STUDY GUIDE : THE MUSIC OF JAPAN Traditional Japanese music genres have long histories but have changed little in hundreds of years. In a modern world, it could be perceived as stagnation, but it is in fact the reflection of the Japanese value of stability. Performances are uniform with great decorum. Music types include court music, musical drama, chamber music, and chant. Traditional Japanese music is performed today in recital halls inside great department stores in the Ginza area of Tokyo. The music is primarily pentatonic with auxiliary pitches. What is a pentatonic scale? How would you describe its sound? Introduction Explain the following terms: Hogaku Sokyoku Ryuteki Gagaku Sankyoku Nokhan Noh Koto Fue Kabuki Shamisen Hichiriki Bunraku Shakuhachi Sho Kabuki (theater) What is the significance of the following: Kabukiza Chobo Kyogenkata Degatari Debayashi O-daiko Geza Nagauta Bunraku (puppet plays) Gidayubushi Chikamatsu Monzaemon Noh (theater) What are the origins of Noh? Who was Zeami Motokiyo? What did he do? Explain the following: Uta Kotobe Hayashi Fushi Taiko Yowagin Kakegoe Tsuyogin Yokyoku Ko-tsuzumi and o-tsuzumi Shinto Music Define the following terms: Mikagura Wagon Shakubyoshi Kagura Kagura-bue Buddhist Music What is Shomyo? What are the Nara and Heian periods? Why are they significant? What is Mahayana Mahayana Buddhism What are the Ryo and ritsu? Sokyoku (koto music) What is the Kumiuta? What is Danmono? What is Jiuta? What are the three part of Tegotomono? Gagaku What are the togaku and komagaku? How did they come to be? What are Kangen and Bugaku? Explain the constituent parts to Jo-ha-kyu? Gagaku Instruments What are the different instruments used in Gagaku? What are role or function does each play in music? Deeper Discussion Generally, in comparison to Japan, how does our culture regard the performance and listening of music 1,000, or even 500-years-old? How can the development of Western opera or musicals be compared to the development of Japanese genres such as noh and kabuki? How may we account for the lack of musical puppet theater in the West, and what might be in its place? How do the practices of sokyoku and sankyoku compare to their contemporary musical counterparts in Europe? What is Gregorian chant? How does it compare with Buddhist chant? How does it contrast it with Shinto music? May we find equivalents to court music in the West? Why or why not? How have women been regarded in musical performance in the West in comparison or in contrast to Japanese women from Edo to the twentieth-century?
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