PLANNING POLICY GUIDANCE 24 NOISE
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BRIEFING PLANNING POLICY GUIDANCE 24: NOISE This Briefing sheet is intended to provide an introduction to the BASIS OF STANDARDS & MEASUREMENTS general principles and content of Planning Policy Guidance 24 - Noise. The noise exposure categories are expressed as free field values. PPG24 was published in September 1994. It replaces DoE Circular Measurements taken in front of a wall or building facade are typically 10/73 Planning and Noise, and reflects the recommendations of the 3dB higher than free field - the energy of the noise is doubled by the Noise Review Working Party published in October 1990 (HMSO). reflected sound - equating to a 3dB increase. To convert a facade PPG 24 covers what needs to be taken into account when dealing with measurement to free field, deduct 3dB. a planning application in a noisy area, or for a noisy activity. It introduces the concept of Noise Exposure Categories for new DAYTIME NOISE LEVELS - RATIONALE residential development. A|B 55dB(A) Leq is regarded by the World Health Organisation as the maximum day time level before community annoyance sets in. GENERAL PRINCIPLES This is the base level for residential areas: people should be able to • noise is a material consideration in determining planning enjoy their gardens and other open space without noise nuisance. applications B|C Based on the 68dBLA10,18h (facade) threshold for grant schemes, • locate new noise sensitive developments away from noise adjusted for free field, and LAeq 68 - 3dB (free field correction) - 2dB sources (convert to LAeq)= 63dB. • locate new noise generating development away from noise C|D 72dB the maximum external noise level which the noise sensitive development insulation package detailed in the Noise Insulation Regulations can • where impossible, use planning conditions to reduce noise reduce to acceptable internal levels. impact. • avoid locating noisy developments in previously quiet areas. NIGHT TIME NOISE LEVELS - RATIONALE 35dB(A) is viewed by WHO as the maximum desirable noise level for NOISE POLICIES IN DEVELOPMENT PLANS sleep. The NECs below have been calculated on the basis of the type of Development plans should reflect this guidance and identify suitable measure required to achieve a 35dB(A) interior noise level. types of development and noise reduction measures. A|B An open window is assumed to give 13dB(A) noise reduction. Planning applications must be determined in accordance with the 35+13=48dB(A)-3dB(A)FFC= 45dB(A) development plan (by virtue of S54A TCPA ‘90 inserted by S26 PCA B|C Assuming noise reduction from closed double glazed ‘91) - unless there are other material considerations: window…35+25=60 - 3dB FFC = 57 dB. • policies may apply generally or to specific areas. C|D 66dB(A) above this level of noise, the standard noise insulation • policies should indicate what will be done where conflict package will not be able to achieve the WHO 35dB (A) standard. between types of development may arise. Noise Sensitive Development: REFERENCES Noise Review Working Party Oct 1990 HMSO ISBN 0 11 752343 7 Houses, Schools - recognised by Secretary of State Calculation of Road Traffic Noise, HMSO, DoT/Welsh Office 1988 Hospitals, Other - as defined by planning authority Calculation of Railway Noise, London, HMSO, DoT ‘95 Noisy Development: Design Manual for Roads and Bridges Vol 11 Section 3, Part 7 - Roads, Railways, Airports, Certain types of industry Traffic Noise and Vibration NOISE MITIGATION METHODS OTHER CONTENTS • Engineering – source reduction, sound insulation, barriers Detailed Guidance on the Assessment of Noise from Different Sources • Lay-out – separation, exploitation of natural barriers or - road, rail, air, industrial, construction, sporting/recreation, landfill. existing buildings Examples of Planning Conditions • Administrative – control of operating time of source, range Specifying Noise limits - planning conditions on emissions from new of activities, or setting acceptable noise limit sources. Insulation of Buildings against external noise - information on some of DEVELOPMENT CONTROL the available techniques and their effectiveness • Planning authorities must ensure that development does not Information on Noise Control Regimes - such as the EPA 1990, Noise cause an unacceptable degree of disturbance and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993, EC Directives, Building Regulations • However the planning system should not unjustifiably etc. obstruct new development 1st Edition - Consultation Draft - Robert Huxford July 1996 • intensification or change of use may influence noise from a development, LAs may wish to impose conditions Noise Exposure Categories A B C D Influence on planning decision noise not normally a taken into account - conditions may be normally refused, unless no alternatives normally refused factor required to protect against noise exist conditions required Road <55 55-63 63-72 >72 <45 45-57 57-66 >66 Rail Traffic <55 55-66 66-74 >74 <45 45-59 59-66 >66 Air <57 57-66 66-72 >72 <48 48-57 57-66 >66 Mixed sources <55 55-63 63-72 >72 <45 45-57 57-66 >66 Values are free field noise levels measured in -dB(A)Leq (Air includes ground reflection) Frequent individual night-time noise The upper value gives the daytime noise threshold (0700-2300) events above 82dB LAmax The lower value gives the night time noise threshold (2300-0700) Briefing Sheets are provided free of charge to help increase knowledge and awareness. They may be freely copied. Care is taken to ensure information is correct, however readers are advised to consult source documents for authoritative information. The Institution of Civil Engineers is a registered charity No 210252, 1 Great George Street, London SW1P 3AA.