222 2000. Books: 1748. Adair, Douglass G. The Intellectual Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy: Republicanism, the Class Struggle, and the Virtuous Farmer. Ed. Mark E. Yellin. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2000. pp. xxvi, 185. First publication of a classic Yale Ph.D. dissertation of 1943 that critiqued the economic determinism of Charles Beard and argued for the importance of ideas about republicanism, liberalism and classical agrarianism as well as for the importance of the influence thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment had on members of the founding generation, particularly Jefferson and Madison. Adair’s dissertation in turn exercised a powerful influence on future generations of historians of the Revolution and Early Republic. Introduction by Joyce Appleby. 1749. Addis, Cameron Clark. “The Religious and Political War over Jefferson’s Educational Vision, 1760-1845.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of Texas, 2000. pp. 310. DAI 62(2000), 734-A. Why TJ promoted public education in the 1770s, why he wanted it to be free of organized religion, and how his vision was only partly realized at the University of Virginia. After retiring from the presidency, TJ’s interest in educational reform turned from lower levels to the university, which he hoped would counter a trend toward nationalist politics. After his death the University became a center of states-rights and pro-slavery ideology. His desire to promote religious freedom and science was compromised after his death by an insistent Protestant presence. 1750. Aideni. Jiefeixun she ji Meiguo (The Crucial Design of the USA in Thomas Jefferson’s Way). [Huhehaote]: Nei Menggu ren min chu ban she, 2000. pp. 831. Not seen. Held in the library at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. 1751. Armstrong, Jennifer. Thomas Jefferson: Letters from a Philadelphia Bookworm. Delray Beach, FL: Winslow Press, 2000. pp. 117. Juvenile fiction. 12 year old Amelia Hornsby corresponds with TJ about current events, including the Lewis and Clark expedition, new inventions, and life at Monticello. 1752. Banks-Young, Shay and Julia Jefferson-Westerinen. The Affairs of Race in America: A Conversation in Black and White. Norfolk, VA: Old Dominion University, 2000. VHS videocassette. Under the auspices of “The President’s Lecture Series,” a discussion between two descendants of Sally Hemings about the relations between TJ and Hemings and those between their descendants. 1753. Barker, David Michael. “Thomas Jefferson and the Founding of the University of Virginia: An American Age of Reason, Religion, and Republicanism.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 2000. pp. 485. DAI 61/04A, 1325-26. Examines TJ’s views concerning “theism, deism, science, human reason, morality, and the controversial ideological domain of antisectarianism” at play in his agenda for the 223 University of Virginia. Puts them in context of contemporary intellectual controversy, particularly the religious writings of Thomas Paine, and attempts to show that TJ’s objections to the possible roles of sectarians in the University does not mean he was an atheistic foe to religion itself. 1754. Barrett, Robert. “Revolutionary Diplomats: An Historical-Literary Essay on the Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson and John and Abigail Adams, 1785-1788.” M.A. thesis, Boise State University, 2000. pp. vii, 149. Not seen. 1755. Brown, Cinnamon. “Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: A Historiography.” M.A. thesis, University of West Alabama, 2000. pp. 54. Not seen. 1756. Crotty, Gene. The Jefferson Trivia: The Many Facets of a Fascinating Man. Charlottesville: The Author, 2000. pp. vii, 125. The inessential TJ, but amusing in its way. 1757. Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. Jefferson vs. Hamilton: Confrontations That Shaped a Nation. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 2000. pp. xiii, 186. A volume in the Bedford Series in History and Culture; gives a narrative of the conflict between TJ and Hamilton as presented in their own words, those of other contemporaries, and latter scholars, the whole shaped by skillful commentary on selections. 1758. De Gregorio, Jorge. My Head and My Heart: Sex, Love, and the Unconscious. New York: Random House, 2000. pp. 304. Freudian psychoanalyst interprets “improper sexual relationships” of TJ with Sally Hemings and Bill Clinton with Monica Lewinsky. Claims that both men succumbed to these relationships in order to return to “potent” leadership, in TJ’s case authorizing the Louisiana Purchase. 1759. Devanny, John Francis, Jr. “Commerce, Credit, and Currency: Continuity and Differentiation in Jeffersonian Political Economy, 1760-1848.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of South Carolina, 2000. pp. 270. DAI 62(2001), 737-A. Argues that the economic program associated with TJ and the Republican Party emerged from a variety of sources, including historical experience of the Revolution in America and in Virginia, values of Virginia’s commercial agrarian society, and the dictates of a shifting political world of the 1790s. Opposition to Federalist policies crystallized commitments to free trade, commercial reciprocity, elimination of the federal debt, specie currency, and divorce between the federal government and the Bank of the United States. Pragmatic concerns led TJ to compromise on the Bank issue, and John Taylor of Caroline and Albert Gallatin attempted to construct alternatives to Federalist policies. 1760. Ellis, Joseph J. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. New York: Knopf, 224 2000. pp. xi, 288. TJ discussed throughout in a lively, readable account of politics and nation-building in the young republic organized around TJ, Hamilton, Burr, Washington, Adams. Chapters contextualize important incidents in the decade or so after the Constitution’s ratification. Chapter Two focuses on TJ’s dinner with Madison and Hamilton that supposedly led to the compromise on assumption of state debts and the location of the capitol. Chapter Three, “The Silence,” on the strategy of not discussing the issue of slavery as a way to preserve the union, with TJ being an important player in it. Chapter Four, “The Collaborators,” considers the partnership of John and Abigail Adams as well as that of TJ and Madison, and the final chapter looks at the friendship between TJ and Adams. Author restates the interpretation of TJ as a deceptive and self-deceptive person previously offered in his biographical study of TJ, essentially an Adams family interpretation. TJ is “self-deceptive” when he fails to see the facts in the same way the author does, whereas Adams merely allows his “vanity” to get the better of him. 1761. Ellis, Joseph, J. ed. Thomas Jefferson: Genius of Liberty. New York: Viking Studio, in association with the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 2000. pp. xxii, 182. Introduction by Garry Wills, essays by Joseph J. Ellis, Annette Gordon-Reed, Pauline Maier, Charles A. Miller, Peter S. Onuf, all listed separately below. 1762. Engeman, Thomas, ed. Thomas Jefferson and the Politics of Nature. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. pp. ix, 218. Collection of essays on TJ’s thought. Described separately below. 1763. Ferling, John. Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. pp. xxiv, 392. Narrative history of the American Revolution that seeks to recenter the importance of the relationship between leaders and historical outcomes, focusing on three men who held some of the most crucial posts at the most crucial times. Critical of TJ, assesses Adams as the most importantly underrated figure. Finds TJ’s contribution to the American rebellion and military victory the least vital of the three men, but, ironically, his powerful language and his efforts on behalf of religious freedom may have touched more lives than anything Washington or Adams did. 1764. Foster, Eugene. The Intersection of Science and History: DNA and the Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings Story. Charlottesville: Television News Office, University of Virginia, 2000. VHS cassette, running time 30 minutes. Lecture given on September 27, 2000 sponsored by the University of Virginia Women’s Club. Describes participation in the DNA study of descendants of TJ and Hemings, and explains the assumptions upon which the study was based. Concludes that TJ was probably the father of Eston Hemings but not of Thomas Woodson. 1765. Fouché, Nicole. Franklin et Jefferson, aux sources de l’amitié franco-américaine, 17761806. Paris: Michel Houdiard, 2000. pp. 102. Explores the cultural, scientific, and philosophical interests of TJ and Franklin, the first 225 two official representatives of the United States in France and men who were Francophiles who did not let their appreciation for France interfere with their understanding of the interests of their native country. In French. 1766. Gabriel, Rebecca Joy. Interlude with Sally Hemings: Diary of a Spiritual Healing. Pfafftown, NC: Free to Soar Enterprises, 2000. pp. 123. Channeling Sally Hemings, who engages the author in dialogue. Not seen. 1767. Haid, Charles, director. Sally Hemings: An American Scandal. Dog Run Productions, dist. by Artisan Home Entertainment, 2000. VHS videocassette, running time 3 hours. Starring Sam Neill, Carmen Ejogo, Mare Winningham, Diahann Carroll, Mario Van Peebles, Rene Auberjonois. Made for TV. 1768. Jefferson Lives: A Campaign for Monticello in the Twenty-First Century. Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 2000. [pp. 12]. Brochure prepared for fund-raising campaign, with note on TJ’s life, the significance of his ideas about democracy, liberty, and the freedom of the human mind. 1769. Jefferson, Thomas. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 28, January 1794 to February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. pp. xxxix, 683. Includes papers from TJ’s brief retirement after resigning as Secretary of State, effective January 1, 1794. These cover his efforts to put his farms into order and to improve his financial situation. Despite his claim that he was no longer interested in politics, correspondence from his friends kept him informed about Republican activities, as did a subscription to Benjamin Franklin Bache’s Aurora. 1770. Jenkinson, Clay and Hal Bidlack. Jefferson and Hamilton: A Divergence of Visions. Colorado Springs, CO: Community Video Center/Pikes Peak Library District, 2000. VHS videocassette, running time ca. 90 min. Jenkinson as TJ and Bidlack as Hamilton present their differing views of government. Introduced by Lt. Col. Anne Campbell. 1771. Jones, Veda Boyd. Thomas Jefferson: Author of the Declaration of Independence. Broomall: Chelsea House Publishing, 2000. pp. 80 Juvenile biography, aimed at ages 9-12 but seems possibly suitable for younger readers. In a series on “Revolutionary Leaders” and focuses on public life. Not much on slavery, Sally Hemings, or any other problematic aspects of TJ. 1772. Kennedy, Roger G. Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson: A Study in Character. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000. pp. xix, 476. Examines from the standpoint that “politics is an extension of morality” the three men as involved with each other in political and personal lives that might provide “lessons useful to the present.” Sees TJ as a great man, a competent leader, but with basic flaws of character. Beginning with contemporary (and partisan) views of him as “sly” and 226 “devious,” interrogates TJ’s actions closely and offers speculative readings of motives. More nearly takes Burr and Hamilton at their own self-estimates, particularly Burr. Has the virtue, however, of looking at the three in terms of similarities of attitudes, social situations, ambitiousness, etc. that are often obscured by more narrow biographical treatments. 1773. Lanier, Shannon and Jane Feldman. Jefferson’s Children: The Story of One American Family. New York: Random House, 2000. pp. 144. In the wake of the DNA report suggesting that TJ had children with Sally Hemings, a descendant of Madison Hemings interviews and reports on other members of the Jefferson family, including descendants both through his daughter Martha and through his relationship with Sally Hemings. Includes an introduction by Lucian K. Truscott, IV, and interviews with Dr. Eugene Foster and Daniel Jordan. Offers an interesting view of race relations at the end of the twentieth century, one view at least, and insights into the publicity generated by the release of the DNA report. 1774. Lay, K. Edward. The Architecture of Jefferson’s Country: Charlottesville and Albemarle County, Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000. pp. xiv, 362. Discusses over 800 buildings in the course of considering TJ’s architectural legacy on his native region. Chapters on “Thomas Jefferson and His Builders” and “The University of Virginia and the Jeffersonian Legacy” particularly address TJ’s own contributions; the first examines the importance of the network of builders and craftsmen he imported, encouraged, or patronized in the architectural heritage of the region, and the second looks at subsequent developments at his University site. An important study of TJ’s architectural achievement and influence. 1775. Ledgin, Norm. Diagnosing Jefferson: Evidence of a Condition That Guided His Beliefs, Behavior, and Personal Associations. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, 2000. pp. vii, 254. Argues that TJ suffered from Asperger’s Syndrome, a claim that would seem rather difficult to prove. A diagnostic criteria for Asperger’s that is central to the the author’s argument is that “The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.” Ledgin thinks that TJ’s relationship with Sally Hemings is a key part of such impairment. Also cites TJ’s “oddities” such as his fascination with lists and numbers. 1776. Lennon, Thomas, and Shelby Steele. Frontline:Jefferson’s Blood. PBS Video, 2000. VHS videocassette, running time 90 minutes. Examines TJ’s life in view of the information now all but proving true the rumors about his relationship with Sally Hemings. Follows descendants of TJ and Hemings as they undergo DNA testing and “try to sort out their place along America’s blurred color line.” Produced and directed by Thomas Lennon. Aired on the Frontline program on May 2, 2000 1777. McMurry, Rebecca L. and McMurry, James F., Jr. Jefferson, Callender, and the Sally 227 Story: The Scandalmonger & the Newspaper Wars of 1802. Toms Brook, VA: Old Virginia Books, 2000. pp. vii, 123. On James T. Callender’s publication of the rumors about TJ’s relationship with Sally Hemings. Includes a biographical sketch of Callender and reprints the original newspaper reports. Another attempt to discredit the implications of the DNA report by focusing on Callender’s disreputable history. 1778. Montgomery, M. R. Thomas Jefferson and the Gun Men: How the West Was Almost Lost. New York: Crown, 2000. pp. vi, 333. A breezy account of exploration and enterprise in the Louisiana Territory; TJ sends off Lewis and Clark and Zebulon Pike, and has to deal with Aaron Burr and his schemes. 1779. Moore, Chris, host. Thomas Jefferson & Sally Hemings: A Family Conversation. Columbus, OH: WOSU-TV/PBS Adult Learning Satellite Service, 2000. VHS cassette, running time 27 minutes. Roundtable discussion about TJ and Hemings by descendants Shay Banks-Young, Julia Jefferson Westerinen, Lucian K. Truscott IV, and Tina Andrews. 1780. Nordic Software. Thomas Jefferson. Lincoln, NE: Nordic Software, 2000. CD disc. An instructional interactive multimedia program that introduces young people to TJ, his achievements (particularly the Declaration of Independence), and his world with text and games. Requires Windows 95 or later, Mac system 7.0 or later. 1781. Onuf, Peter. Jefferson’s Empire: The Language of American Nationhood. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000. pp. xi, 250. An analysis of TJ’s political thought that argues for the importance of his vision of an empire of liberty—a federated nation of republics that could assert its rights before the world. Sees TJ as a “sentimental nationalist” who believed that the individual state republics and the individual citizens within them would be held together by recognition of their harmonious interests, common principles, and reciprocal affections. Most of the individual chapters have appeared earlier in various journals or collections. Chapter 2, which appears for the first time here, examines TJ’s understanding of the principle of federalism as a collection of republican states bound together into a republican empire, based upon his idealized version of the old regime as he sketched it out in A Summary View of the Rights of British America. Thoughtful, complex discussion of TJ’s thought that repays careful reading, although ultimately it may attempt to offer a too rationalized, logically coherent account of that thought rather than giving sufficient recognition of its historical and imaginative contingency. 1782. Paxton, Glenn. Monticello. [Santa Monica, CA]: L.A. Theater Works, 2000. 2 sound discs (recordings), running time 95 minutes. An opera about the scandal that erupts in the White House and in the national press when TJ’s longtime love affair with Sally Hemings is exposed. Music by Paxton, libretto by Leroy Aarons, directed by John Rubenstein. 228 1783. Rimel, Rebecca W. Jefferson’s Legacy: A Civic Responsibility. VHS tape. Charlottesville: University of Virginia: Television News Office, 2000. Running time, 26 minutes. Lecture given in the Rotunda Dome Room on November 3, 1999, sponsored by the Women’s Center of the University of Virginia. 1784. Ronda, James P. Jefferson’s West: A Journey with Lewis and Clark. Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Foundation, 2000. pp. 80. A volume in the Monticello Monograph Series. Offers a good introduction for the general reader of TJ’s interest in the West and his involvement with the Lewis and Clark expedition. Emphasizes TJ’s recognition that the Lewis and Clark expedition was about knowledge and knowing, beyond all of the important geopolitical implications. 1785. Safire, William. Scandalmonger, A Novel. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000. pp. 496. Historical novel on James Callender’s career as polemicist in America, first in employ of TJ and the Jeffersonians, then in opposition to them. Shows Callender in his selfdescribed role as a “hammer of truth,” TJ as duplicitous and devious in his use of the press and in his personal life, particularly in regard to his behavior with John Walker’s wife and his later clumsy apology. 1786. Salgo, Sandor. Thomas Jefferson: Musician and Violinist. Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Foundation, 2000. pp. 75. A volume in the Monticello Monograph Series. An important contribution to the small body of work on TJ and music. Written for a general reader, it covers TJ’s musical interests but also presents detailed accounts of performances, instruments, and musical literature in his collections and in those of his family. Useful and informative. 1787. Sheldon, Garrett Ward. Jefferson and Atatürk: Political Philosophies. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2000. pp. xi, 139. A comparative study of the political theories of TJ and Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey. Finds similarities in their beginnings in an imperial setting, involvement in wars of national independence, establishment of republics, freedom of religion, public education, and economics. Devotes a chapter to each of these topics and an epilogue to philosophical legacies. Not surprisingly, has more to say about TJ than Atatürk, but even on TJ the edges are rounded, e.g. “Thomas Jefferson was a devout Christian, but he insisted that religious freedom was essential to true religion.” 1788. Sheldon, Garrett Ward and Dreisbach, Daniel L., eds. Religion and Political Culture in Jefferson’s Virginia. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. pp. xiii, 236. Essays describing religious culture in Jefferson’s Virginia and the theological and philosophical influences on TJ and Madison and their thinking about church-state relations. Individual essays are described separately below. 1789. Spaniola, Joseph T. Thomas Jefferson, Life Lines. D.M.A. thesis, University of North 229 Texas, 2000. pp. 302. DAI 62(2000), 3226-A. Score of a five movement work for vocal quartets and chamber orchestra based on excerpts from TJ’s letters, with analysis by composer and bibliographic references. Perhaps the most ambitious musical representation of TJ. 1790. Stanton, Lucia. Free Some Day: The African-American Families of Monticello. [Charlottesville]: The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 2000. pp. 192, unpaginated genealogical charts. The most extensive piece of research published to date on the African-American community at Monticello during TJ’s lifetime. Brings together research in primary documents and archaeology and looks both at the larger issues of TJ’s relationships with his slaves and the experiences of particular persons and families. Looks at Jupiter and his wife, Suck, George and Ursula, the Hern family, the Hubbard brothers, and the Gillette family. 1791. Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation Research Committee. Report on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 2000. pp. 10. A committee of Memorial Foundation staff members evaluated the 1998 DNA findings of Dr. Eugene Foster and associates. They conclude that the Dr. Foster’s study met the standards of the scientific community and produced valid results that indicate “a high probability that Thomas Jefferson fathered Eston Hemings, and that he most likely was the father of all six of Sally Hemings’s children appearing in Jefferson’s records.” The report also concludes that “[m]any aspects of this likely relationship between Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson are, and may remain, unclear,” particularly in regard to the identity of Thomas C. Woodson and his possible relationship to Hemings and TJ. However, the implications of the TJ-Hemings relationship should be explored and “used to enrich the understanding and interpretation of Jefferson and the entire Monticello community.” Includes eleven separately paginated appendices that present supporting materials and relevant primary documents. Subsequently, McKenzie Wallenborn, M.D. issued a minority report claiming that the committee’s report goes too far in claiming that the evidence “substantiates” TJ’s paternity of all the children; Lucia Stanton responded on behalf of the Foundation to the minority report, contending that Dr. Wallenborn’s criticisms had been taken into account during the committee’s deliberations. 1792. Thomas Jefferson. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 2000. pp. 29. Brochure to accompany an exhibit at the Library of Congress that focused on the written legacy of TJ, traced from his early days in Piedmont Virginia to his continuing and expanding influence throughout the world. 1793. Van DeMille, Oliver. A Thomas Jefferson Education: Teaching a Generation of Leaders for the Twenty-first Century. Cedar City, UT: George Wythe College Press, 2000. pp. 205. In spite of the title, this has very little to do with TJ. A guide for home schoolers and autodidacts that subscribes to the ideas of Allan Bloom in The Closing of the American 230 Mind, it proposes TJ’s studies with George Wythe as a model education of reading great (and good) books. Simplistic notions of reading and moral development, e.g. “good” nations have good “national books” like Shakespeare’s plays or Dante’s Divine Comedy while “bad” nations have bad “national books” like The Communist Manifesto. 1794. Van Ens, Jack R. How Jefferson Made the Best of Bad Messes. Avon, CO: Majesty Ministries, 2000. pp. 116. Argues that TJ’s religious convictions guided his life through difficult times and that his example might be usefully consulted in the present day. Recognizes the difference between TJ’s ethical Christianity and the author’s more theocentric beliefs, but often blurs the difference. Presents, approvingly, TJ as a liberal Christian, wary of denominationalism, ideologues, etc., and finds analogies between Federalist attacks on TJ and recent conservative attacks on Bill Clinton. 1795. Weisberger, Bernard A. America Afire: Jefferson, Adams, and the Revolutionary Election of 1800. New York: William Morrow, 2000. pp. vi, 345. Places the events of the election of 1800 in context of political struggles of the 1790s. Readable, competent popular history. Tends to use the term “nationalist” somewhat uncritically as an antonym for believers in rights of state governments, but TJ and the later Madison would certainly be “nationalists” under many definitions, even if they asserted principles of states rights. 1796. White, John Kenneth and Shea, Daniel M. New Party Politics: From Jefferson and Hamilton to the Information Age. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 2000. pp. xvii, 333. TJ discussed throughout but never in any extensive detail at any one point. An analysis of political parties in the U.S. as a struggle between Hamiltonian Nationalism and Jeffersonian Localism. Offers a somewhat reductionist view of TJ’s thinking in the interest of setting up an interpretive strategy for party politics. 1797. Zhang, Yukun. Jiefeixun. Ürümchi: Shinjang Universiteti Năshriyati, 2000. “Tüzgüchi, Jav Yükun, Ma Shoyăn; tărjimă Osmanjan Pavul, Ibrahim Nimaz.” Translation into Uighur of a text originally in Chinese. 1798. Zielinski, Veronica. “More Than Four Walls: The Conceptual Relationship Between Architecture and Democracy as Envisioned by Thomas Jefferson and George Washington.” B.A. thesis. Lake Forest College, 2000. pp. iii, 93. Not seen. Essays: 1799. Allen, Jodie. “Rights and Wrongs,” The New Republic 223(July 3, 2000), 6. Ever since TJ appealed to “unalienable rights” in the Declaration, Americans have been attempting to add to the list. Discusses novel claims made in recent years. 1800. Allgor, Catherine. “President Thomas Jefferson in Washington City” in Parlor Politics In 231 Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a City and a Government. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000. 4-47. Examines TJ’s use of forms of private social life as instruments of public, political life. Although he was deeply suspicious, even hostile, to women’s involvement in political life such as occurred in European courts, he was unable to negotiate social occasions in Washington without the presence of women. One of the best discussions of TJ’s attitudes toward women, although fails to give enough credit to his friendships, even affection for, some smart, opinionated women and over-emphasizes his controlling, manipulative characteristics without considering sufficiently the complexity of his commitment to republican values. 1801. Anderson, Douglas. “Subterraneous Virginia: The Ethical Poetics of Thomas Jefferson,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 33(2000), 233-49. Explores the “psychological underworld” in Notes on the State of Virginia as revealed by TJ’s imagery of interiors and exteriors, observed and measurable surfaces and mysterious, hidden internal spaces and psychological states. Argues for connections between TJ’s own internal contradictions and the “calculated intersections of inward and outward experience” portrayed in Notes. 1802. Appleby, Joyce. “Economics: The Agrarian Republic” in Engeman, Thomas, ed. Thomas Jefferson and the Politics of Nature. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. 143-63. Reprints 1982 essay, “Commercial Farming and the ‘Agrarian Myth’ in the Early Republic.” 1803. Baker, J. Wayne. “Faces of Federalism: From Bullinger to Jefferson,” Publius 30(no. 4, 2000), 25-41. Argues that 18th-century political federalism was rooted in the covenant philosophy of early Reformed Protestantism in Zurich. Looks at the progression in federalist thought that concludes in TJ’s Declaration and in the Constitution. Roots, maybe, immediate sources, no. 1804. Ball, Terence. “’The Earth Belongs to the Living’: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Intergenerational Relations,” Environmental Politics 9(Summer, 2000), 61-77. The topic of intergenerational relations and responsibilities is not new, although its selfconscious and systematic elaboration is relatively recent, notable in the thinking of Kant, TJ, and Thomas Paine. Kant stressed the debt owed to past generations for their improvements in knowledge, science, art, etc., whereas TJ reversed the direction of responsibility in his letter to Madison proclaiming that the earth belongs only to the living “in usufruct.” Madison shredded TJ’s logic, but TJ’s ideas are provocative and “fruitful.” Paine asserted a libertarian absolutism, denying that the present generation was responsible to either past or future, but TJ’s “in usufruct” points to a responsibility to deliver a usable world to future generations, espousing less an “intergenerational justice” than an “intergenerational trusteeship” that resonates with contemporary environmentalists’ claims. 232 1805. Behdad, Ali. “Founding Myths of the Nation, or What Jefferson and Hamilton Forgot about Immigration,” Aztlan 25(no. 2, 2000), 143-49. Post-colonial TJ. Discusses the “amnesia” of TJ’s comments about immigration in his first inaugural and of Hamilton in his response. Accepts Hamilton’s charge that TJ “forgets” the hostility of the “savages’” reception of the Pilgrims, without realizing that it was considerably more complex, and friendly, than Hamilton realizes. Sees TJ’s later comments, which “forget” his own earlier comments on immigration in Notes, as driven by economic interests, desire to populate western lands. This also seems somewhat off, since the Louisiana Purchase lay in the future. Hamilton “forgets” his own status as immigrant, and both narratives repress “the uprooting of communities.” 1806. Beiswanger, William L. “Thomas Jefferson and the Art of Living Out of Doors,” The Magazine Antiques, 157(April, 2000), 594-605. On TJ’s personal spaces at Monticello and how he opened them up to the adjoining piazza through his “porticles,” as well as blinds, etc., that let light and air into his rooms while preserving his privacy. Also discusses other arrangements for using the piazza, the gardens, etc. Well informed, usefully illustrated. 1807. Beliles, Mark A. “The Christian Communities, Religious Revivals, and Political Culture of the Central Virginia Piedmont, 1737-1813” in Sheldon, Garrett Ward and Dreisbach, Daniel L., eds. Religion and Political Culture in Jefferson’s Virginia. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 3-40. Describes the religious life of TJ’s section of Virginia and notes his support for it and for those religious leaders who defined themselves as republicans. These tended to be evangelical in orientation, bearing out the claims of Allen Heimert about the relationship between evangelicalism and revolutionary sympathy. Not too much directly on TJ, but numerous references to his connections to the various religious communities in his neighborhood are valuable. 1808. Breig, James. “Thomas Jefferson Orders an Orrery: Worlds of Patience and a Model of the Solar System,” Colonial Williamsburg 22(Autumn, 2000), 34-38. On December 26, 1792, TJ ordered a small mechanical model of the solar system, an orrery, from John Jones of London, a maker of scientific instruments. Background on the invention and popularity of orreries. Recounts the difficulties TJ had in obtaining delivery and carriage to Monticello. 1809. Buckley, Thomas E., “The Use and Abuse of Jefferson’s Statute: Separating Church and State in Nineteenth-Century Virginia,” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 41-64. Examines interpretations and applications of TJ’s principle of the separation of church and state in terms of the lived experience of 19th-century Virginians. Legislatures zealously avoided privileging any sect, going so far as to prohibit religious groups who wanted to charter colleges from including chairs of theology and refusing to incorporate any religious group. Yet, non-sectarian religious expressions in the schools, at least 233 those of a Protestant nature, were allowed. Concludes that as the meaning of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom unfolded in Virginia, it changed in ways that were culturally contextualized. 1810. Buhler, M. K. “Restoration of a Retreat: Tour Thomas Jefferson’s Cherished Poplar Forest Plantation,” Woodall’s Camperways (July, 2000), 18-19. On Poplar Forest. 1811. Burstein, Andrew. “Jefferson’s Rationalizations,” William and Mary Quarterly 57(2000), 183-97. Argues that TJ was able to make his own sexual conduct “comfortable to reason” by accepting contemporary scientific definitions of sensibility and the medical implications of those theories. Thus, TJ’s relationship with Sally Hemings was probably in his eyes simply a matter of sexual accommodation, concubinage, and not a love affair. 1812. Camp, Stephanie M. H. “Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson,” Mississippi Quarterly 53(2000), 275-83. Review essay on A. Gordon-Reed’s book on TJ and Sally Hemings and on the volume of essays edite by Jan Lewis and Peter Onuf. Sees the books as particularly enlightening on the complex nature and attitudes toward race and racial mixture in the U.S. 1813. Castronovo, Russ. “Within the Veil of Interdisciplinary Knowledge? Jefferson, Du Bois, and the Negation of Politics,” New Literary History 31(2000), 781-804. Focus of essay is on theoretical implications of and a critique of the concept of academic interdisciplinarity. In this context TJ is proclaimed as “among the earliest practitioners of American Studies” in his Notes on the State of Virginia. However, his version of interdisciplinarity exposes its affinity for a liberalism that “sidesteps the inherent disagreement and antagonism of democratic striving.” By trying to establish a consensus of competing perspectives, this sort of liberal interdisciplinarity can “predispose inquiry to quietism.” Discusses (especially on pp. 790-93) TJ’s thinking about slavery as ultimately a “political indecision” that fails his radical feelings about equality. “Only when Jefferson thinks in a mode other than disciplinarity or interdisciplinarity does a principled political position emerge. As he moves from knowledge to sentiment, … Jefferson expresses a belief … based on an affective narrative.” 1814. Ceaser, James W. “Natural Rights and Scientific Racism” in Engeman, Thomas, ed., Thomas Jefferson and the Politics of Nature. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000.165-89. In Notes on the State of Virginia TJ drew on two distinct conceptions of nature that derived from two different sciences. “Nature” in natural rights discourse is derived from psychology, but in discussing race, TJ drew on natural history. “To save the doctrine of natural rights for our times,” author argues, “it must be decoupled from Jefferson’s social science and restored to a position inside of political science.” 234 1814.5. Coalwell, Christine E. and McDonald, Robert M. S. “The Jefferson Scrapbooks’ Story of Politics, Death, and Friendship” in Spring Dinner at Monticello, April 12, 2000, in Memory of Thomas Jefferson. Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 2000. pp. 18. On TJ’s collection of newspaper clippings that include poetry and articles on politics, including criticism of his administration. 1815. Collinson, Simon. “President or King?” History Today 50(no. 11, 2000), 9-15. TJ’s victory over John Adams in the election of 1800 resulted from the successful appropriation of the rhetoric of the American Revolution as a way to legitimate the Republican opposition. The Revolution continued to be a touchstone for succeeding American political campaigns. 1817. Cord, Robert L. “Mr. Jefferson’s ‘Nonabsolute’ Wall of Separation Between Church and State” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 167-88. Looks at occasions where TJ sanctioned public fasts and thanksgivings, tax exemption for churches, missionaries to the Indians, etc. in order to counter the Supreme Court’s “inventive adjectives” characterizing his wall of separation metaphor. 1818. Cornett, Peggy. “In the Company of Gardeners: The Flower Diaries of Jefferson, Skipwith, and Faris,” Twinleaf Journal (2000). Compares TJ’s garden diaries with those kept by Lady Jean Skipwith and William Faris. This article is available on-line at www.twinleaf.org/articles/company.html . 1819. Dawidoff, Robert. “Franklin and Jefferson: Before ‘the Democratic Fact’,” in Making History Matter. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000. 33-46. Examines the problem of the superior person in a democratic society, recognized by TJ and by Franklin. TJ’s belief in disinterested knowledge was connected to his belief that an aristocracy of the virtuous and talented would identify their self-interest with the good of the whole. Franklin learned from his own life experiences how to realize his own superiority without antagonizing his fellows. 1820. Dawidoff, Robert. “The Jeffersonian Option,” in Making History Matter. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000. 15-32. Reprint of the 1993 essay. 1821. Dawidoff, Robert. “Rhetoric of Democracy” in Engeman, Thomas, ed., Thomas Jefferson and the Politics of Nature. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. 99-122. Revised, expanded version of 1986 essay. Sees TJ’s political significance in the ability of his language to trouble us, to make us “think through the contending principles of the republic.” 1822. Delbanco, Andrew. “Are You Happy Yet? If not, the problem may lie in how you define the term.” New York Times Magazine (May 7, 2000), 44-46. 235 Describes changing notions of happiness in America, suggesting that it is not so “selfevident” as TJ suggested. Claims that despite TJ’s revision of Locke, property remained a precondition for happiness, and notes that ultimately his ideal of landed happiness could not be reconciled with the fact of slavery or with the lives of most Americans who were not property owners. After the Civil War, however, the emphasis on capitalist selfinterest “reversed the relation between self and community with which the country began.” However, “while the premise on which Jefferson’s pursuit of happiness was based—that some human beings must be masters and others slaves – has properly become outrageous to us, his conviction that happiness can best be found in selfless service remains a driving motive in many lives.” 1823. Dimunation, Mark. “Thomas’s Ashes,” Civilization 7(April/May, 2000), 96. On the Library of Congress’s plans to recreate TJ’s library, much of it lost in a midnineteenth-century fire. 1824. Dreisbach, Daniel L. “Church-State Debate in the Virginia Legislature: From the Declaration of Rights to the Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom,” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 136-65. Examines the debate around the drafting of Article XVI in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the subsequent debates in Virginia about church-state relations. Argues that this context is necessary for understanding TJ’s Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, and that it reveals that TJ’s and Madison’s ultimate objective “was less an absolute church-state separation than the fullest possible expression of religious belief and opinion.” 1825. Dreisbach, Daniel L. “Religion and Legal Reforms in Revolutionary Virginia: A Reexamination of Jefferson’s Views on Religious Freedom and Church-State Separation” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 189-218. Argues against court interpretations of TJ’s supposed strict separationist notions of church-state relations by contending that TJ’s Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom must be considered in the context of the accompanying Bills that dealt with religious issues. Ignores the question of whether judges, while they may allude to historical example, should think like historians. Also fails to consider that the somewhat loose use of the term “religion” conflates private religious belief and ecclesiastical practice. 1826. Dreisbach, Daniel L. “Thomas Jefferson, a Mammoth Cheese, and the ‘Wall of Separation Between Church and State’,” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 65114. Revised and updated version of 1997 essay, arguing that TJ’s 1801 Letter to the Danbury Baptists was intended as a political document, more interested in drawing a distinction between federal and state governments and in defining the Constitutional role of states than in guaranteeing individual rights under the Constitution. The First Amendment 236 applied to the national government, not the states, and TJ, in fact, was willing to accept state regulation of churches. Admits ultimately, however, that TJ did express hopes that the “wall of separation” which respected the natural rights of individuals would be universally accepted, and concludes that his metaphor of the “wall of separation” has entered “the lexicon of popular, scholarly, and legal discourse.” Thus, it is “one of Jefferson’s most poignant and enduring contributions to the vocabulary of American politics and jurisprudence.” 1827. DuCille, Ann. “Where in the World is William Wells Brown? Thomas Jefferson, Sally Hemings, and the DNA of African-American Literary History,” American Literary History, 12(2000), 443-62. Reviews the history of the TJ-Sally Hemings story, from repression to almost confirmation after the DNA report was issued, and uses it to consider how Brown’s novel Clotel in which the title character was the daughter of TJ by a slave woman has been similarly excluded from the discourse of American literary history. Notices how the different versions of Brown’s novel were pitched to different audiences, but does not consider how those audiences might have had different attitudes toward TJ. 1828. Ellis, Joseph J. “The First Democrats,” U.S. News and World Report 129(August 21, 2000), 34-39. TJ as the founding father of the two party system and of the party now known as the Democratic Party; adapted from forthcoming book, Founding Brothers. 1829. Ellis, Joseph J. “Intimate Enemies,” American Heritage 51(September, 2000), 80-88. Consequences of the election of 1796 in which President John Adams was the victorious candidate of the Federalists and Vice-President TJ was in fact the leader of the opposition. Out of their enmity grew America’s modern political system. Adapted from Founding Brothers. 1830. Ellis, Joseph J. “Jefferson, Post-DNA,” William and Mary Quarterly 57(2000), 125-138. Claims that the new evidence fits a patter of critical interpretation of TJ that has dominated scholarship since the 1960s. “Once race and slavery became the window through which to view Jefferson’s life, his stock was fated to fall.” Discusses changes in interpretation that will probably follow the DNA disclosures. But finally, TJ’s accomplishments are not affected by this, and his place in American popular affection is deep-rooted. 1831. Epperson, Terrence W. “Panoptic Plantations: The Garden Sights of Thomas Jefferson and George Mason,” in Lines That Divide: Historical Archaeologies of Race, Class, and Gender, ed. James A. Delle, Stephen A. Mrozowski, and Robert Paynter. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2000. 58-77. Argues that TJ’s and Mason’s gardens represent a significant break from earlier plantation landscapes that sought to segregate the lives of the planter and the slaves socially and spatially. Monticello and Gunston Hall were built to see from, observation posts in effect, rather than to be seen. Notes precedents to Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon 237 in English garden towers, also TJ’s own design for a proposed tower on Carter’s Mountain. Notes interesting linkages between TJ’s architectural ideas and those of Bentham. 1832. Fehn, Bruce R. “Thomas Jefferson and Slaves: Teaching an American Paradox,” Organization of American Historians Magazine of History 14(Winter, 2000), 24-28. Presents a class unit on TJ and slavery, offering 11 primary sources that can be used to analyze the relationships between TJ and his slaves. Sections on “Jefferson and Paternalism,” “Jefferson on Slave Reproduction,” “Slave Resistance,” and “Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings.” 1834. Ferling, John. “Thomas Jefferson Scrapbooks Revealed,” American History 34(February, 2000), 8. On Robert McDonald’s discovery of four scrapbooks compiled by TJ from 1801-1809. The clippings present an encyclopedic collection of information, including articles critical of TJ’s presidency. McDonald calls them “Newspaper Commonplace Books.” 1835. Flores, Dan. ”A Very Different Story: Exploring the Southwest from Monticello with the Freeman and Custis Expedition of 1806,” Montana 50(Spring, 2000), 2-17. The Red River expedition of Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis was intended as a southwestern counterpart to Lewis and Clark’s explorations. Particularly it was intended to ascertain the borders of the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition is little known today because it failed, being turned back by the Spanish near the present day LouisianaArkansas border. Problems included inaccurate and inadequate geographical knowledge as well as the treachery of General James Wilkinson, who passed on intelligence to Spanish authorities. The source of the Red River was not discovered until 1876. 1836. Flowers, Ronald B. “Toleration Is a Concession: Religious Freedom Is a Right,” American Baptist Quarterly, 19(2000), 298-306. Draws the standard point made in the title, finds the source of American principles of religious freedom in religious pluralism, theological beliefs about freedom of conscience and rationalism. TJ and Madison played a central role in establishing religious freedom as a right in the United States. 1837. Fowler, Robert Booth. “Mythologies of a Founder” in Engeman, Thomas, ed., Thomas Jefferson and the Politics of Nature. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. 123-41. Rejects the notion of TJ as a political philosopher as well as his status of icon who ought to be admired. Sees TJ as an Epicurean pragmatist, although without much serious consideration of how those categories fit together, but denies that there is any “essential Jefferson.” Rather, TJ was “an extraordinary but very real” person with wide-ranging interests. 1838. Freeman, Joanne B. “Grappling with the Character Issue,” Reviews in American History 28(2000), 518-22. 238 Review essay on Kennedy’s Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson (2000) and Thomas Fleming’s Duel: Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr (1999). Describes problems in writing “good history” when books are overwhelmingly driven by interest in character. Focusing on character undervalues the importance of the distinctive culture and politics of the time as shaping events. 1839. French, Yvonne. “Jefferson’s Books at Jefferson’s Library,” Library of Congress Information Bulletin 59(April, 2000), 92-93. On the Library’s project to recreate TJ’s original collection. 1840. Gamez, Alicia Maria. “Making American Nature: Scientific Narratives of Origin and Order in Visual and Literary Conceptions of Race in the Early American Republic.” Ph.D. dissertation. Stanford University, 2000. pp. 221. DAI 61/02A, 657. Includes a discussion of writings on the nature of human races by TJ and by Samuel Stanhope Smith as part of an argument that developments in natural history and classification lead to modern notions of race as “a biological entity subject to visual analysis.” 1841. Garrett, Wendell. “Antiques,” The Magazine Antiques 157(April 2000), 582-83. Discusses TJ’s writings on happiness and nature. 1842. Gawalt, G. W. “The Many Faces of Thomas Jefferson: Father of the Library Subject of New Exhibition,” Library of Congress Information Bulletin 59(April, 2000), 86-91. On an exhibit on TJ as part of the Library’s celebration of its bicentennial. 1843. “The Gift of a Book: University of Virginia Helps Rebuild Jefferson’s Library,” Library of Congress Information Bulletin 59(April, 2000), 93. Library of Congress receives from President John T. Casteen III a copy of ConstantineFrançois Volney’s The Ruins to further their project of recreating the original Jefferson library that was destroyed by fire in 1851. 1844. Gilbert, Chris. “’Hindsight/Fore-site’: Interpreting Mr. Jefferson: Twenty-three Artists Put a 21st-century Spin on an 18th-century Icon.” 64 1(August 2000), 30-37. Review of a project that brought sculptors, painters, and performance artists to the Charlottesville area in order to comment in some fashion on the legacy of TJ. “As a group the artists approached Jefferson’s legacy with an insouciance and independence of spirit that seemed an appropriate way to reflect on the champion of agrarian selfreliance.” 1845. Giordano, Ralph G. “Thomas Jefferson Still Survives: Jefferson and Architecture in the Twenty-First Century,” McNeese Review 38(2000), 42-53. TJ’s architectural achievements were slow in being recognized, but since the erection of the controversial memorial in Washington, D.C. he has been evoked more frequently in architectural historical and design discourse. “Modernists” and “classicists” alike may have misperceived TJ’s thoughtful use of classical forms for modern purposes. Claims 239 ”Jefferson’s ‘modernism’ was founded on his ability to transform the simple rectilinear shape into complex geometrically designed, cylindrical, spherical, cubical, and octangular forms which would become synonymous with the ‘Jeffersonian’ style.” Suggests that although his architecture was influential in its day, TJ’s architectural concepts were “too complex and sophisticated to be understood by his contemporaries.” Late 20th-century architects like Louis Kahn, however, reflect Jeffersonian concepts, as in Kahn’s design for the Salk Institute. 1846. Gordon-Reed, Annette. “Engaging Jefferson: Blacks and the Founding Father,” William and Mary Quarterly 57(2000), 171-82. Points out that “of all the Revolutionary founders, Thomas Jefferson has figured the most prominently in blacks’ attempts to constitute themselves as Americans.” Discusses black Americans’ responses to TJ as an epitome of their responses to the contradictory national world that offers ideals of equality and freedom along with the practice of racism and exclusion. In terms of the Sally Hemings relationship, blacks tend to understand it as a romance, whites as a merely sexual affair of convenience with no emotional attachment. 1847. Gray, Edward G. “The Making of Logan, the Mingo Orator” in The Language Encounter in the Americas, 1492-1800, ed. Edward G. Gray and Norman Fiering. New York: Berghahn Books, 2000. 258-77. Examines how TJ and others created Logan’s international reputation by looking at the apparent disparities between TJ’s understanding of Logan himself, his position among his people, and the significance of oratory in native American culture. Also puts Logan’s speech as reported in TJ’s notes into the context of eighteenth-century ideas about “savage” speech. While “there is almost no evidence to suggest that Jefferson knowingly manipulated the form or content of Logan’s speech,” the disparities between TJ’s portrayal of it and the actual oratorical practices of northeastern Indian societies points up his own valuation of oratory and also possibly suggests why some contemporaries would call its veracity into question. 1848. “Group Delays Decision on Admitting Sally Hemings’ Descendants to Monticello Association,” Jet 97(May 22, 2000), 8-10. For the second year in a row, descendants of Sally Hemings were invited to the meeting of the family association, only to leave without full acceptance. 1849. Gutzman, K. R. Constantine. “Jefferson’s Draft Declaration of Independence, Richard Bland, and the Revolutionary Legacy: Giving Credit Where Credit Is Due,” Journal of the Historical Society 1(2000), 137-54. TJ’s argument in the Summary View about Virginians founding their colony at their own risk accorded with views that had been held in the colony for some time. Rather than creating out of his own imagination as a “fantasy,” TJ was in fact restating ideas earlier espoused by Richard Bland and others in an argument that “arguably was precisely correct.” Bland’s death in 1776 contributed to his not being given sufficient credit for ideas about Virginia’s place in the imperial system that became more widely known from TJ’s pamphlet. Notes the importance of Bland as political and intellectual mentor to TJ 240 and the consequence of the Virginia constitutional views in post-revolutionary situations. 1850. Gutzman, K. R. Constantine. “The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Reconsidered: “An Appeal to the Real Laws of Our Country,” Journal of Southern History 66(2000), 473-96. Argues that the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions “should not be understood as the invention of distraught minds faced with extraordinary circumstances. … the … constitutional position adopted by the Virginia and Kentucky legislatures corresponded closely to the explication of the Constitution offered by the Federalists in the Richmond Ratification Convention of 1788.” Virginians were working within a traditional understanding of relations between local and “federal” authority. John Taylor of Caroline strongly influenced the thinking of his Virginian colleagues in the 1790, including TJ, but TJ held a more nationalist position than Taylor. TJ and Madison kept the inflammatory Taylor out of the drafting process of the Resolutions. 1851. Hafertepe, Kenneth. “An Inquiry into Thomas Jefferson’s Ideas of Beauty,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59(2000), 216-31. TJ’s thinking about aesthetics reflected his reading in Enlightenment philosophy and criticism, particularly that of Henry Home, Lord Kames, but it did not privilege reason over feeling or sensibility. All people possessed innate senses of morality and beauty, and beautiful objects could inspire the idea of beauty, although the rational faculty came into play to compare various experiences. TJ’s aesthetic was rooted in his understanding of the human mind and was conceived in terms of preference for proportion and the didactic. TJ admired the classical tradition, both in its ancient Roman versions and Palladian and baroque restatements. His classicism was not nationalistic but part of a belief about universal, uniform standards of taste. 1852. Harris, C. M. “Washington’s ‘Federal City,’ Jefferson’s ‘Federal Town,’” Washington History 12(no. 1, 2000), 49-53. Washington and some Federalists wanted a grandiose political and cultural “Metropolis of America” as a national center; TJ and the Republicans preferred a more modest administrative site with public buildings (and federal authority) dispersed in a sort of country village. 1853. Hatch, Peter J. “Thomas Jefferson’s Favorite Vegetables,” Twinleaf Journal (2000). TJ only infrequently gave to vegetables the accolades he gave to favorite fruits or flowers, but records of the frequency of planting put peas, lettuce, tomatoes, beans, and cabbage near the top of the list. This article is available on-line at www.twinleaf.org/articles/vegetables.html . 1854. Heath, Barbara J. and Bennett, Amber. “’The little Spots allow’d them’: The Archaeological Study of African-American Yards,” Historical Archaeology 34(#2, 2000), 38-55. Places archaeological research on the slave quarters at TJ’s Poplar Forest in the context of other work on African and African-American yards and gardens in order to explore the meaning and use of these spaces. Notes the difficulties in recovering these sites, 241 although the Poplar Forest work provided important insights into the lives of its residents. Notes that the yards reflected “messages sent by the African Americans to the plantation’s white inhabitants.” These spaces placed mutually understood limits on outside intrusion into the quarters, marked a “point of mediation across which black and white could meet, often through economic exchange, to define and maintain the delicate balance which was the plantation system.” 1855. Hersi, Ahmed Gass. “The Political Principles of Presidents Jefferson, Madison, Jackson, and Franklin Roosevelt as Related to American Federalism.” M.P.A. thesis. California State University, Fresno, 2000. pp. 94. MAI 40(2000), 76. TJ introduced concepts of utilitarianism and federalism. 1856. Hong, Karen E. “’Sworn upon the Altar of God’,” Cobblestone 21(January, 2000), 15-19. TJ, Madison, and the Statute for Religious Freedom. For younger readers. 1857. Irvine, Reed. “Media Falsely Portray Jefferson’s Relationship with His Slave,” Insight on the News 16(March 20, 2000), 45. Chairman of Accuracy in the Media protests the TV miniseries, claims “there is no evidence to prove” TJ fathered children by Sally Hemings. 1858. “Jefferson Link Pursued in Kansas Cemetery,” Death Care Business Adviser 4(January 31, 2000), np. Herbert Barger wishes to exhume the remains of William Hemings, who is buried in Leavenworth National Cemetery in order to find DNA evidence to prove that TJ did not father Sally Hemings children. Hemings descendents said that William Hemings might not even be their relative. 1859. Jenkins, Helen Bishop. “DNA and the Slave-Descendent Nexus: A Theoretical Challenge to Traditional Notions of Heirship Jurisprudence,” Harvard BlackLetter Journal 16(Spring, 2000), 211-28. Recent DNA findings that suggest Eston Hemings as the possible son of TJ point to possibilities for other DNA findings that would support legal inheritance claims by the descendents of former slaves who were children of their masters. Discusses the legal status of claims by illegitimate or unrecognized children. 1860. Johnson, Odai. “Thomas Jefferson and the Colonial American Stage,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 108(2000), 139-54. Recent publication of TJ’s Memorandum Books reveals his interest in the theater, with nearly fifty theater-related entries. Examines what TJ could have seen performed in Williamsburg by David Douglass’s American Company and by the Virginia Company of actors. 1861. “July 4 at Thomas Jefferson’s Poplar Forest,” Blue Ridge Country 13(July/August, 2000), 19. Not seen. 242 1862. Kelleher, Terry. “Sally Hemings: An American Scandal,” People Weekly 53(February 14, 2000), 25. Bottom line on TV miniseries: “Flawed giant, flawed film.” 1863. Keller, Christian B. “Philanthropy Betrayed: Thomas Jefferson, the Louisiana Purchase, and the Origins of the Federal Indian Removal Policy,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 144(2000), 39-66. Traces origins of the federal policy of moving Eastern Indians west of the Missisippi to TJ. His original philanthropic vision of acculturating native Americans and incorporating them as citizens failed because of logical inconsistencies in his own thinking, unwillingness of most Indians to abandon their own culture and accept his version of a nation of small farmers, and the greed for land that led to continual intrusions of whites onto Indian land. He began to change his thinking as the Louisiana Purchase presented the possibility of a place to which Indians could be removed and still be retained under U.S. control, allowing them more time to acculturate and also to relieve pressure from frontier settlers. 1864. Kennedy, Jennifer T. “Mourning at the Jubilee Celebration of the Declaration of Independence,” PMLA 115(2000), 1108-1112. On the eulogies for the deaths of TJ and Adams on July 4, 1826. Claims that the deaths of TJ and Adams as figured in the national consciousness participate both in Walter Benjamin’s model of “Messianic Time” and in the “empty, calendar time” that Benedict Anderson sees as characteristic of modern consciousness. 1865. Kennedy, Jennifer T. “Parricide of Memory: Thomas Jefferson’s Memoir and the French Revolution,” American Literature 72(2000), 553-74. A close reading of TJ’s 1821 “Memoir” that examines his “guilty preoccupation with the mechanics of memory and the moral implications of the act of recollection. Suggestive discussion, flawed by a failure to consider how events between the time of TJ’s experience in France in 1788 and ’89 and the time of writing the “Memoir” may have affected the way in which he remembered events and interpreted his own memoranda. Nevertheless, the most interesting critical response to this text to date. 1866. King, Florence. “The Misanthrope’s Corner: Sally Hemings: An American Scandal,” National Review 52(April 3, 2000), 60. Recent TV miniseries on TJ and Hemings marked a new phase of race-based entertainment in that there were no record ratings, no agonized debates, no concerns about riots (!). The program managed to neutralize all interest groups. (Maybe because it was so tacky.) 1867. Krauthammer, Charles. “The Sublime Oxymoron,” Time 155(May 22, 2000), 64. The Library of Congress’s bicentennial exhibit displays TJ’s complexities. 1868. Landy, Mark and Milkis, Sidney M. “Thomas Jefferson: Making the Executive Safe for 243 Democracy” in Presidential Greatness. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000. 40-79. Thoughtful discussion of TJ as “the first committed democrat to preside over America.” TJ was a reluctant party leader and unwilling to establish the president’s personal power as a feature of government and unable to imagine a way to limite national government other than by keeping it relatively powerless. Authors praise TJ’s caution and moderation, but also criticize his embargo policy as “an almost willful inability to face up to hard decisions,” and they blame the “conceptual cloudiness” surrounding the constitutionality of the Louisiana Purchase for causing “serious public miseducation.” TJ did not educate the people about the meaning of the massive changes he set in motion with the Purchase, unlike Lincoln who educated the people about the meaning of the Civil War. 1869. Levine, Robert S. “American Genealogies: Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings” in William Wells Brown, Clotel; or, The President’s Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States, ed. Levine. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000. 8-17. Discusses the TJ-Sally Hemings affair and the gossip about it as background to Brown’s novel, and examines critically the historiographic tradition about the relationship, including the responses to the recent DNA revelations. Urges that a full consideration of the TJ-Hemings relationship should lead beyond pious concessions of human frailty to a rethinking of the history of blacks and whites in America. 1870. Levinson, Sanford. “Why It’s Smart to Think About Constitutional Stupidities,” Georgia State University Law Review 17(Winter, 2000), 359A “constitutional stupidity” occurs when an interpretation of it is correct but results in an unfortunate public consequence. An example is the sort of electoral college deadlock that threatened in 1800; what if it occurred again, and in the subsequent voting by state in the House of Representatives Vermont, Wyoming and Alaska outweighed New York and California? We need to interpret the Constitution less of a Madisonian posture of “veneration” and more of a Jeffersonian spirit of questioning. 1871. Lewis, Jan. “Introduction, Forum: Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings Redux,” William and Mary Quarterly 57(2000), 121-24. Introduces special section of this journal issue that addresses TJ and the evidence of his sexual relationship with Sally Hemings. Notes that the DNA findings have stimulated historians to re-examine the past. 1872. Lodge, Sally. “Recalling the Past,” Publishers Weekly 247(September 25, 2000), 36-38. How Shannon Lanier and Jane Feldman came to collaborate on Lanier’s account of Sally Hemings’s descendants, his family. See Jefferson’s Children, published this year. 1873. Lord, Lewis. “A ‘Canine Appetite’ for Books,” U.S. News and World Report 128(May 1, 2000), 58. Library of Congress is restoring and exhibiting books that survive from TJ’s original collection. 244 1874. Lord, Lewis. “Peeping at Tom and Sally CBS sees love—or was it merely sex?,” Time 128(February 7, 2000), 51. On the forthcoming TV miniseries and the DNA evidence. 1875. Maass, John. “To Disturb the Assembly: Tarleton’s Charlottesville Raid and the British Invasion of Virginia, 1781,” Virginia Cavalcade 49(no. 4, 2000), 148-57. Good, detailed account of Tarleton’s raid and TJ’s efforts to mount a resistance to the British invasion of Virginia in 1781. 1876. Martin, John Michael. “Genius of Liberty: Authors Examine Jefferson’s Legacy,” Library of Congress Information Bulletin 59(October, 2000), 248. On the essays in the volume noted above, Thomas Jefferson, Genius of Liberty, ed. By Joseph Ellis. 1877. Mayer, David N. “Thomas Jefferson and the Separation of Powers” in The Presidency Then and Now, ed. Philip G. Henderson. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000. 13-29. Claims that with the possible exception of Washington TJ took the doctrine of separation of powers more seriously than any other president, and his presidency was far less powerful than modern presidencies, taking its role as an executive office that regularly deferred to Congress on policy domestic and foreign. TJ did hold two “strong” positions, however, the president’s authority equal to that of the Supreme Court to interpret the Constitution and the exercise of extraordinary powers in times of national emergency. The first of these conceptions has disappeared in consequence of subsequent acceptance of the Court as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution, and the second has become moot as the Court and Congress have ceded considerable expansion of power to the president. 1878. McDonald, Travis C., Jr. “Constructing Optimism: Thomas Jefferson’s Poplar Forest” in People, Power, Places: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, VIII, ed. Sally McMurry and Annmarie Adams. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2000. 176-200. Reading the actual building at Poplar Forest against TJ’s designs provides insight into TJ as builder, materials supplier, recruiter of skilled labor, and construction manager. Construction difficulties in the early republic meant that TJ had difficulties in realizing his ambitious designs, but his patient commitment to a never-ending construction process might contribute to his optimism by exemplifying the possibility of “effecting change for some superior result.” TJ had problems in directing construction work at Poplar Forest from a distance; Hugh Chisholm’s crew, for example, did less than excellent brickwork. TJ did not criticize him, however, and in fact recommended him to others. 1879. McKenna, George. “The ‘Dualities’ of Thomas Jefferson,” First Things #104(June/July, 2000), 53-57. Review essay of several recent books on TJ. Praises TJ’s skill as a writer but is troubled by the apparent contradictions in his writing. Finds it difficult to arrive at “any final Jeffersonian synthesis.” Notes TJ’s dualities about race; the Sally Hemings affair reveals TJ’s darker side. Perhaps it is mistaken to expect consistency from TJ because he was 245 “neither a philosopher nor exactly a rhetorician. He was more like a poet, in love with the sound and feel of language.” TJ offers no guidance for us in the present. 1880. Miller, Cynthia L. “William Small and the Making of Thomas Jefferson’s Mind,” Colonial Williamsburg 22(Autumn, 2000), 30-33. Biographical sketch of Small, TJ’s mentor at the College of William and Mary. Small introduced to William and Mary a lecture system that challenged students to think for themselves instead of engaging in the traditional practices of memorization and recitation. Small was the only non-clergyman on the faculty, and he was au courant with Enlightenment science and philosophy. He left in 1764 on a mission to purchase scientific instruments for the College and never returned. He died in 1776, two and a half months before TJ addressed his last letter to him. 1881. Mirsky, Steve. “Founding Father of Invention,” Scientific American 283(October, 2000), 104. Discusses TJ’s inventions and his role in founding the U.S. Patent Office; he did not patent his inventions because he had mixed feelings about ownership of intellectual property that might hinder the dissemination of useful ideas. 1882. Morrow, Lance. “How Jefferson Kept Warm,” Time 156(30 October, 2000), 16. Marginally about TJ. Observes that “Jefferson burned 10 cords of wood a month to heat Monticello through the (relatively mild) Virginia winter. But Jefferson had a fancy standard of living. Living much farther north, I use four or five cords in an entire winter, and 2000 gallons of heating oil.” Fails to connect burning oil and “a fancy standard of living.” 1883. Moss, Sidney P. and Carolyn J. “The Thomas Jefferson Miscegenation Legend in British Travel Books” in Dickens, Trollope, Jefferson: Three Anglo-American Encounters. Albany, NY: Whitson Publishing Co, 2000. 55-84. Reprints 1987 essay, but here with additional material putting it in the context of the 1998 DNA report. 1884. Murrin, John M. “The Jeffersonian Triumph and American Exceptionalism,” Journal of the Early Republic 20(2000), 1-25. Argues that three Jeffersonian achievements enabled notions of American exceptionalism: a commitment to indefinite continental expansion, manipulation of Europe’s balance of power to achieve US hegemony in North America, and a determination to accomplish these goals without creating a centralized, warmaking government. A fourth commitment was to destroy an incipient Federalist ruling class, even though Federalists shared some of their goals, such as expansion. Indians, blacks and Spaniards, however, were left out of the plans for an “empire for liberty.” 1885. Murphy, Jim. “Pursuits and Revolutions: History’s Figures in Steve Erickson’s Arc d’X,” Modern Fiction Studies 46(2000), 451-79. Analyzes the presentation of TJ in Erickson’s “historiographic metafiction” which 246 privileges “transgressive emotions” in TJ’s relationship with Sally Hemings and with the American spirit itself over “the details of discrete events.” 1886. Neiman, Fraser D. “Coincidence or Causal Connection? The Relationship Between Thomas Jefferson’s Visits to Monticello and Sally Hemings’s Conceptions,” William and Mary Quarterly 57(2000), 198-210. Applies statistical analysis to TJ’s presence at Monticello at the apparent time of the conception of each of Sally Hemings’s six children in order to demonstrate the extremely low probability that this was merely coincidence. Concludes that this added to the DNA evidence shows that “Serious doubt about the existence and duration of the relationship and about Jefferson’s paternity of Hemings’s six children can no longer be reasonably sustained.” 1887. Nichols, Rodney W. “Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Moore,” The Sciences 40(Nov/Dec, 2000), p. 4. TJ might have admired Gordon Moore, cofounder of Intel, and would have admired present day use of computers. TJ, like Moore, had an eye for the future and was a champion of patent law and patent rights. Latter claim seems a bit dubious; TJ thought patent protections should be fairly limited and that the public good outweighed economic rewards for the innovator. 1888. Onuf, Peter S. “Every Generation Is an ‘Independent Nation’: Colonization, Miscegenation, and the Fate of Jefferson’s Children,” William and Mary Quarterly 57(2000), 153-71. Discusses TJ’s 1824 letter to Jared Sparks in which he laid out his thinking about abolition of slavery and the colonization of ex-slaves elsewhere. TJ wanted northerners to take a significant economic role in compensating slaveholders for the loss of their property in part as a sign of accepting slavery as a national responsibility rather than one of individual states alone. Relates TJ’s thinking on this issue to that of his children by Sally Hemings, who would have to cut their family ties when they became free and entered the white world. His colonization plan expressed his despair about maintaining a sexual boundary between whites and blacks in Virginia, but only by removing the living evidence of their sexual transgressions could Virginians redeem their republic. 1889. Packer, George. “A Thomas Jefferson Democrat” in Blood of the Liberals. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2000. 13-32. Author meditates on the condition of liberalism at the end of the twentieth century by looking at two strands of the liberalism he inherited from his family, particularly at the liberalism of his grandfather, a progressive Alabama politician and congressman in the first decades of the century. This chapter on the grandfather and on how his beliefs were rooted in TJ’s ideas and values. 1890. Pasley, Jeffrey L. “The Two National Gazettes: Newspapers and the Embodiment of American Political Parties,” Early American Literature. 35(2000), 51-86. Examines the formation and operation of John Fenno’s and Philip Freneau’s newspapers 247 and how they were used in partisan politics by Hamilton and TJ. Hamilton began patronizing Fenno’s Gazette first, and when TJ and Madison became alarmed by the direction of Federalist policies, they persuaded Freneau to reply. An excellent essay that gives more detail than many sources and supplies a better context for this particular episode in the newspaper wars of the 1790s. 1891. Pearce, John N. “Enduring Friendship: James Monroe, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and Lafayette,” Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine 49(no. 1, 2000), 5810-5819. Biographical study of Monroe’s friendship with TJ and Lafayette. Nothing new. 1892. Peterson, Merrill D. “Monticello,” in William E. Leuchtenberg, ed. American Places: Encounters and History . New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 268-81. More or less familiar account of TJ’s creation of Monticello and how it has been interpreted by later visitors and scholars as a reflection of his character or vision. 1893. Quaid, James Joseph, Jr. “Leadership and Power in Burr, Hamilton and Jefferson: Implications for Educational Leadership.” Ph.D. dissertation. Loyola University of Chicago, 2000. pp. 133. DAI 60/12A, 4271. Applies Power Base Theory of John French and Bertram Raven in order to study leadership styles, and contends that educational leaders can benefit from an awareness of their bases of power (“reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, and referent”) in a variety of constituencies. 1894. Read, James H. “Thomas Jefferson, Liberty, and the States” in Power Versus Liberty: Madison, Hamilton, Wilson, and Jefferson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000. 119-56. In a collection of essays that explore various conceptions held by the founders on the relationship between governmental power and individual liberty portrays TJ as occupying a position at one end of the spectrum that is importantly different from the positions of the other three figures. Sees TJ as maintaining an absolute dichotomy between energetic government (i.e. power) and liberty; any increase in government power necessarily threatens individual liberty. At the same time, TJ tried to counter power of the federal government by enhancing the power of state governments, even to the extent of not recognizing that state governments might pose as great a threat (if not greater) to individual liberties than the federal government does. In many ways perceptive discussion that is finally too one-sided, as if the account of TJ is a needed straw man to balance against the others. Recognizes that TJ is a nationalist, but says nothing about the cases in which he was willing to exercise the power of the national government, e.g. the Louisiana Purchase or the Embargo. 1895. Rigal, Laura. “Framing the Fabric: A Luddite Reading of Penn’s Treaty with the Indians,” American Literary History 12(2000), 557-84. Discusses on pp. 571-76 TJ’s representation of Logan in Notes. Like the Indians in Benjamin West’s painting of “Penn’s Treaty,” Logan is “an artifact of an early industrial consumer culture,” and Jefferson and West portray through affective presentations of 248 compliant Indians a “transatlantic performance of Euro-American character” that is based on material consumption. 1896. Rosenboom, David. “Music from ‘On Being Invisible II: Hypatia Speaks to Jefferson in a Dream’” on Music from the Center for Experiments in Art, Information and Technology, California Institute of the Arts. CD recording (Centaur 2490), 2000. playing time 17:22. Computer music with text by TJ and others. TJ presented as a “Revolutionary torn between Rationality and Romance.” According to the narrative voice “we tap his brain …as he tries to write something … he dozes and hears a dialogue.” Interesting take with a complex view of TJ. 1897. Sanford, Charles B. “The Religious Beliefs of Thomas Jefferson,” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 61-91. Shapely description of TJ’s religious beliefs, basically derived from the author’s 1984 book-length study. 1898. Schleining, Lon. “Thomas Jefferson’s Writing Desk,” American Woodworking 144(September/October, 2000), 64-71. How to build your own replica of TJ’s portable laptop desk used to write the Declaration of Independence. 1899. Sheldon, Garrett Ward. “Eclectic Synthesis: Jesus, Aristotle, and Locke” in Engeman, Thomas, ed. Thomas Jefferson and the Politics of Nature. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. 81-98. Maintains that TJ’s political theory is a “brilliant synthesis” of Christian, Lockean, and Classical Greek views. Not terribly convincing as to the argument for TJ as a Christian (particularly since what is described here as “Christian” would not seem such to most Christians), and TJ’s republicanism and ideas about civic political involvement seem to be influenced by early modern and modern theorists much more than by Aristotle. 1900. Sheldon, Garrett Ward. “Liberalism, Classicism, and Christianity in Jefferson’s Political Thought” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 93-105. Basic argument as in the other 2000 essay by this author. How TJ’s “religious ethics affected how he used liberal and classical ideas.” 1901. Siegenthaler, John. “The Privacy Genie’s Out of the Bottle.” Media Studies Journal 14(Fall, 2000), 58-67. Mostly about recent tendencies of media sources to report on the private lives of public political officials, particularly the obsession with President’s Clinton’s sex life. Contrasts to the treatment given by contemporary newspapers to TJ’s and Hamilton’s sexual scandals. Most newspapers treated the rumors about TJ’s relationship with Sally Hemings as non-news. 249 1902. Silver, Marc. “Jefferson’s New Generation,” U.S. News and World Report 129(December 4, 2000), 21. On Shannon Lanier, a descendant of Sally Hemings, and his book about TJ’s black descendants. 1903. Simpson, Lewis P. “Jefferson and the Crisis of the American University,” Virginia Quarterly Review 76(2000), 388-402. In view of present day concerns that the university no longer embodies “a transcendent realm of humanistic letters and learning,” once recognized as the Republic of Letters, argues that the university in America was never this sort of place even at the time of its founding. Rehearses the history of the concept of the republic of letters as a sphere attempting to be above politics that was complicated by the emergence of democracy and literacy in the people at large. The literate elite became the interpreters of the realm of letters to the realm of politics and vice versa. TJ’s University of Virginia was “the first historical instance in any country in which the university was deliberately and purposefully conceived as an agency of the realm of the secular state, yet as a realm of letters and learning was presumed to be independent of the state.” TJ, however, was unable to allow for unbridled free inquiry in the law school, intended as a site for indoctrinating future citizens of Virginia, and was thus “lost on his own grounds.” 1904. Staples, Brent, et. al. “Past Imperfect,” TV Guide 48(February 12-18, 2000), 34-5. On the TV miniseries about TJ and Sally Hemings. 1905. Stanton, Lucia. “The Other End of the Telescope: Jefferson Through the Eyes of His Slaves,” William and Mary Quarterly 57(2000), 139-53. How TJ was remembered in the family traditions of descendants of Monticello slaves. Based on the author’s very important work in recovering and documenting the black networks at Monticello during TJ’s time and later. Along with the author’s other work on this topic, essential reading. 1906. Stanton, Lucia. “Sheep for the President,” in Fall Dinner at Monticello, November 3, 2000, in Memory of Thomas Jefferson. Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 2000. pp. 16. Brief note prepared for guests at the dinner on TJ’s efforts to raise sheep at Monticello, including his Merino sheep. He hoped to profit from the sale of wool but also to make a patriotic gesture by wearing American-made cloth. He also wished to add new stock to existing breeds consonant with other efforts to expand the farmer’s repertoire. 1907. Stegner, Page. “Beyond the Sunset,” Sierra 85(May/June, 2000), 44-46. The Louisiana Purchase, TJ’s plans for the West, and the Lewis and Clark expedition he sent out. Some places still look like what L & C saw, but environmental threats abound. 1908. Stout, Cushing. “The Case of the One-eyed Pundits and Jeffersonian DNA,” Sewanee Review 108(2000), 248-54. Considers the unbalanced response of some commentators on the Foster DNA findings. 250 Quick to acclaim the evidence for TJ’s paternity of Eston Hemings as evidence for their rightness, they ignore the contradictory findings that suggest Thomas Woodson was not TJ’s child, and thus makes less probable the story that TJ and Sally Hemings began their relationship in Paris. Cautions against unwarranted certainty of opinion; “All historiography is an interim report.” 1909. Taute, Michelle. “Before Camp David,” Family Tree Magazine 21(August, 2000), 10. Poplar Forest as a presidential retreat; in TJ’s case, a post-presidential retreat. 1910. “Thomas Jefferson Library Planned,” American Libraries 31(September, 2000), 25-26. On the Library of Congress’s plans to reconstruct TJ’s library. 1911. Thompson, Paul B. “Thomas Jefferson and Agrarian Philosophy” in The Agrarian Roots of Pragmatism, ed. Paul B. Thompson and Thomas C. Hilde. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2000. 118-39. Argues that TJ memorably expressed an agrarianism that was “neither original nor even peculiarly American.” Yet the ambiguity of his thinking has allowed later readers to appropriate his words in very different ways, and that ambiguity may be his real link to later developments in American thought. Claims that many writers have misread TJ’s agrarian passages, and subjects them to a closer and more fully contextual analysis that questions intimate connections between TJ’s agrarianism and his democratic philosophy. “Advocates of farm interests … may be correct to read Jefferson more literally.” TJ “advocated agrarian ideas in a rhetorically potent but somewhat offhand fashion; he advocated scientific agriculture unambiguously.” Places TJ’s agrarian ideals in the context of eighteenth-century European thinking, and notes the conjunction of racialist ideas and environmentalism in much of that thought, including TJ’s. 1912. Thompson, Thomas C. “Perceptions of a ‘Deist Church’ in Early National Virginia,” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 41-58. TJ’s reform of William and Mary marked the beginning of alarm on the part of orthodox religious thinkers in Virginia about the spread of deism, or rational religion. Although TJ because of comments in Notes on the State of Virginia became a focus of this concern, his attitudes were shared by many other members of the planter elite who were members of the former Established Church. While there was no organized deist “church,” some conservative polemicists spoke as if there were, and their opinions affected debates over church-state relations, even TJ’s Bill for Religious Freedom. 1913. Trees, Andy. “Private Correspondence for the Public Good: Thomas Jefferson to Elbridge Gerry, 26 January, 1799,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 108(2000), 217-54. Places TJ’s letter of 26 January 1799 to Elbridge Gerry in its political and historical context in order to illuminate the political persona TJ created for himself. TJ was simultaneously a creature of the political world and uncomfortable with the politics of the 1790s. Insightful discussion of TJ on politics, parties, and nation that finally concludes 251 that his sentimental vision of a brotherhood of like-minded Americans was unable to find room for legitimate political differences. 1914. “TV Movie ‘Sally Hemings: An American Scandal’,” Jet 97(February 14, 2000), 63-66. On the CBS four-hour miniseries with Sam Neill as TJ and Carmen Egojo as Sally. 1915. Vicente, Kim J. “Toward Jeffersonian Research Programmes in Ergonomics Sciences,” Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 1(1 April 2000), pp. 93-112. TJ believed that scientific research could lead both to a fuller understanding of nature and to addressing persistent social problems. The twin ideals of a “Jeffersonian research programme” fit the inherently practical aims of ergonomics science, although basic and applied concerns have not always been well integrated. Argues for the necessity of demonstrating contributions to basic understanding and also to applied practice in accordance with this Jeffersonian schema. 1916. Von Hoffman, Nicholas. “A Birthday for the Books,” Civilization 7(April/May, 2000), 36-39. Library of Congress celebrates its bicentennial by exhibiting TJ’s books. 1917. Wardell, Charles. “Stealth Ductwork,” Popular Science 257(October, 2000), 29. Hidden ductwork for heating and cooling in the restored Poplar Forest follows TJ’s cue of burying ventilation ducts for the Monticello necessary. 1918. Wills, Garry. “Storm Over Jefferson,” New York Review of Books 47(March 23, 2000), 16-18. TJ’s once unquestioned greatness is now very thoroughly questioned, as his record on slavery is reexamined, his alleged accomplishments seem to owe more than previously recognized to others, and his policies toward Native Americans are scrutinized. Finds his “aestheticism” to be at the root of many of his failings. Nevertheless, “In his oddly mandarin way he had arrived at the basic democratic insight – that every human being is Humanity itself.” His words, perhaps his greatest gift, continue to inspire. 1919. Williams, Walter E. “Could Jefferson Be Elected President Today?” Human Events 56(September 1, 2000), 9. “No, because he took seriously the spirit and letter of the Constitution.” 1920. Wilson, Douglas L. “Jefferson and Bolingbroke: Some Notes on the Question of Influence” in Religion and the New Republic: Faith in the Founding of America, ed. James H. Hutson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. 107-118. Suggestive claim that Bolingbroke’s main influence on TJ was stylistic; TJ already had encountered most of Bolingbroke’s ideas in other contexts. 1921. Wingert, Pat. “Jefferson’s Other Family,” Newsweek 135(February 7, 2000), 57. On the Memorial Foundation’s report stating that there was a “strong likelihood” that TJ fathered Sally Hemings’s children. 252 1922. Wortham, Anne. “Engaging Thomas Jefferson on Character,” The World & I 15(July, 2000), 275-287. Assesses TJ’s character, described in terms of the principles of Nathaniel Branden, a disciple of Ayn Rand. Finds that TJ measures up well except for the “mistaken assumptions” that “self-interest, or rather self-love, or egoism … is no part of morality.” He and the other founders who believed in a benevolent moral sense were thus “disarmed and left in a chasm of cognitive ambiguity between moral sense and reason.” 1923. Wright, Esmond. “The Relevance of Mr. Jefferson,” Virginia Quarterly Review 76(2000), 379-87. Laudatory article on TJ as universal man; sounds as if it could have been written fifty years ago. 1924. Wunderlich, Gene. “Hues of American Agrarianism, Agriculture and Human Values 17(2000), 191-97. John Brewster, A. Whitney Griswold, and Paul Gates all agree that TJ was in effect the father of American agrarianism, but they differ markedly in their own uses of Jeffersonian values about agriculture, land, and rural life. Discusses TJ’s agrarianism, the positions of the three figures noted, and the Jeffersonian elements in the contemporary “new agrarianism”. 1925. Wunderlich, Gene. “Two on Jefferson’s Agrarianism” in The Agrarian Roots of Pragmatism, ed. Paul B. Thompson and Thomas C. Hilde. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2000. 254-68. Examines the writings of A. Whitney Griswold in 1948 and John Brewster in 1963 on TJ’s agrarianism in order to assess their understanding of a connection between it and American pragmatic philosophy and also of the relevance of their views for contemporary agrarian practice and thought. While Griswold was interested in the role of Jeffersonian agrarianism in post-WW II policy and Brewster for its defining power of the family farm, both demonstrated pragmatic attitudes without explicitly working out the philosophical implications, and both accepted unquestioningly agrarianism’s grip on the American psyche. Since their time, however, entrepreneurial models of farming have been supplemented by stewardship models, even as the number of farms, and family farms, has been declining. 1926. Yarbrough, Jean. “Thomas Jefferson and Republicanism” in Thomas Jefferson and the Politics of Nature, ed. Thomas S. Engemann. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. 59-79. Responds to Michael Zuckert’s call for seeing natural rights at the center of TJ’s political philosophy by arguing that TJ’s lessons (1) remind us that rights are grounded in “in the most permanent and powerful human passions,” (2) nature is not only the ground for rights but a brake on them and on their expansion because man is subject to “the laws of nature and nature’s God,” (3) rights “are not entitlements that others can assert for us on our behalf,” and (4) “exercise of equal rights leads inevitability to inequality of 253 outcomes.” For the author, TJ is less about natural rights than about civic virtue. 1927. Young, Mary. “Indian Policy in the Age of Jefferson,” Journal of the Early Republic 20(2000), 297-307. Review essay on seven recent books on US-Indian relations, including Anthony Wallace’s 1999 Jefferson and the Indians. TJ and others had ample opportunity to observe cultural changes underway among various Indian communities but persisted in seeing them as savages not ready for accommodation into civilization. Add to this simple greed for land and a readiness to commit theft and fraud, and the sad story unfolds. 1928. Zuckert, Michael. “Founder of the Natural Rights Republic” in Thomas Jefferson and the Politics of Nature, ed. Thomas S. Engemann. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. 11-58. An edited version of Chapters 1 and 7 of the author’s 1996 Natural Rights Republic. Claims that the Declaration is the authoritative version of the natural rights philosophy for America and that TJ of all the founders “devoted the most sustained intellectual effort to the topic” of natural rights. Argues for the necessity of reading the Declaration with attention to its structure as well as to a larger context of TJ’s writing, particularly the Notes. Also claims Locke’s political philosophy as a key to understanding TJ’s basically liberal ideology of individual natural rights and rejects republican or communitarian readings of TJ and the Declaration. For the author, “A political society organized according to the principles of the Declaration is a society dedicated to servicing or allowing the pursuit by individuals of their rights” (22). Claims that TJ’s listed rights in the Declaration have a “systematic coherence,” thus justifying the claim for him as a political philosopher. A strong, complex argument that many will find appealing, but despite claims for the necessity of a “structural” reading of the Declaration, the essay considers only the second paragraph of it, although it ultimately grounds itself in a wide range of TJ’s writings..