed
weight gains of 300 to 400 kg/ha/year at stocking                best as they were provided with supplements such as
rates of 2–3 beasts/ha. The majority of coconut farms            molasses, corn starch and fodder trees such as Leu-
are small, and these results should be extended to the           caena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium. To ensure
farm situation.Objectives in this study were to dem-             sufficiency of feed during the dry season, Farmer 5
onstrate the value of integrating cattle under coco-             resorted to gathering rice straw and treating with
nuts and to determine the benefits that could be                 sugar dissolved in water, to increase palatability.
derived by farmers from cattle-coconut integration.              Animals of Farmer 6 performed well as they were
                                                                 supplemented with fodder trees during the dry
                                                                 season. Poor performance of cattle owned by Farmers
                   Methodology                                   3 and 4 was associated with lack of supplementation.
                                                                    The average annual income of farmers from
Six farmer-cooperators were selected in Barangay
                                                                 coconuts is P58 561. Depending on individual
Baligang, Camalig, Albay. Farmers’ meetings and
                                                                 farming activities and size of landholding, farmers’
seminars were conducted. Responsibilities of farmer-
                                                                 incomes range from P17 880 to P104 625 per annum.
cooperators to establish pasture, including land prep-
                                                                    The relative income contribution of cattle in inte-
aration and planting, were emphasised. Planting
                                                                 grated livestock systems with coconuts ranged from
materials of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum),
                                                                 1.8–26.3%, depending on farm size, for farmers with
humidicola and signal grass, and technical assistance,
                                                                 two head of cattle. The highest proportion of income
were provided. The forages were planted at staggered
                                                                 from cattle (26.3%) was obtained by Farmer 5, with
intervals from March 1995 to September 1997, with
                                                                 1.5 ha of coconut (Table 2). Supplementary income
areas ranging from 0.12 to 2.0 ha per farmer. Eleven
                                                                 from cattle can increase average family income by
head of American Brahman cross cattle (five heifers
                                                                 15.1%, from P58 651 to P67 176.
and six steers) were delivered and randomly distri-
buted by drawing lots. Cattle were weighed on
6 December 1996 and at 3-month intervals thereafter,                                 Conclusion
until the final weighing on 10 December 1997.
                                                                 Raising cattle under coconuts provides farmers with
                                                                 additional income and increases the overall produc-
                                                                 tivity of the coconut land. It generates employment
                                                                 for members of the farming family, including women.
                                                                 Development of coconut areas for livestock produc-
1Bureau of Animal Industry, Visayas Ave, Diliman, Quezon         tion will increase the local supply and availability of
City, the Philippines. Email: famoog@globe.com.ph                meat, which will eventually reduce import of meat
2Provincial Veterinary Services, Ambay, the Philippines          from overseas.




                                                           293
Table 1. Liveweight gain (LWG) of cattle distributed to farmer-cooperators.

   Farmer         Animal no. and sex      Initial weight (kg)           Final weight (kg)         Total LWG (kg)      ADG (kg)
                                                12/6/96                     12/10/97

         1               1 (M)                   165                          307                        142             0.38
                         2 (F)                   194                          2661                        721            0.31
         2               3 (M)                   192                          264                         72             0.19
                         4 (F)                   195                          272                         77             0.20
         3               5 (M)                   156                          211                         55             0.15
                         6 (F)                   187                          209                         22             0.06
         4               7 (F)                   163                          215                         52             0.14
         5               8 (M)                   164                          306                        142             0.38
                         9 (F)                   203                          2802                        772            0.33
         6              10 (M)                   195                          313                        118             0.32
                                                 208                          289                         81             0.22
1Until   July 31, 1997, animal bred July 1, 1997.
2Until   July 31, 1997, animal bred July 10, 1997.


Table 2. Income (pesos) of farmers from coconut and cattle in Baligang, Camalig, Albay (December 6, 1996 to December
10, 1997).

 Farmer #       Income from Coconut (P)     Income from cattle (P)          Total (P)       % Contribution of   % Contribution of
                     and area (ha)             and no. of head                                  coconut              cattle

     1                 51 596 (3.2)                  11 532 (2)              63 131               81.7                18.3
     2                104 625 (7)                      8875 (2)             113 500               92.2                 7.8
     3                 17 880 (2)                      5065 (2)              22 945               79.8                20.2
     4                 77 469 (4)                      2635 (1)              80 104               96.7                 3.3
     5                  3377 (1.5)                   12 245 (2)              46 622               73.7                26.3
     6                 65 421 (3)                    11 335 (2)              76 756               85.2                14.8




                                                                  294
   Assessing the Impact of Agricultural Technologies in
     Smallholder Farming Systems — Results from a
Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Study on Forages
       in Malitbog, Northern Mindanao, Philippines

          T. Purcell1, W. Nacalaban2, F. Gabunada Jr.3 and R. Cramb1

                                                         Abstract
               In this paper, a participatory approach is used to assess impact of forage technologies recently
            introduced to Malitbog, the Philippines. Despite the fact that participatory approaches to tech-
            nology development are designed to ensure that new technologies meet farmers’ needs, extent of
            adoption and the impacts on farm productivity and natural resources have rarely been assessed.
            Participatory methodologies applied to impact assessment enabled stakeholders to identify,
            elucidate and rank indicators of potential impact according to their perceived importance by those
            stakeholder groups. Simple in-field and statistical analysis highlighted important impacts and their
            relationships to each other. Comparing the two approaches, statistical analysis confirmed the in-
            field results and indicated that the field technicians could apply in-field analysis with confidence.
            The results indicated that smallholder farmers are aware of potential benefits of forage technologies
            to livestock as well as benefits to crops and the environment. Forage technologies were shown to
            have the potential for significant positive impacts on farming systems provided that they are
            tailored to individual requirements. In general, cut and carry species had greater appeal (than
            species for grazing) to farmers from Malitbog since they complement rather than substitute existing
            pasture and they enable the tethering of livestock closer to home, with a concomitant increase in
            animal safety.




THERE have been many projects aimed at reducing                   early stages of adoption. Any framework for moni-
rural poverty by increasing productivity and main-                toring progress or assessing impacts of new tech-
taining the natural resource base. Despite the fact               nologies must be related both to the problems and
that participatory approaches to technology develop-              needs expressed by farmers as well as expected out-
ment are designed to ensure that new technologies                 comes at different scales (farm, community, region).
meet farmers’ needs, extent of adoption and the                   With this capability, farmers and researchers can
impacts on farm productivity and natural resources                modify technology development better to target both
have rarely been assessed.                                        local and regional needs.
   Studies of impact have generally focused on key                   This monitoring and evaluation project aims to
productivity increases at the regional level, but at the          develop a framework to monitor and assess the on-
farm level there are few ‘user-friendly’ methods that             going and ex-post impacts of new forage tech-
assess environmental and economic impact during                   nologies developed through farmer participatory
                                                                  research. Specifically, this paper reports on a series
1School of Natural and Rural Systems Management,
                                                                  of impact indicator assessment workshops held with
                                                                  stakeholders in the Forages for Smallholders Project.
University of Queensland, Australia. Email: T.Purcell@
mailbox.uq.edu.au                                                    The Forages for Smallholders Project (FSP) has
2Department of Agriculture — Local Government Unit,               been working with smallholder farmers in Southeast
Malitbog, Bukidnon, Philippines                                   Asia developing suitable forage technologies to help
3Forages for Smallholders Project, CIAT/IRRI, Los Baños,          boost livestock productivity. A major question for
Philippines. Email: F.Gabunada@cgiar.org                          the FSP was whether the availability and adoption of




                                                            297
new forage technologies was providing significant               identifying all the stakeholders and eliciting their
positive impact for the smallholder farmers in its              views regarding the potential impacts of the project.
project sites.                                                     Success can mean different things to different
   Two sites where the FSP has been active and where            stakeholders. For example, some stakeholders may
smallholders have adopted improved forage technol-              be interested in increasing aggregate or national pro-
ogies, Malitbog in Bukidnon Province, Philippines,              duction, while other stakeholders may be interested
and M’Drak in Dac Lac Province, Vietnam, were                   in gender, equity and environmental aspects of the
chosen to develop this framework of participatory               project. Still others may be interested in increasing
monitoring and evaluation. The basic approach was               income and reducing risk. All of these criteria are
to work with the stakeholders to identify, order, rank          valid to the particular stakeholder concerned and
and finally measure indicators of impacts within the            success therefore depends on the views of the stake-
context of the overall farming system. The workshops            holders involved with the project.
aimed to use participatory techniques to develop and               The question of interest to a particular stakeholder
rank indicators of the impact arising from the on-farm          is the manner in which the new technology impacts
development of forage technologies.                             on the system. That system may be an aggregate
   In this paper, we present preliminary results from           farming system, or a sub-system like a livestock or
the monitoring and evaluation study of the Malitbog             cropping system. A new technology impacts on each
site.                                                           stakeholder in a different way. At the macro level, a
                                                                new forage technology might mean that aggregate or
     Stakeholder views on impact of new                         national livestock production might increase, or there
                                                                might be a noticeable improvement in crop yield due
                technologies                                    to soil erosion control. At a micro level, other stake-
In developing impact indicators for a particular                holders might be interested in the labour saving
project, the views of the stakeholders involved in the          aspects of the new technology.
project are important in defining the potential                    At any one-system level, a new technology will
indicators of impacts. Stakeholders do not neces-               have multiple impacts (Figure 2), which may be
sarily comprise only those people whom the project              immediate, intermediate and long-term in nature. For
is designed to help, for example farmers, but all               example, the availability of forages may mean that
those groups who potentially are going to be affected           seasonal shortfalls in feed quality and availability
by the project outcomes (Figure 1). A full assess-              may be alleviated (an immediate impact). This may
ment of project impacts can only be achieved by                 result in increases in liveweight gain for livestock,



                                                    Funding Bodies




                    National                                                              Scientists
                  Governments


                                                      Stakeholders




               The Disadvantaged                                                         Interest Groups
                                                                                             (NGOs)




                                    Extensionists                       Farmers




Figure 1. Project stakeholders.



                                                          298
with a resultant improvement in productivity of                 were asked to weight each indicator of impact in
draught animals and a higher sale price for fattened            order of importance. At all of the sites except Silo-o
livestock (a sequence of intermediate impacts).                 both the impact assessment and weighting exercises
Ultimately these changes may result in higher                   were conducted. The weighting exercise was not
incomes and improved farmer welfare.                            carried out at Silo-o due to its remoteness, which
   At the same time, the establishment of forages on            meant that it could only be visited once.
sloping land may reduce soil erosion (an immediate                  In the first stage of the process the participants in
impact) with consequent benefits for soil fertility and         the focus groups were asked to identify the likely
crop yield (intermediate impacts) and, ultimately,              outcomes of forage adoption on their farming
beneficial consequences for farmer welfare and                  systems and livelihoods. These indicators of impacts
downstream resource users (Figure 2).                           were developed by the facilitator and the participants
   The multiple effects of a technology may include             as a flowchart leading from ‘forage adoption’ to
both positive and negative impacts. For example,                ‘well-being’ of the stakeholder (see, for example,
while the planting of forage species may result in the          Figure 3).
reduction of soil erosion from sloping land, as noted               The indicators of impacts were differentiated by
above, it may have the adverse effect of reducing the           gender, in that it was noted whether a male or female
area under cropping, thereby reducing farmer                    participant had made that particular comment. It
income.                                                         should be noted that this does not mean that the iden-
   Although a new technology may impact on stake-               tification of that indicator only applies to one gender,
holders in different ways depending on their relation-          merely that they were the first to mention it; it may
ships to the system in question, impact also depends            well be that other participants (irrespective of
on the views of the stakeholders. While this topic              gender) agreed with them.
will be elucidated later, in essence these views can                The number and nature of impact indicators dif-
be broadly classified into stakeholders’ perceptions,           fered across focus groups. Groups with a greater
expectations, knowledge and experience of the new               (and longer) exposure to forage technologies were
technology. For example, stakeholders differing in              able to identify a larger number of indicators, a
age or gender may have different perceptions as to              greater number of multi-stage intermediate and final
how the new technology impacts on their system. In              indicators, and a more complex interaction of indi-
addition, these perceptions are contingent on their             cators in the farming system.
own expectations of what this new technology has to                 As an example, all focus groups mentioned that
offer. Knowledge and experience also changes stake-             forages could fatten livestock and therefore increase
holders’ views, enabling a broader and deeper under-            their sale price, but only the FSP national coordina-
standing of the benefits and limitations of the new             tors mentioned the reproduction aspect of improved
technology.                                                     nutrition.
                                                                    Concentrating on the indicators of impact identi-
                                                                fied by the farmer focus groups, the groups identified
      Identification of Impact Indicators
                                                                intermediate and final indicators associated with
Workshops were held with stakeholder groups to                  both livestock and non-livestock activities.
elicit indicators of impacts (especially intermediate               Most groups indicated that forages could be used
impacts) that could result from adoption of forage              to increase the number of livestock cared for and to
technologies. Workshops were held with the FSP                  fatten livestock already held. These animals could
collaborators, comprising representatives from                  then be sold at a higher price. Some groups indicated
funding bodies, the respective national governments             that an increase in manure could result from the
and forage scientists, at the 4th Annual Forages for            increase in the number of animals and the change in
Smallholders Project Meeting in Nha Trang,                      feeding regime (from an extensive tethering to an
Vietnam in January 1999. Further workshops were                 intensive cut-and-carry system). The manure sub-
held with the Malitbog Municipal Agricultural                   sequently could be collected and either sold or used
Office personnel, and with seven of the target sitios           as fertiliser on-farm. Most groups readily identified
(villages) in the Malitbog Municipality. These were             linkages between forages and other aspects of their
Bilayong, Paitan, Kaluluwayan, San Migara, Santa                farming systems. For example, forages could be used
Inez, Silo-o and Tagmaray.                                      for soil erosion control.
   Each workshop was a two-stage affair. In the first               As mentioned above, stakeholder views on forages
stage, the participants were asked to identify the              were contingent upon their perceptions, expectations,
indicators of impacts, both the positive and negative           knowledge and experience of how the new forage
‘benefits’, that they foresaw as likely outcomes from           technology was going to impact on the farming
forage adoption. In the second stage, the participants          system. As an example, different genders and ages



                                                          299
                                                           Livestock
                                                           fattening




                                                           Livestock
                                                           numbers


                            Forages                                                               Profit                     Well-being



                                                           Manure,
                                                            mulch,
                                                           fertiliser


                                                                                         Crop yield


                                                           Erosion
                                                           control



Figure 2. Possible sequences of farm-level impacts arising from introduction of forages.


                    Cures animal                                                                                                          Can send
                                                                                    Fattens                                               children to
                    disease                                                         cattle                                                school




                                                                           Cattle numbers                                  Can sell
                    Provides fee                                                                                           more
                    for cattle                                             increase fast
                                                                                                                           animals


                                                                        Assurance that they get animals if they already have cattle
                    Can sell cut
                    forages

                                                                                                                                           Augment
                                             There is forage but no animal to feed                                                          income
                                                                                                                                          generation/
                                                                                                                                           get extra
  Planting forage




                     Prevents soil                         Good crop                                  Increased                             income
                     erosion                               performance                                crop yield




                     Improves soil                                                                         Brightens
                     fertility                                                                             future
                                                       Beautification and
                                                       landscaping



                     No more problems in                                                Can relax/
                     relation to tethering                                              rest more
                                                                                                                       More time to
                                                                                                                       devote to other
                                                                                                                       activities

                                                                                                                                            Can get
                     Security of animals — entangled                                                                                        benefit
                     rope if animals tethered on                                                                                            from
                     hillsides: risk of theft                                                                                               animals



                                                                            Males                                  Females

Figure 3. Impact assessment — Sitio Tagmaray.



                                                                              300
had different perceptions as to the impact of forages             These were selected under the assumption that the
on labour. While some farmers saw that time saved                 more times it was mentioned the greater was the
by feeding livestock cut-and-carry forages, rather                probable importance. The indicators were written
than tending grazing animals, could be used for rest              down on a large sheet of paper, which was then used
and relaxation, other farmers saw that the time saved             as the weighting board to weight the indicators. Each
could be used for other farm activities. Some farmers             of the farmer groups was then asked to weight the
identified the role younger members of the household              indicators according to importance.
played in caring for livestock (‘even small children                 The farmers were given 10 cards, numbered 1 to
can now feed the animals’). The children themselves               10 and asked to place them upside down (to preserve
appreciated the savings in their time which resulted              anonymity) against the impact indicators written on
from moving from a purely grazing system to a com-                the board in order of importance to them, with 1
bined grazing and cut-and-carry system (‘Before we                being most important and 10 being least important.
had forages it was laborious to feed the animals. Now             The remaining 14 indicators were thus classified as
it is not so laborious’).                                         ‘not important’. This is not to say that the farmers
    The expectations of what benefits forage tech-                considered them to be totally irrelevant, as they were
nologies were going to bring to the farming house-                important enough to mention during the first stage of
hold also played a role. For example, there was a                 the impact assessment exercise.
high level of interest shown in forages in some of the               In this stage of the exercise, no differentiation was
villages in the Malitbog area. It transpired that a live-         made between gender responses. In future research it
stock dispersal program operating in parallel to the              may be necessary to collect information on within-
Forages for Smallholders Project was requiring                    site variability (such as gender and wealth) during
qualifying farmers to plant forages. Thus, there was              the weighting exercise in order to account for the
an incentive for non-dispersal recipient farmers to               very large variation in responses not attributed to site
plant forages in order to increase their chances of               differences alone.
qualifying for the dispersal program.                                There was a wide distribution of responses from
    Stakeholders with a higher level of knowledge,                each site, but several impacts stood out as being
such as forage scientists and government extension                most important to all the farmers:
workers, were able to identify likely indicators of               • the ability of forages to fatten animals,
impacts such as improved reproduction rates due to                • the ability to provide feed to counter seasonal and
improved nutritional status of the animals. Farmers                  overall shortfalls,
themselves might not have been able to elucidate
                                                                  • the potential of forages to control soil erosion, and
such concepts, but were well aware of their con-
sequences — increased numbers of livestock.                       • the opportunity to ensure the safety of animals
    The amount of experience stakeholders had with                   against theft and accidents or sickness by tethering
forages was directly correlated with the number and                  closer to home.
range of potential impact indicators identified.                     In addition, there were indicators of impacts that
Farmers experienced with forage production indi-                  were considered to be of secondary importance:
cated that they needed forages that could withstand               • the ability of forages to increase soil fertility by
drought and that sometimes the livestock preferred                   providing fertiliser and manure;
grazing a species in preference to being offered that             • the time savings generated by a reduction in
species as ‘cut-and-carry’, because they liked to be                 animal management effort;
able to select the palatable leaves and pull the grass            • the reduction in social tensions by limiting the
from the ground. Experienced farmers also indicated                  need to graze in communal areas and the associ-
that they now had extra time available for other                     ated danger of stray animals damaging other
activities, because they had a readily available                     peoples’ crops1; and
source of feed for their livestock.                               • the increased price obtained for fatter livestock.
    After all workshops were held, the results were
collated into a list of around 70 different indicators            1A system of fines has been introduced in some of the

of impacts. These were grouped and condensed                      villages which puts pressure on farmers to control move-
down to 37 (Table 1).                                             ment and grazing of livestock. A P50 fine is levied against
                                                                  farmers who allow their cattle or buffalo to roam free and a
                                                                  P5/damaged plant (typically maize) is levied against
             Weighting of Indicators                              farmers who allow their animals to graze on other peoples’
                                                                  plots. Due to the dispersed nature of farm plots in the area
The second stage of the process involved collating                the probability of getting caught in flagrante delicto is low
indicators from each of the stakeholder focus groups              and hence the continuing social tensions and the interest in
and selecting the 24 most mentioned indicators.                   new forage technologies.




                                                            301
   Interestingly, the livestock dispersal programs                   savings for women and children in animal manage-
operating in the municipality (cattle, carabao and                   ment. This was not generally seen by stakeholders as
goats) were considered to be less important that the                 an important enough indicator to mention. In fact,
other factors. This was despite informal discussions                 only the national level research scientists identified
with the farmer alayons (groups) indicating that the                 labour savings by women and children as a likely
dispersal programs were a common factor in                           impact to arise out of forage technology adoption.
decisions to adopt forage technologies. In a sub-                    One of the farmer focus groups actually highlighted
sequent survey, 61% of the 120 farmers growing                       that a perceived benefit of forage adoption was that
forages indicated that the dispersal programs played                 children could now participate more in animal
a role in their decision to plant forages. The results               management under a cut-and-carry system than they
indicate that, although the dispersal program did                    could with the traditional grazing and tethering
have some importance in farmer decisions to adopt                    systems. Interviews with stakeholders revealed that
forages, there were also other, more important                       little importance was attached to the contribution of
factors influencing their decisions to adopt.                        child labour to the farm household and that the oppor-
   One of the indicators of impact highlighted by                    tunity cost of such labour was considered to be mar-
some of the focus groups was the potential for labour                ginal to zero. The contribution of women’s labour to


Table 1. Impact indicators identified by stakeholder workshops.

Indicators of impact                                                      Malitbog      FSP         All     All   TOTAL
                                                                         Agricultural Country      male female
                                                                           Office    Coordinators farmers farmers

Forage little eaten as cut-and-carry but eaten if animals tethered                                           X        1
Expand establishment of species for grazing                                                         X                 1
Planting forage                                                                                     X                 1
Was instructed to plant/given information                                                                    X        1
Less drudgery for working animal                                                                    X                 1
So we could get assistance from MAO                                                                          X        1
Livestock dispersal                                                                                          X        1
Security of animals — preventing theft                                                                       X        1
Don’t fully own land or animals, so cannot plant forages                                            X                 1
Planting materials were available                                            X                               X        2
Progress for farmers and livestock                                                                  X        X        2
Increased sale price                                                                      X         X                 2
Less work for women and children                                                          X         X                 2
Increased work capacity                                                                   X         X                 2
Have forages but no cattle                                                                          X        X        2
Meat quality                                                                 X            X                           2
No damage to other peoples crops                                                                    X        X        2
Send children to school                                                                             XX                2
Improve family health/feed animals even if sick                              X                      X        X        3
Selling feed                                                                 X            X                  X        3
Relax/rest more                                                              X            X         X                 3
Less drudgery for farmer                                                                  X         XX                3
Other land uses                                                              X            X                 X         3
Helps us with our hardship/financial problems                                                              XXX        3
Fertiliser/manure                                                            X            X                 XX        4
Crop yield                                                                   X            X                 XX        4
More time to devote to other activities                                      X            X         XX                4
No need to tether far from household                                                                XX  XX            4
Landscaping/clean & green                                                    X            X         XX  X             5
Animals will be healthy                                                      X                      XX  XX            5
Improves soil fertility                                                      X            X            XXX            5
Increased number of cattle                                                   X            X        X    XX            5
Additional farm/non-farm income source                                       X            X       XXX   X             6
To save on labour for caring of animals                                                   X        XX  XXX            6
Soil erosion control                                                         X            X        XX   XX            6
Can fatten their cattle                                                      X            X        XX  XXXX           8
Feed for animals                                                             X            X       XXXX XXX            9




                                                             302
the farm (as opposed to the household) was likewise              of each impact indicator by each assessment work-
considered to be low, by both men and women. This                shop are plotted together. While the indicators which
was contrary to observed activities and may reflect a            attracted a high ranking are clustered together quite
cultural attitude towards female farm labour. When               closely, indicators which attracted a middle ranking
asked how important women’s and children’s labour                are spread further apart. This is indicative of par-
savings were, most farmer focus groups attached little           ticipants’ difficulty in being able to distinguish
to no importance to such an impact. Even one farmer              between indicators of impact which had little intrinsic
focus group comprised only of women indicated that               difference in outcome.
most thought such labour saving was not important at                The bar-charts constructed for each of the sites
all. Those that did consider it to be important (com-            individually generally coincide with the rankings for
pared with ‘not important’) only ranked it as ‘impor-            all the sites combined. The ‘time savings’ impact
tant’, rather than ‘very important’.                             appears out of expected ranking due to the construc-
                                                                 tion of that impact. This impact was a combination
       Analysis of Indicator Weightings                          of four separate ‘time’ impact indicators and thus has
                                                                 a higher ranking.
An in-field approach to the analysis of indicators                  The charts indicate that individual sites have some
With such a wide range of responses from farmers, it             differences in ranking, due to their particular circum-
was important to be able to identify patterns and                stances. For instance, Tagmaray, a site that is steeply
trends within the data. More importantly, it is neces-           sloping, ranked soil erosion control as the most
sary to be able to develop a methodology that could              important impact of forage technology adoption.
be applied in the field by extension workers without             This can be compared with a site like Paitan, which
access to computers or advanced statistical analysis             ranked it as seventeenth out of twenty (Figure 7).
techniques.                                                      Unlike most sites, the farmers at Tagmaray con-
   Simple bar-charts of farmer responses to each                 sidered the ability of forages to provide feed for
impact indicator at each site were developed (See, for           animals as very minor, ranking it sixteenth out of
example, Figures 4, 5 and 6). These charts grouped               twenty. This is due to the relative abundance of
responses into ‘very important’ (scores 1–3), ‘impor-            grazing land available in a place that has been newly
tant’ (scores 4–6), ‘less important’ (scores 7–9) and            opened for development, compared with other sites
‘least important’ (scores 10+).                                  with higher population densities.
   An ad-hoc ranking scheme was applied, where
indicators of impact were ranked by number of
responses in the ‘very important’ class, followed by
                                                                    A Statistical Verification of the In-Field
‘important’, ‘less important’ and ‘least important’                                 Analysis
classes. This is not a very satisfactory ranking                 While ad hoc ranking using bar-charts can give an
scheme, in that indicators with a low score for ‘very            indication of the relative importance of indicators of
important’ but a high score for ‘important’ are                  impact in assessment exercises, there is always the
ranked lower than what casual observation suggests               question of the statistical significance of any per-
(e.g. the ‘fertiliser and manure’ indicator compared             ceived difference.
with the ‘crop yield’ indicator in Figure 6). How-                  An analysis of variance was carried out on the indi-
ever, as part of the study is to compare the-field               cators of impact and the results indicate that there was
analysis with rigorous statistical analysis, such ad             a highly significant difference (p<0.01) between the
hoc ranking schemes are important benchmarks.                    impact indicators and that there was no significant dif-
   The bar-chart rankings indicate that, for all sites,          ference in participants’ responses between village of
the top indicators of impact were feed for animals,              origin. The results are tempered by a low R2 of 0.18,
the safety of the animals and fattening cattle. The              indicating that only 18% of the variability in rankings
bar-chart also indicates that the ad-hoc ranking                 can be attributed to either the impact indicator itself
scheme places the fertiliser and manure and the                  or to the site variable. While low R2s are a common
higher animal price impact indicators lower down                 feature of human responses in experimental studies
the ranking than their ‘important’ score would                   (values of 0.3 are considered to be quite reasonable),
suggest is appropriate.                                          an R2 of 0.18 is probably too low for one to have much
   What is interesting to note is that. although farmers         faith in the predictive power of the model. A low R2
were able to identify the indicators which ranked                combined with a highly significant F-statistic indi-
highly, middle ranked indicators were very closely               cates that the problem with the model is under speci-
ranked, suggesting that farmers have difficulty in dif-          fication and that factors explaining the difference in
ferentiating between these indicators. This can be               responses by individuals (in addition to the site vari-
observed in Figure 7, in which the relative rankings             able) need to be incorporated.



                                                           303
      Figure 5. Ad hoc ranking schemes — Sitio Paitan.




                                                                                                                                                                                                               Figure 4. Ad hoc ranking schemes — Malitbog (all sites combined).
                                                                                                                                     Farmer Response Rate                                                                                                                                                                                               Farmer Response Rate




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     100%
                                                         Less Important

                                                                            Very Important




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20%




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40%




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       60%




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               80%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Less Important

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Very Important
                                                                                                                                                                              100%




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0%
                                                                                                                       10%

                                                                                                                             20%

                                                                                                                                   30%

                                                                                                                                         40%

                                                                                                                                               50%

                                                                                                                                                     60%

                                                                                                                                                            70%

                                                                                                                                                                  80%

                                                                                                                                                                        90%
                                                                                                                  0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        feed to animal
                                                                                             feed to animal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         animal safety
                                                                                               time savings

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fat cattle
                                                                                              animal safety
                                                         Least Important

                                                                            Important




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Least Important

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       erosion control
                                                                                                   fat cattle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              sell feed
                                                                                               fertiliser and
                                                                                                  manure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             crop yield
                                                                                                  crop yield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fertiliser and
                                                                           higher animal price                                                                                                                                                                                                                               manure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      higher animal price
                                                                  animal/human health




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Forage Impacts — Malitbog
                                                                                                                                                                                     Forage Impacts — Paitan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           livestock numbers
                                                                           livestock numbers
304




                                                                      can send children to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  soil fertility
                                                                                   school
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          time savings
                                                                                                 soil fertility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cannot destroy other
                                                                                                    sell feed                                                                                                                                                                                             farmers’ crops
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      help solve financial
                                                                                                land tenure                                                                                                                                                                                                     problems

                                                                      cannot destroy other                                                                                                                                                                                                                             healthy animals
                                                                           farmers’ crops
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     can send children to
                                                          little labour for women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  school
                                                                      and children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     animal/human health
                                                                                        healthy animals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            little labour for women
                                                                                             erosion control                                                                                                                                                                                            and children

                                                                           help solve financial                                                                                                                                                                                                                           landscaping
                                                                                     problems
                                                                           dispersal program                                                                                                                                                                                                               dispersal program


                                                                                               landscaping                                                                                                                                                                                                                 land tenure
      Figure 7. Ad hoc ranking scheme — relative rankings of each assessment site.




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Figure 6. Ad hoc ranking schemes — Sitio Tagmaray.
                                                                                                                                important




                                                                                                                                                                                         important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Farmer Response Rate




                                                                                                                                  Least




                                                                                                                                                                                           Most
                                                                                                                                                       Relative Importance




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Very Important




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   10%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         20%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               30%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            70%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0%
                                                                                                                                        20

                                                                                                                                        18

                                                                                                                                             16

                                                                                                                                                  14

                                                                                                                                                          12

                                                                                                                                                                10

                                                                                                                                                                      8

                                                                                                                                                                             6

                                                                                                                                                                                 4

                                                                                                                                                                                     2

                                                                                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        erosion control
                                                                                                           feed to animal



                                                                                     Bilayong
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    help solve financial
                                                                                                            animal safety                                                                                                                                                                     problems

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             soil fertility
                                                                                                                 fat cattle




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Less Important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               fat cattle
                                                                                     Kaluluwayan



                                                                                                          erosion control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           landscaping
                                                                                                                 sell feed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          animal safety
                                                                                                                crop yield

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              crop yield
                                                                                                    fertiliser and manure
                                                                                     Paitan




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Important
                                                                                                      higher animal price                                                                                                                                                                      sell feed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Forage Impacts — Tagmaray
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cannot destroy other
                                                                                                       livestock numbers                                                                                                                                                               farmers’ crops
305




                                                                                     San Migara




                                                                                                               soil fertility                                                                                                                                                          healthy animals


                                                                                                             time savings                                                                                                                                                         animal/human health




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Least Important
                                                                                                    cannot destroy other                                                                                                                                                          fertiliser and manure
                                                                                                         farmers’ crops
                                                                                     Santa Inez




                                                                                                      help solve financial                                                                                                                                                           dispersal program
                                                                                                                problems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 little labour for women
                                                                                                         healthy animals                                                                                                                                                                     and children

                                                                                                     can sand children to                                                                                                                                                                  time savings
                                                                                                                  school
                                                                                     Tagmaray




                                                                                                    animal/human health                                                                                                                                                                  feed to animal

                                                                                                   little labour for women                                                                                                                                                          higher animal price
                                                                                                               and children

                                                                                                             landscaping                                                                                                                                                             livestock numbers

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   can send children to
                                                                                                       dispersal program
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                school
                                                                                     Malitbog




                                                                                                              land tenure                                                                                                                                                                   land tenure
   Regardless of the low R2, the model results are               ranking but these do not appear to be statistically dif-
still valid estimates of the differences between                 ferent given the associated increase in variance for
impact indicators in the absence of additional infor-            indicators of impact scored ‘Important’. For most of
mation about individual workshop participants.                   the indicators of impact the difference between the
Multiple range tests were conducted to test for                  statistical and the ad hoc ranking schemes was only
response differences between impact indicators.                  ± 3 ranks and even the biggest outlier (a difference
Fisher’s least-significant-difference (LSD) test and             of 10 rankings for the ‘Healthy Animals’ indicator of
the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple-range test                impact for Sitio Kaluluwayan) was within the statis-
(REGW) were calculated2 and the results presented                tical limits of the multiple range tests. A χ2 test of
in Table 2.                                                      independence was carried out and indicated that
   The multiple range tests give additional infor-               there was no statistical difference between the ad hoc
mation about the significant differences between                 and the statistical ranking schemes overall.
indicators and suggest that, like the ad hoc ranking
                                                                    The multiple range tests also confirm the per-
scheme results, the ability of forages to provide feed,
safety and increased liveweight gain are more impor-             ception given in the bar-charts of impact indicator
tant impacts than the other indicators that were                 rankings that, while the first and last few ranked
suggested. Unlike the ad hoc ranking scheme, the                 indicators were statistically different from the rest,
statistical results have the advantage that they are not         there was no statistical difference between the
biased in their ranking of indicators by the allocation          middle ranked indicators. This lack of statistical dif-
of lower ‘Very Important’ scored but higher                      ference can be attributed to, firstly, the possibility
‘Important’ scored indicators to lower rankings.                 that workshop participants found it difficult to dis-
   The statistical results confirm the ad hoc ranking            tinguish between indicators that may have held little
scheme presented in the bar-charts in that the ranking           intrinsic difference. Secondly, the lack of infor-
of impact indicators is qualitatively the same (See              mation about the individual participants in the work-
Figure 8). There are some minor differences in                   shops (which led to a low R2 in the first place) means
                                                                 that variances around the individual estimates are
2Fisher’s LSD test controls the Type I comparisonwise            very large, and thus the t-tests of differences between
error rate whereas the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test            means will reject the null hypothesis of no difference
controls the Type I experimentwise error rate.                   less often.



Table 2. Analysis of importance of impacts of forages in smallholder farming systems.

            Impact indicator               Mean importance REGW Multiple Range test                Fisher’s LSD test
                                             (1=Important,       (p>0.05)                              (p>0.05)
                                          10=Least Important,
                                          >11= Not Important)

Provides feed for livestock                      5.79              X                           X
Animal safety (theft, accident)                  6.15              X                           X      X
Fattens livestock                                6.68              X             X                    X
Soil erosion control                             7.64                     X      X             X
Provides manure and fertiliser                   8.12              X      X                    X      X
Increased livestock price                        8.33              X      X                    X      X       X
Cut&carry prevents straying                      8.67              X      X      X                    X       X        X
Sell feed                                        8.69              X      X      X                    X       X        X
Livestock numbers                                8.85              X      X      X             X      X       X        X
Soil fertility                                   8.97              X      X      X      X      X      X       X        X
Time savings                                     8.97              X      X      X      X      X      X       X        X
Help with finances                               9.09              X      X      X      X      X              X        X
Crop yield                                       9.11              X      X      X      X      X              X        X
Healthy animals                                  9.12              X      X      X      X      X      X       X        X
Education and tuition fees                       9.29              X             X      X      X      X                X
Labour reduction for women and children          9.37              X             X      X      X      X                X
Livestock dispersal program                      9.62              X             X      X      X      X       X
Animal/human health                              9.63              X             X      X      X      X       X
Landscaping                                      9.99                            X      X             X       X
Land tenure                                     10.42                                   X                     X




                                                           306
                          0
    Most
  important
                          2


                          4


                          6
    Relative Importance




                          8


                          10


                          12


                          14


                          16


          18
    Least
  important
          20
                               feed to animal

                                                animal safety


                                                                  fat cattle


                                                                               erosion control

                                                                                                 fertiliser and manure


                                                                                                                         higher animal price

                                                                                                                                               cannot destroy other
                                                                                                                                                    farmers’ crops

                                                                                                                                                                      sell feed

                                                                                                                                                                                  livestock numbers


                                                                                                                                                                                                         time savings


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        crop yield

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     healthy animals


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        soil fertility

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         help solve financial




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       little labour for women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   problems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                can sand children to


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and children

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  dispersal program

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      animal/human health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             school




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            landscaping


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              land tenure
                                           Bilayong                            Kaluluwayan                                                            Paitan                                           San Migara                                      Santa Inez                                                      Tagmaray                                                                           Malitbog

Figure 8. Statistical ranking — relative rankings of each assessment.

   Given the results of the ad hoc ranking in the bar-                                                                                                                                                           tions that has to be answered is whether the new tech-
charts, which suggest that there are differences                                                                                                                                                                 nology being introduced has an impact on the
between sites, there is the question of how the results                                                                                                                                                          farming system and which stakeholder groups benefit
of the statistical analysis (which shows no significant                                                                                                                                                          (or lose) from that impact. Participatory methodol-
differences between sites) can be reconciled with the                                                                                                                                                            ogies applied to impact assessment enable stake-
results of the ad-hoc ranking scheme.                                                                                                                                                                            holders to identify, elucidate and rank indicators of
   The number of participants in each of the work-                                                                                                                                                               potential impact according to their perceived impor-
shops weights the statistical results, thus differences                                                                                                                                                          tance by those stakeholder groups.
in rankings in sites with smaller number of par-                                                                                                                                                                    Not only is it important to have a participatory
ticipants are diluted by sites with a larger number of                                                                                                                                                           approach to impact assessment in eliciting the views
participants. This has important implications for                                                                                                                                                                of all stakeholder groups but it is important to be
policy decisions in reconciling a macro view of rural                                                                                                                                                            able to include stakeholder groups in any subsequent
development with the minutiae of individuals’                                                                                                                                                                    analysis of impact. Simple in-field and statistical
development in a smallholder farming system. A more                                                                                                                                                              analysis highlight important impacts and their
detailed dataset, with information on individuals’                                                                                                                                                               relationships to each other. Comparing the two
responses, and their associated demographics, may go                                                                                                                                                             approaches, statistical analysis confirms in-field
part way to identifying critical factors determining                                                                                                                                                             results and indicates that field technicians can apply
how agricultural technologies impact on smallholder                                                                                                                                                              in-field analysis with confidence.
farming systems.                                                                                                                                                                                                    The results indicate that smallholder farmers are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 aware of potential benefits of forage technologies to
                                                                Conclusions                                                                                                                                      livestock (fattening, feed availability, higher prices)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 as well as benefits to crops and the environment
Introducing a new agricultural technology into a                                                                                                                                                                 (fertilizer and manure, soil fertility and reducing
smallholder farming system can be problematic when                                                                                                                                                               erosion). The results also highlight the importance of
trying to reconcile competing interests of the various                                                                                                                                                           an inclusive approach to rural development in that
stakeholder groups. One of the fundamental ques-                                                                                                                                                                 the smallholder stakeholders identified benefits not



                                                                                                                                                                                                      307
foreseen by scientists and other stakeholder groups                  In conclusion, forage technologies have the
(animal safety due to tethering closer to home with a             potential to have significant positive impacts on
cut-and-carry system, and a reduction in crop                     farming systems provided that they are tailored to
damage and associated social tensions).                           individual requirements. In general, cut and carry
    For Malitbog as a whole the indicators of impact              species may have greater appeal to farmers from
                                                                  Malitbog since they complement rather than sub-
which were perceived to be most important were the
                                                                  stitute existing pasture and they enable the tethering
ability of forages to provide feed for livestock                  of livestock closer to home with a concomitant
fattening, and the safety of livestock. In addition, soil         increase in animal safety.
erosion control, fertilizer and manure collection, and
a higher livestock price were seen as important
attributes and outcomes of new forage technologies.                              Acknowledgements
The analysis indicates that important impact                      We are grateful to ACIAR for provision of funds to
indicators vary by site; for example, erosion control             support this study (Project IAP/1998/053). We also
may not be important for flat areas but is important              thank Louie Orencia (Forages for Smallholders
for steep ones. The analysis also indicates that                  Project, CIAT, Los Baños, Philippines) and Gaspar
individual sites and individual farmers have their                Velasco (Department of Agriculture — LGU,
own characteristics, needs and expectations, and that             Malitbog, Philippines) for their help in the data
it is important to get views of all stakeholders.                 collection phase.




                                                            308
                              Monitoring Forage Technology Development
                              – The Adoption Tree
                              P.M. Horne1, W.W. Stür2, L. Orencia2, F. Gabunada
                              Jr.2, P. Phengsavanh3, Bui Xuan An4 and M. Tuhulele5



THE Forages for Smallholders Project (FSP) followed                happening and what impacts they were having on
a process of developing forage technologies with                   farmers’ livelihoods.
smallholder farmers that was based on the principle:                  Simply recording the total numbers of farmers
‘start small, encourage farmers to innovate and then               evaluating forages can be very deceiving. The
expand’. During the early stages of this process,                  example in Table 1 shows the changes in the total
when there were only a few farmers testing forages,                number of farmers working with the FSP in slash-
it was easy to monitor forage development simply by                and-burn farming systems. These numbers appar-
maintaining contact with every farmer (see Figure 1).              ently show an expansion, but it is essential to know
Very quickly, however, the process became com-                     how many of the farmers in each year are new
plicated. Each year, new farmers began to evaluate                 farmers and how many dropped out. If the majority
forages for the first time and each year others                    of farmers starting to evaluate forages each year
expanded, maintained or abandoned areas of forages                 were dropping out and being replaced by new
(Figure 2).                                                        farmers, the prospects for forage development would
   This process was made even more complex by the                  be poor. In this case, 49% of the farmers in 1997
immense diversity that exists between individual                   dropped out but only 19% dropped out in 1998. This
households within upland communities, let alone                    did not tell us, however, whether any of the farmers
                                                                   whyo were continuing to evaluate forages were
between communities. The opportunities for forages
                                                                   planting significant areas. Just measuring the average
varied greatly between individual households. In the
                                                                   areas of forage planted, however, can be equally mis-
example shown in Figure 2, some farmers planted
                                                                   leading. Often, the variation between farmers was
very large forage areas in the first year and did not
                                                                   enormous and it was common for a site to have a few
need to expand after that. In other cases, they                    farmers growing very large areas while the majority
expanded, but only planting small areas each year.                 grew forages in small plots.
Some farmers planted and maintained many forage
varieties for different uses, whereas others quickly               Table 1. Number of farmers evaluating forages in slash-
selected two or three preferred varieties.                         and-burn farming systems.
   Some farmers experimented with new ways of
growing the forages and others discovered new uses                    Year      Numbers of farmers    Percent of farmers
for forages that they had not initially imagined. The                            evaluating forages    continuing to the
FSP needed to be able not only to monitor these                                                           next year
changes but also to try to understand why they were
                                                                      1997              83                   51%
                                                                      1998             169                   81%
1Forages for Smallholders Project, Vientiane, Lao PDR.                1999             395                    –
Email: P.Horne@cgiar.org
2Forages for Smallholders Project, Los Baños, Philippines.
                                                                      To be able to offer advice for expanding locally
Email: W.Stur@cgiar.org                                            successful forage technologies to new areas, we need
3National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute,
                                                                   a much better understanding of the process of forage
Vientiane, Lao PDR. Email: FSP-Lao@cgiar.org
4University of Agriculture and Forestry, Ho Chi Minh City,         technology development, adaptation and adoption in
Vietnam. Email: an@hcm.fpt.vn                                      the field so we could answer questions such as:
5Directorate General of Livestock Services, Jakarta, Indo-         • what problems was each farmer trying to solve
nesia. Email: fsp-indonesia@cgnet.com                                 with forages?




                                                             309
Figure 1. Monitoring forage development in Indonesia by maintaining contact with farmers.

                      1995         1996          1997          1998



                                                                 3
                                                   8
                                                                                   Farmers starting to
                                                                 5           16    evaluate forages
                                    10
                                                                 0
                                                                                   Farmers expanding
                                                   2                         10    their forage areas
                                                                 2

                      16                                                           Farmers not expanding
                                                                              6    their forage areas
                                                                 1
                                                   4
                                                                 3
                                     6
                                                                 2
                                                   2

                                                                 0


                                                                 31
                                                  40
                                                                 9
                                    53
                                                                 10
                                                  13
                                                                 3



                                                                 6
                                                  10

                                                                 4



Figure 2. Number of farmers starting to evaluate forages, expanding their areas of forage or maintaining their areas, at
Sepaku, East Kalimantan, Indonesia in each of 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998.



                                                         310
• which forage varieties did each farmer prefer and             Table 2. Implementation of the Adoption Tree in 1999.
  why?
• which ways of growing and using forages were                  Systems            Countries            Number Farmers
  proving successful and why?                                                                           of sites
• which farmers were gaining the most benefits
  from forages and what were these benefits?                    Grasslands         Indonesia, Vietnam     2      109
                                                                Slash-and-burn     Laos                   3      178
• why did some farmers abandon or not expand                    Mixed upland       Philippines,           6      265
  their forage plots?                                           cropping           Indonesia, Vietnam
• will new farmers more-rapidly adopt integrated                Extensive upland   Indonesia              2      307
  forage systems once other farmers in the same area            cropping
  have been using these systems for some time?

                                                                   The ‘Adoption Tree’ will be repeated annually
                                                                (with a sub-sample of farmers representing different
                                                                wealth, gender and ethnic groups, where necessary)
What is the ‘Adoption Tree’                                     to follow the changes in forage technology develop-
The ‘Adoption Tree’ is a survey tool that was devel-            ment and farmers’ perceptions of technologies and
oped by the FSP to monitor the changes that occur in            impacts.
forage development for each individual farmer every                Conventional economic impact assessment is
year. A separate evaluation tool for evaluating                 normally based on collecting detailed economic and
farmers’ perceptions of forage varieties (participatory         farm production data for partial farm budget analysis
evaluation) was often conducted at the same time (for           and other economic indicators. This requires substan-
details see Tuhuele et al. 2000). The ‘Adoption Tree’           tial time, highly-skilled staff and is sensitive to the
is a mixture of survey questions and interactive                huge variability in basic economic variables that char-
evaluation tools that gave us information on:                   acterise upland farming systems. A separate study has
1. Farmers’ livelihood activities and forage                    been conducted in collaboration with the FSP to
   development:                                                 assess alternative approaches to measuring impact on
   • farmers’ perceptions on the current and potential          smallholder farms, with the goal of producing a
      future impact of forages;                                 framework for impact assessment that can be imple-
   • their livelihood (e.g. family members, people              mented by development workers (Purcell et al. 2000).
      working on the farm);
   • their livelihood (e.g. agricultural income, off-
      farm income, and own consumption);                                Understanding the Process of
   • their crop and livestock systems (e.g. farm size,                 Forage Technology Development
      cropping system, livestock types, numbers and
      purpose, access to grazing land);                         The ‘Adoption Tree’ has helped us better understand
   • how important livestock are to them and their              the process of forage development in different
      major problems with raising livestock;                    farming systems and countries. Apart from moni-
                                                                toring technology development, it has helped quantify
   • which forages they are developing and how they
                                                                the ‘intermediate outcomes’ (such as adoption and
      are being integrated on farms (e.g. varieties,
                                                                spread of the technologies) that lead towards impacts.
      areas, forage system, and utilisation).
2. Impact of forage technologies:                                  Often these impacts (such as improved household
   • farmers’ perceptions on the current and potential          income) are not easy to measure or attribute to par-
      future impact of forages;                                 ticular technological improvements. This is especially
   • how forages are spreading to new farmers in                the case in smallholder livestock systems where one
      each location;                                            of the main reasons for keeping livestock is to provide
   • how farmers would like to develop their forage             livelihood security. Other impacts are easier to
      systems (helping the development worker                   measure, such as where farmers develop forage tech-
      decide what information and planting materials            nologies to reduce the amount of time they spend each
      might be required).                                       day cutting grass for their penned animals.
   The time needed for conducting the ‘Adoption                    The results of the ‘Adoption Tree’ are not pre-
Tree’ varied from 15 minutes to 1.5 hours depending             sented here, as they have been the basis of many of
on the complexity of the farming system and the                 the papers reporting the experiences of the FSP in
experience of the recorder. In 1999, the ‘Adoption              these Proceedings (e.g. Nacalaban et al. 2000;
Tree’ was conducted with more than 800 farmers at               Ibrahim et al. 2000). However, several common
13 sites in four countries (Table 2).                           lessons emerged from the data, across all farming



                                                          311
systems and countries. Two of the most important                    ‘intermediate outcomes’, others need a clear
lessons are:                                                        understanding of the process of technology devel-
• Regardless of their farming system, almost all                    opment and others may not have a need for
   farmers started by evaluating forage varieties in                recording at all. Finding a compromise to address
   small plots. They wanted answers to questions like               all needs adequately is important in ensuring a
   ‘how well do these plants grow in the dry                        feeling of ownership of the results and the process
   season?’, ‘how easy are they to manage?’ and ‘will               by all stakeholders. Alternatively, different moni-
   my animals eat them?’. Only when they were con-                  toring tools may need to be developed for dif-
   fident with the varieties did farmers experiment                 ferent needs.
   with different ways of integrating them on their               • Monitoring all farmers at the same level of detail
   farms. This may explain why attempts to ‘photo-                  was both impossible and unnecessary. In future,
   copy’ technologies from one location to another                  all farmers will be monitored at a very basic level
   (for example, hedgerows of tree legumes for                      and some (based on stratifying farmers according
   erosion control in sloping lands) often fail. That is,           to wealth, gender and ethnic group) will be moni-
   the technologies cannot be separated from the                    tored in more detail.
   process of active farmers’ involvement in                      • Farmers responded very well to active evaluation
   education, adaptation and adoption.                              needs, especially those based on weighting tech-
• Although forages can provide some substantial                     niques. With weighting, farmers allocate a number
   benefits for natural resource management (e.g.                   of counters to answers which then give not only a
   improving soil fertility, controlling erosion and                ranking but also their relative importance.
   controlling weeds), livestock feeding is normally                Farmers had little difficulty in allocating counters
   the entry point for forages into farming systems.                in quite complex matrices.
   The most successful forage developments have                   • Qualitative responses from farmers are valuable
   occurred at sites where livestock are important to               but must be categorised for entry into the database
   household livelihoods and where feed resources                   to be useful.
   are severely limited.
                                                                                         References
           Some Lessons Learned . . .                             Ibrahim, Truong Tan Khanh and Heriyanto. 2000. Forage
The ‘Adoption Tree’ is being modified from many                      technologies for smallholders in grassland areas. In: Stür,
lessons learned during the first year of field imple-                W.W., Horne, P.M. Hacker, J.B. and Kerridge, P.C. ed.
                                                                     Working with Smallholders: the Key to Adoption of
mentation. These include:
                                                                     Forage Technologies. These Proceedings, see Contents.
• The same people should be involved in field                     Nacalaban, W., Le Van An, Asis, P., Moneva, L. and
   recording, data entry and analysis. Separating                    Balbarino, E. 2000. How do forages fit into smallholder
   these tasks resulted in difficulties in interpreting              farms in mixed upland cropping systems? In: Stür,
   field recording forms and a feeling among the                     W.W., Horne, P.M., Hacker, J.B. and Kerridge, P.C. ed.
   recorders that data collection was ‘just another                  Working with Smallholders: the Key to Adoption of
   job’ in a process they did not own and which did                  Forage Technologies. These Proceedings, see Contents.
   not provide them any benefits.                                 Purcell, T., Nacalaban, W., Gabunada, F. Jr. and Cramb, R.
• Hands-on training of field recorders is critical to                2000. Assessing the impact of agricultural technologies
                                                                     in smallholder farming systems – results from a partici-
   ensure that information collected clearly addresses               patory monitoring and evaluation study on forages in
   the question and is an accurate record of farmers’                Malitbog, northern Mindanao, Philippines. In: Stür,
   comments. Difficulties often arose from different                 W.W., Horne, P.M., Hacker, J.B. and Kerridge, P.C. ed.
   concepts of what ‘accuracy’ is required in the                    Working with Smallholders: the Key to Adoption of
   answers to the questions. Some field recorders                    Forage Technologies. These Proceedings, see Contents.
   found it difficult to judge the amount of informa-             Tuhuele, M., Le Van An, Phengsavanh, P., Ibrahim,
   tion needed to adequately answer the questions.                   Nacalaban, W., Vu Thi Hai Yen, Truong Tan Khanh,
   Active involvement of field recorders in data                     Tugiman, Heriyanto, Asis, P., Hutasoit, R., Phimmasan,
   encoding, inputting and analysis can overcome                     H., Sukan, Ibrahim, T., Bui Xuan An, Magboo, E. and
                                                                     Horne, P.M. 2000. Working with farmers to develop
   these problems.                                                   forage technologies – field experiences from the FSP. In:
• Different stakeholders (e.g. farmers, extension                    Stür, W.W., Horne, P.M., Hacker, J.B. and Kerridge,
   workers, donors, local government) have different                 P.C. ed. Working with Smallholders: the Key to
   needs for information arising from the project.                   Adoption of Forage Technologies. These Proceedings,
   While some stakeholders are interested mainly in                  see Contents.




                                                            312
                            Future Directions

Presentations at this meeting clearly demonstrated that improved forage technologies
can contribute significantly to improving smallholder farming systems by increasing
animal production, reducing labour requirements for feeding ruminants and reducing
soil erosion in sloping agricultural lands. The participatory approach to technology
development has been embraced enthusiastically by development workers involved in
the FSP and resulted in adoption of forage technologies by poor upland farmers.
Involving farmers in technology development is clearly one way forward in helping
them to improve their livelihoods and contribute to better management of the natural
resources in these areas.
  To sustain and accelerate the progress made with participatory approaches, support is
needed on several fronts. There are two groups of people who require further nurturing:
• farmers who are still in early stages of developing well-integrated forage technologies
   into their farming systems; and
• research and extension workers who are adopting participatory approaches in their
   work but do not have the full support of their organisations which often still follow a
   conventional supply-driven approach.
We also need to develop practical methodologies for:
• participatory monitoring and impact assessment to provide continuous feedback to
   researchers and development workers, and
• participatory approaches to scaling-up. There is a danger that extension services and
   development projects take technologies developed using participatory approaches
   and try to ‘extend’ these technologies to other farmers in a conventional supply-
   driven process. This is doomed to fail as technologies need to be adapted to suit local
   needs and conditions, and new participatory approaches to extension are needed to
   scale-up local successes.
  These are some of the challenges lying ahead and we invite readers to join the search
for lasting solutions to these problems. Two projects have recently been approved to
address some of these challenges. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is funding a
3-year Southeast Asia regional project ‘Developing Sustainable Forage Technologies
for Resource-Poor Upland Farmers in Asia’ which builds on the outcomes of the
Forages for Smallholders Project, and AusAID is funding a 5-year bilateral develop-
ment project, the ‘Forages and Livestock Systems Project’, with the Lao PDR.

                                P.C. Kerridge, J.B. Hacker, W.W. Stür and P.M. Horne




                                          320
                                            Participants
AUSTRALIA                             Ben Mullen                            COLOMBIA
                                      School of Land and Food
Geoff Auricht                         University of Queensland              Ann Braun
South Australian Research and         Brisbane, Qld 4072                    CIAT
Development Institute                 Tel: (61-7) 3365 3474                 Apdo. Aereo 6713
PO Box 397                            Fax: (61-7) 3365 1188                 Cali
Adelaide, SA 5001                     Email: b.mullen@mailbox.uq.edu.au     Tel: (57-2) 445 0000
Tel: (61-8) 8303 9498                                                       Fax: (57-2) 445 0073
Fax: (61-8) 8303 9607                                                       Email: a.braun@cgiar.org
Email:                                Tim Purcell
auricht.geoff@saugov.sa.gov.au        School of Natural and Rural Systems   Sam Fujisaka
                                      Management                            CIAT
                                      University of Queensland              Apdo. Aereo 6713
Rob Cramb                             St. Lucia Campus                      Cali
School of Natural and Rural Systems   Brisbane, Qld 4072                    Tel: (57-2) 445 0000
Management                            Tel: (61-7) 3365 2174                 Fax: (57-2) 445 0073
University of Queensland              Fax: (61-7) 3365 9016                 Email: s.fujisaka@cgiar.org
Brisbane, Qld 4072                    Email: t.purcell@mailbox.uq.edu.au
Tel: (61-7) 3365 2967                                                       Michael Peters
Email: r.cramb@mailbox.uq.edu.au                                            CIAT
                                      Max Shelton
                                      School of Land and Food               Apdo. Aereo 6713
Bryan Hacker                          University of Queensland              Cali
CSIRO Tropical Agriculture            Brisbane, Qld 4072                    Tel: (57-2) 445 0000 ext. 3267
120 Meiers Road                       Tel: (61-7) 3365 2541                 Fax: (57-2) 445 0073
Indooroopilly, Qld 4068               Fax: (61-7) 3365 1188                 Email: m.peters-ciat@cgiar.org
Tel: (61-7) 3214 2210                 Email: m.shelton@mailbox.uq.edu.au
Fax: (61-7) 3214 2288
Email: bryan.hacker@tag.csiro.au                                            GERMANY

                                      CHINA, P.R.                           Axel Schmidt
Bob Hunter                                                                  Institute of Plant Production and
CSIRO Tropical Agriculture            Bai Changjun                          Agroecology
PO Box 5545                           Tropical Pasture Research Centre      University of Hohenheim
Rockhampton Mail Centre, Qld 4702     CATAS                                 D-70593 Stuttgart
Tel: (61-7) 4923 8142                 571737 Danzhou, Hainan                Tel: (49-711) 459 4189
Fax: (61-7) 4923 8222                 Tel: (86-890) 330 0440                Fax: (49-711) 459 4207
Email: bob.hunter@tag.csiro.au        Fax: (86-890) 330 0776 or 330 0157    Email: axel.schmidt@mailexcite.com

Peter Lynch                           Wen Shilin
ACIAR                                 Qiyang Red Soil Research Station      INDONESIA
GPO Box 1571                          c/o Dr. Xu Minggang
Canberra, ACT 2601                    Institute of Soils and Fertilizers    Dennis Garrity
Tel: (61-2) 6217 0534                 Chinese Academy of Agricultural       ICRAF Southeast Asia
Fax: (61-2) 6217 0501                 Sciences                              PO Box 161
Email: lynch@aciar.gov.au             30 Baishiqiao Road                    Bogor 16001
                                      100081 Beijing                        Tel: (62-251) 625 415
                                      Tel: (86-746) 384 1027                Fax: (62-251) 625 416
Carol MacLeod                         Email: ba9716@public.hy.hn.cn         Email: icraf-indonesia@cgiar.org
AusAID
Southeast Asia Regional Program                                             Rijanto Hutasoit
(SEARP)                               Shi Quinghua                          Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian
GPO Box 887                           Jiangxi Agricultural University       (BPTP)
Canberra, ACT 2601                    330045 Nanchang City                  Gedong Johor
Tel: (61-2) 6206 4000                 Jiangxi                               Jalan Karyayasa No. 1B
Fax: (61-2) 6206 4880                 Tel: (86-791) 381 3345                Medan 20143, Sumut
Email:                                Fax: (86-791) 381 3740                Tel: (62-61) 798 0013
Carol_Macleod@ausaid.gov.au           Email: shiqh@public.nc.jx.cn          Fax: (62-61) 787 0710




                                                      321
Ibrahim                                LAO PDR                               Wong Choi Chee
Dinas Peternakan TK. l Kaltim          John Connell                          MARDI
Jalan Bhayangkara No. 54,                                                    GPO Box 12301
                                       PO Box 5826
Samarinda 75121                                                              50774 Kuala Lumpur
                                       Viantiane
East Kalimantan                                                              Tel: (60-3) 943 7380
                                       Tel/Fax: (856-21) 315 010
Tel: (62-541) 43921                                                          Fax: (60-3) 948 5053
                                       Email: jconnell@laonet.net
Fax: (62-541) 36228                                                          Email: ccwong@mardi.my
Email: ibrahimfsp@smd.mega.net.id      Peter Horne
                                       Forages for Smallholders Project      Humrawali Khan
Tatang Ibrahim
                                       PO Box 6766                           Department of Agriculture
Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian
                                       Vientiane                             12-17th Floor, Menara Pelita
(BPTP)
                                       Tel: (856-21) 222 796                 Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub Rd.
Gedong Johor
                                       Fax: (856-21) 222 797                 Petra Jaya
Jalan Karyayasa No. 1B
                                       Email: p.horne@cgiar.org              93050 Kuching, Sarawak
Medan 20143, North Sumatra
                                       Bounchanmy Keosavath                  Tel: (60-82) 441 000
Tel: (62-61) 787 0710
                                       Provincial Agriculture and Forestry   Fax: (60-82) 447 821
Fax: (62-61) 787 0710
Email: tatang@indosat.net.id           Office
                                       Luang Phabang Province                MYANMAR
Munief Muchsinin
                                       Tel: (856-21) 212 014
Dinas Peternakan TK. 1 Kaltim
                                       Fax: (856-21) 212 635                 John Dalton
Jl. Bhayangkara No. 54
                                       Soulivanh Novaha                      UNDCP
Samarinda 75121
                                       Provincial Agriculture and Forestry   PO Box 650
East Kalimantan
                                       Office                                Yangon
Tel: (62-541) 41642
                                       Phonesavanh, Xiengkhovang             Tel: (95-1) 512 647 or 512 648
Fax: (62-541) 36228
                                       Province                              Fax: (95-1) 512 646
Jacob Nulik                                                                  Email: undcp.mm@undp.org
                                       Tel: (856-61) 312 138 or 312 019
Naibonat Assessment Institute for
                                       Fax: (856-61) 312 373 or 312 411
Agriculture Technology
                                       Phonepaseuth Phengsavanh              NETHERLANDS
PO Box 21
Kupang                                 Forages for Smallholders Project
                                       PO Box 6766                           Ralph Roothaert
Tel/Fax: (62-380) 833 766
                                       Vientiane                             Wageningen University
Email:
                                       Tel: (856-21) 222 796                 Current address:
bptpnaibonat@kupang.wasantara.net.
                                                                             CIAT c/o IRRI
id                                     Fax: (856-21) 222 797
                                                                             MCPO Box 3127
                                       Email: fsplao@laotel.com
I.K. Rika                                                                    1271 Makati City, Philippines
FAPET                                  Vanthong Phenvichith                  Tel: (63-2) 845 0563
Udayana University                     Livestock Research Centre             Fax: (63-2) 845 0606
Jl. P.B. Sudirman                      National Agriculture and Forestry     Email: r.roothaert@cgiar.org
Denpasar, Bali                         Research Institute (NAFRI)
Tel: (62-361) 222 997                  PO Box 811
                                                                             NEW ZEALAND
Fax: (62-361) 236 021                  Vientiane
                                       Tel: (856-21) 222 796
Warsito Tantowijoyo                                                          Naba Raj Devkota
                                       Fax: (856-21) 222 797
International Potato Center (CIP)                                            Institute of Natural Resources
PO Box 929                             Vene Vongpeth                         Massey University
Bogor                                  National Agriculture and Forestry     PO Box 11222
Tel: (62-251) 317 951                  Research Institute (NAFRI)            Palmerston North
Fax: 62-251) 316 264                   PO Box 811                            Tel: (64-6) 355 4662 ext. 7190
Email: w.tantowijoyo@cgiar.org         Vientiane                             Fax: (64-6) 350 5679
                                       Tel: (856-21) 222 796                 Email: N.R.Devkota@massey.ac.nz
Maimunah Tuhulele
                                       Fax: (856-21) 222 797
Bina Produksi
Direktorate General of Livestock                                             PHILIPPINES
                                       MALAYSIA
Services
Departmen Pertanian                    Aminah Abdullah                       Remedios Acasio
Current address:                       MARDI                                 Research Division
Pd. Jati Murni, Blok I/12              PO Box 154                            Bureau of Animal Industry
Pd. Gede 12431, Bekasi                 15710 Khota Bharu                     Visayas Avenue, Diliman
Tel: (62-21) 844 5229                  Tel: (60-9) 765 2900                  Quezon City
Fax: (62-21) 844 2996                  Fax: (60-9) 765 3900                  Tel: (63-2) 920 4769
Email: fsp-indonesia@cgiar.org         Email: aminahal@mardi.my              Fax: (63-2) 920 5053




                                                       322
Perla Asis                          Alex Castillo                        Rolly Inciong
City Veterinary Office              Bureau of Animal Industry            AusAID
Cogon Market                        Department of Agriculture            Australian Embassy
Cagayan de Oro City                 Visayas Avenue                       5F, Salustiana Tower
Tel: (63-8822) 724 118              Diliman, Quezon City                 Paseo de Roxas
                                    Tel: (63-2) 920 4769                 Makati City
Nelson Badilla                      Fax: (63-2) 920 5053
Municipal Agricultural Office                                            Elmo Jallorina
8513 Malitbog                                                            Cagayan Valley Upland Research
                                    Hildegardo Dagondon                  Outreach Station
Bukidnon
                                    City Veterinary Office               Department of Agriculture – Region 2
                                    Cogon Market                         Aglipay
Edwin Balbarino                     Cagayan de Oro City
Farm and Resource Management                                             Quirino
Institute (FARMI)
ViSCA                               Sergio Darang                        Peter Kerridge
6521-A Baybay, Leyte                CVIARC                               CIAT Regional Office
Tel: (63-53) 335 2433               Regional Department of Agriculture   c/o IRRI
Fax: (63-53) 335 2433               Upi, Gamu                            MCPO Box 3127
Email: vnp-ed@mozcom.com            Isabela                              1271 Makati City
                                                                         Tel: (63-2) 845 0563
                                                                         Fax: (63-2) 845 0606
Patricia Barcelo                    Patricio Faylon
                                                                         Email: p.kerridge@cgiar.org
Mariano Marcos State University     Executive Director
PO Box 2515                         PCARRD
2906 Bacnotan, Ilocos Norte         PO Box 425                           Elaine Lanting
Tel/Fax: (63-72) 242 5641           4030 Los Baños, Laguna               Livestock Research Division
Email: Patschy@hotmail.com          Tel: (63-49) 536 0014 to 19          PCARRD
                                    Fax: (63-49) 536 0016                PO Box 425
                                                                         4030 Los Baños, Laguna
Raul Mora Boncodin                                                       Tel: (63-49) 536 0015 to 19
CIP-UPWARD                          Mauricio Feliciano                   Fax: (63-49) 536 0016
PCARRD Complex                      Land Bank of the Philippines         Email: efl@ultra.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph
4030 Los Baños, Laguna              319 Gil Puyat Avenue
Tel: (63-49) 536 0235               Makati City                          Fernando Lavictoria
Fax: (63-49) 536 1662               Tel: (63-2) 814 0262                 City Veterinary Office
Email: cip-manila@cgiar.org         Fax: (63-2) 814 0187                 Cogon Market
                                                                         Cagayan de Oro City
Rex Buac
                                    Francisco Gabunada Jr.
Provincial Coconut Development                                           Rosalio Lorono
                                    CIAT Forages for Smallholders
Manager                                                                  Department of Agriculture
                                    Project
Philippine Coconut Authority                                             Regional Field Office 10
                                    Current address:
Km 7, Bangkal                                                            Cagayan de Oro City
                                    FARMI, VisCA
8000 Davao City
                                    6521-A Baybay, Leyte
Tel: (63-82) 299 2799                                                    Eduedo Magboo
                                    Tel: (63-53) 335 2630
Fax: (63-82) 241 1701                                                    Livestock Research Division
                                    Email: cftu@mozcom.com
Email: augustusrex@eudoramail.com                                        PCARRD
                                                                         PO Box 425
Jesus Cadao                         Eliza Guliban
                                                                         4030 Los Baños, Laguna
Mag-uugmad Foundation, Inc. (MFI)   Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center   Tel: (63-49) 536 0014 to 19
Rm. #43 Ted Manreza Building        Bansalan                             Fax: (63-49) 536 0016
F. Ramos Street                     Davao del Sur                        Email:
Cebu City                                                                ecmagboo@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph
Tel: (63-32) 253 3474 or 412 5617   Cecilia Honrado
Fax: (63-32) 412 5617               ACIAR Country Manager                Buenaventura Malabayabas
                                    Australian Embassy                   National Dairy Authority
Rogelio Caluya                      Salustiana Tower                     BAI, CPD
Mariano Marcos State University     Paseo de Roxas                       Visayas Avenue
2906 Batac                          Makati City                          Quezon City
Ilocos Norte                        Tel: (63- 2) 754 6209                Tel: (63-2) 926 884 or 929 6749
Tel/Fax: (63-77) 7923 1491          Fax: (63-2) 754 6265                 Fax: (63-2) 929 6755
Email: mmsu-ccs.laoag@amanet.net    Email: Cecilia_honrado@dfat.gov.au   Email: nda-slio@hotmail.com




                                                   323
Junaldo Mantiquilla                  Jeff Palmer                            Werner Stür
Philippine Coconut Authority         Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center     CIAT Forages for Smallholder
Davao Research Center                Bansalan                               Project
Bago-Oshiro                          Davao del Sur                          Los Baños, Laguna
8000 Davao City                      Tel: (63-912) 700 2550                 Current address:
Tel: (63-82) 293 0161                                                       22 Seventh Ave.
Fax: (63-82) 293 0118                                                       Windsor, Qld 4030
Email: pca-drc@interasia.com.ph      Vicente Pardinez
                                                                            Australia
                                     CVIARC                                 Tel: (61-7) 3315 6311
Cesar Marasigan                      Department of Agriculture – Region 2   Fax: (61-7) 3357 8807
Malaybalay Stockfarm                 Upi, Gamu                              Email: w.stur@cgnet.com
Department of Agriculture –          Isabela
Region 10
Malaybalay                                                                  Gaspar Velasco
                                     Renato Pascua                          Municipal Agricultural Office
Bukidnon                             CV-UPROS                               Local Government Unit
                                     Department of Agriculture – Region 2   8513 Malitbog
Karen McAllister
                                     Aglipay                                Bukidnon
IRRI
                                     Quirino
MCPO Box 3127
1271 Makati City
                                                                            Emily Victorio
Tel: (63-2) 845 0563                 Eveslyn Payla                          Bureau of Animal Industry
Fax: (63-2) 845 0606 or 891 1292     City Veterinary Office                 Department of Agriculture
Email:                               Cogon Market                           Visayas Avenue, Diliman
kmcallister@irri.exch.cgiar.org      Cagayan de Oro City                    Quezon City
Agustin Mercado, Jr.                                                        Tel: (63-2) 920 4769
ICRAF                                Danilo Pezo                            Fax: (63-2) 920 5053
Claveria                             ILRI c/o IRRI
Misamis Oriental                     MCPO Box 3127                          Edwin Villar
Tel: (63-8822) 7209                  1271 Makati City                       Livestock Research Division
Fax: (63-0918) 710 0798              Tel: (63-2) 845 0563                   PCARRD
Email: junm@cdo.weblinq.com          Fax: (63-2) 845 0606 or 891 1292       PO Box 425
                                     Email: d.pezo@cgiar.org                4030 Los Baños, Laguna
Steven Musen                                                                Tel: (63-49) 536 0014 to 19
Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center                                          Fax: (63-49) 536 0016
(MBRLC)                              Judith Saguinhon
                                     Municipal Agricultural Officer         Email:
Bansalan
                                     Local Government Unit                  ecvillar@ultra.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph
Davao del Sur
                                     8513 Malitbog
Willie Nacalaban                     Bukidnon
Municipal Agricultural Office
Local Government Unit                William de los Santos                  THAILAND
8513 Malitbog                        Department of Agronomy
Bukidnon                             College                                Chirawat Khemsawat
                                     4031 Laguna                            Animal Nutrition Division
Emma Luisa Orencia                                                          Department of Livestock
                                     Tel: (63-49) 536 2466
CIAT, c/o IRRI                                                              Development
                                     Fax: (63-49) 536 3007
MCPO Box 3127                                                               Phayathai Rd., Rajthewee
                                     Email: wlds@mudspring.uplb.edu.ph
1271 Makati City,                                                           Bangkok 10400
Tel: (63-2) 845 0563                                                        Tel: (66-2) 251 1941 or 250 1314
Fax: (63-2) 891 1292 or 845 0606     Jesus So                               Fax: (66-2) 251 1941
Email: e.orencia@cgiar.org           National Dairy Authority               Email: anddld@a-net.net.th
                                     Osmena Luna St.
Edward Paasa                         Cagayan de Oro City
City Veterinary Office                                                      Reinhardt Howeler
                                     Tel: (63-8822) 855 1166
Cogon Market                                                                CIAT Regional Office
Cagayan de Oro City                                                         c/o Field Crop Research Institute
                                     Luz Soriano                            Department of Agriculture
Raul Palaje                          Department of Animal Science           Bangkhen, Bangkok 10900
Isabela State University             Central Mindanao University            Tel: (66-2) 579 7551 or 940 5541
Cabagan                              8710 Musuan                            Fax: (66-2) 940 5541
Isabela                              Bukidnon                               Email: r.howeler@cgiar.org




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Ganda Nakamanee                      VIETNAM                             Nguyen Manh Dzung
Pakchong Animal Nutrition Research                                       National Institute of Animal
Centre                               Bui Xuan An                         Husbandry (NIAH)
Pakchong                             College of Agriculture & Forestry   Chem, Tu Liem
Nakornratchasima 30130               University of Ho Chi Minh City      Hanoi
Tel: (66-44) 311 612                 Thu Duc                             Tel. (84-4) 828 5022
Fax: (66-44) 314 776                 Ho Chi Minh City                    Fax: (84-4) 834 4775
Email: pcanrc@loxinfo.co.th          Tel: (84-8) 896 3353                Email: niah@netnam.org.vn
Chaisang Phaikaew                    Fax: (84-8) 896 0713
Division of Animal Nutrition         Email: an@hcm.fpt.vn
Department of Livestock
Development                          Le Van An                           Hoang Kim Giao
Phayathai Rd., Rajthewee             Dept. of Science Management and
Bangkok 10400                                                            National Institute of Animal
                                     International Relations             Husbandry (NIAH)
Tel/Fax: (66-2) 251 1941             Hue University of Agriculture and
Email: fsp-thai@ksc.th.com                                               Chem, Tu Liem
                                     Forestry                            Hanoi
                                     24 Phung Hung
UGANDA                                                                   Tel: (84-4) 838 8068
                                     Hue City
Charles S. Wortmann                  Tel: (84-54) 525 049                Fax: (84-4) 834 4775
CIAT                                 Fax: (84-54) 524 923                Email: niah@netnam.org.vn
PO Box 6247                          Email: upland@dng.vnn.vn
Kampala
Tel: (256-41) 567 670
Fax: (256-41) 567 635                Le Hoa Binh                         Truong Tan Khanh
Email: ciatuga@imul.com              National Institute of Animal
                                                                         Agroforestry Faculty
                                     Husbandry (NIAH)
                                                                         Tay Nguyen University
USA                                  Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Susan Kaaria                         Development                         43-K8-T2
Rockefeller Foundation               Chem, Tu Liem                       Ban Me Thuot
420 Fifth Avenue                     Hanoi                               Daklak
NY 10018                             Tel: (84-4) 838 6130 or 834 3267    Tel: (84-50) 868 782
Tel: (1-212) 852 8266                Fax: (84-4) 834 4775                Fax: (84-50) 855 493 or 855 572
Email: skaaria@rockfound.org         Email: fspvietnam@hn.vnn.vn         Email: TanKhanh@dng.vnn.vn




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