Child and Adolescent Development Cognitive development

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					Child and Adolescent Development:
       Cognitive development



               Week 2-1
Overview:

   Basic theoretical issues
   Cognitive-Developmental theory (Piaget)
   Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky)
1.Basic theoretical issues

   Definition of development
    –   Certain changes that occur in human beings
        between conception and death
    –   Temporary change caused by a brief ill or drugs is
        not considered part of development
    –   Can be divided into many different aspects,including
        physical development,personal development,social
        development, and cognitive development.
General principles of development

   People develop at different rates
   Development is relatively orderly
   Development takes place gradually
   Development is affected by both heredity and
    environment
2.Piaget’s Cognitive Theory
   Born in Neuchâtel,
    Switzerland, on August 9,
    1896.
   In 1918, received his
    Doctorate in Science
    from the University of
    Neuchâtel.
   In 1952, he became a
    professor at the
    Sorbonne
Background of Cognitive Theory

   Student of biology and zoology
   Learned that survival requires adaptation
   Any individual organism, as well as an entire species,
    must adapt to constant changes in the environment
   Viewed development of human cognition/intelligence
    as the continual struggle of a very complex organism to
    adapt to complex environment
Piaget’s Cognitive Theory:

   Human development described in terms of functions
    and structures
   Functions: inborn biological mechanisms that are the
    same for everyone, remain unchanged during lifetime;
    help construct internal cognitive structures
   Structures: change repeatedly during development
   Schemes = cognitive structures
                      Schemes

   Fundamental aspect of theory
   Not something that a child has, is what a child does
   Relationships between two elements, an object in the
    environment and the child’s reaction to the object
   E.g., Ball - can push it, throw it, mouth it
   Psychological structure, reflects child’s underlying
    knowledge that guides interactions with the world.
                      Schemes

   It is the nature and organization of schemes
    that define a child’s intelligence at a given time.
   Schemes are flexible, typically have a broad
    scope, change over time
Example

   3.5 years child reading the map of China
   Shandong to Shanghai
   Shandong to Beijing
   How will we go from shanghai to beijing to call
    on someone?
   Conclusion: The child merges two schemes
    into a unit
Functions

   Two major functions:
   1) Organization: Cognitive structures are
    related and fitted into the existing system.
    –   Involves integration, not just adding on.
   2) Adaptation: Tendency of the child to fit with
    its environment in ways that promote survival.
    (Sub-processes are assimilation and
    accommodation.)
Piaget’s Cognitive Theory:
           Constructivism


   Children’s knowledge of events in the
    environment are not an exact reproduction of
    those events. Not like a photograph.
   Children shape what they learn from their
    environments and shape it to fit with existing
    schemes.
Stages (periods) of development

   Sensorimotor (0-24 months)
   Preoperational period (Ages 2 to 6 years)
   Concrete operational period (6 - 11 years)
   Formal operations period (11 years -
    adulthood)
Sensorimotor stage (0 to 24 months):


   Six substages
   Reflexes graduate to more flexible action
    patterns
   Show increasing levels of intentional and goal
    directed behavior
   Begin to understand object permanence
   Mental representation develops
   Deferred imitation, make-believe play
Preoperational stage (24 months to
7 years)

   Make-believe play becomes more complex, evolves
    to socio-dramatic play
   Dual representation develops (realize that photos
    represent things in the world)
   Helps preschoolers understand others’ perspectives
   Still quite egocentric
   Animistic thinking
   Conservation and hierarchical classification still
    difficult
Teaching preoperational child

   Use concrete and visual aids
   Short instruction with actions and words
   Pay attention to the inconsistent perspectives
   More hands-on practice
   When learning concepts and language,provide
    a wide range of experiences
Concrete Operational stage (7 to 11
years)

   Thought becomes more logical and organized
   Conservation develops: Shows that kids can
    de-centre and reverse their thinking
   Seriation and inference develops
   Cognitive maps develop
   Cultural practices and education have a
    profound effect at this stage
    Teaching the concrete-operational
    students

   Use concrete props and visual aids
   Give students chances to manipulate and test objects
   Presentation and readings should be brief and well-
    organized
   Use familiar examples to explain complex ideals
   Give opportunities to classify and group objects and
    ideals on increasingly complex levels
   Present questions the need logical,analytical thinking
Formal Operational stage (11 years +):


   Abstract thinking appears
   Deductive reasoning emerges
   Even many university students only think in
    abstract ways on topics with which they have
    extensive experience.
Teaching formal operational students

    Continue to use concrete-operational teaching
     strategies and materials
    Give students the opportunity to explore many
     hypothetical questions
    Give students opportunities to solve problems
     and reason scientifically
    If possible, teach broad concepts, not just
     facts,using materials relevant to the real life
Educational implications

   Children is not “small adults”
   Understanding students’ thinking
   Teaching based on the developmental levels of
    students’ thinking
   Learning is a constructive process
Limitations of Piaget’s Theory

 The trouble with stages(lack of consistency in
  children’s thinking)
 Underestimating children’s abilities
 Children’s trouble with Piagetian tasks can be
  explained by information processing theory
 (neo-Piagetian theories )
 Can’t explain youth’s thinking(post-formal operation)
 Overlooking the effects of culture and social group
3.Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory

   Born on November 5,
    1896 in Byelorussia
    (Soviet Union)
   He was first educated as
    lawyer and a philologist
   He began his career as
    a psychologist in1917
    and only pursued this
    career for 17 years
    before his death from
    tuberculosis in 1934.
Basic viewpoints


   Emphasized the way that values, beliefs, customs, and
    skills of a culture/social group influence children
   Focused on dialogues between children and more
    experienced members of society
   Language leads to self-talk and the development of
    cognition, and later metacognition
   (errors in text p44)
    Vygotsky’s theories


   Cultural tools theory
   Private/self speech theory
   Theory of zone of proximal development
Cultural tools theory

   Social interaction is the origin of individual
    thinking
   Cultural tools,including real tools and symbolic
    tools play very important roles in cognitive
    development
   Higher-order metal processes are mediated by
    psychological tools
      Private speech theory

   Children speak to themselves for self-guidance
   Start doing this openly, then to self (you may
    see their lips move)
   Language forms the foundation for all higher
    cognitive processes
   Children with learning difficulties show more
    private speech over a longer period
Private speech and self-regulation

   First, behavior is regulated by others
   Next, using the same language to regulated
    others’ behavior
   Third , using private speech to regulate ones
    own behavior
   Finally, regulated his/her behavior by silent
    inner speech
   Theory of zone of proximal
development
   A: The area where child can solve a problem
    alone
   B: Problems beyond the children’s capabilities
   C: Zone of proximal development: the area
    where the child can’t solve a problem alone,but
    can be successful under adult guidance or in
    collaboration with a more advanced peer
   Instruction should be given in the ZPD
Implications of Vygotsgy’s theory
for teachers

   Assisted learning
    –   Scaffolding
    –   From heteronomous to autonomous
   The zone of proximal development
    –   Assessment of learning potential
    –   Guide students by explanations,demonstrations,and
        with other students
 Differences between Piaget and
 Vygotsky’s theories

               Piaget   Vygotsky

Background

Course of
Development
Agents of
Development
Implications
   Pause and Discussion


What makes the differences between
Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories?
    Application and Generation

 Analyse   the reasons why your
  English study are relatively
  ineffective.
 Design a suitable project for
  enhancing your English performance.
The   End