LEED® HVAC Design
How Does the Mechanical
Engineer & Cx Provider
Impact the Success of a
Presented by MBO Inc.
Your Speakers for Today
Jorge Torres Coto
Building Systems Commissioning Engineer
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What is LEED?
Benefits and cost of LEED HVAC design and Cx
HVAC design for LEED Requirements and Tips
WEc2, WEc3.1, WEc3.2
EAp1, EAp2, EAp3
EAc1, EAc3, EAc4, EAc5
EQc1, EQc5, EQc6.2, EQc7.1, EQc7.2
Examples and experience on LEED HVAC design and Cx
Who can be the Cx Provider?
Going beyond the LEED requirements and expectations
What is LEED?
LEED = Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design
– Developed by USGBC (U.S. Green Building
Council) in conjunction with
GSA (U.S. General Services Administration
What is LEED?
The economic goals of the LEED program
– Reduced or neutralized first cost
– Enhanced asset value/increased profits
– Optimized life cycle economic performance
– Improved productivity (due to a healthier indoor
– Reduced liability
Why Does It Matter?
BECAUSE IT IS THE RIGHT THING TO DO!
Some states, cities, and/or the Federal
Government offer tax incentives for buildings
that meet Green building codes or become
GSA, state, and some municipalities require
new building projects to meet LEED.
LEED-NC (New Construction)
LEED-CI (Commercial Interiors)
LEED-EB (Existing Buildings)
LEED-CS (Core & Shell; Commercial)
LEED-H (Single Family Residential)
LEED-ND (Residential Neighborhood
Other in the works
Four Levels of LEED Certification
– LEED Certified 26-32 points
– LEED Silver 33-38 points
– LEED Gold 39-51 points
– LEED Platinum 52-69 points
Five LEED credit categories
Energy & 8%
*NOTE: 60% of the points are WE, EA and IEQ
ASS levels of certification
– Half Assed LEED equivalent
– Cheap Assed Minimum (after-thought)
– Bad Ass Integrated Design
– Kick Ass Everybody bought in
– SSp1 Construction Activity Pollution Prevention (Civil
– EAp1 Fundamental Commissioning (Cx Provider)
– EAp2 Minimum Energy Performance (ASHRAE 90.1
and/or CEC Title 24) (Mechanical Engineer)
– EAp3 Fundamental Refrigerant Management
– MRp1 Storage and collection of recyclables (Arch/Owner)
– EQp1 Minimum IAQ performance (ASHRAE 62.1 and/or
CEC Title 24) (Mechanical Engineer)
– EQp2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control (Arch/Owner)
Choosing the right Mechanical Engineer on
the design team can help satisfy up to 60%
of the requirements for LEED certification
– WE 3 out of 5 points
– EA 2 out of 3 prerequisites
12 out of 17 points
– EQ 2 out of 2 prerequisites
7 out of 13 points
– ID 2 out of 5 points
WEc2, WEc3.1, WEc3.2
– Grey water systems
– Waterless urinals and W.C.
– Water conserving fixtures
– Secondary metering on high volume systems (i.e.
kitchens, mechanical equipment, etc.)
Synergy with EAc5 (M&V)
EAp2, EAc1 ASHRAE 90.1-2004–Title 24
– Prerequisite is mandatory in California.
Communication is critical between design team to accomplish
higher energy savings and find economic balance (Arch, EE,
– Proper selection of HVAC system for type of building and
occupancy is critical for optimum building operation and
reduction of energy usage. (Team decisions are key)
– Fundamental understanding of Synergies and Trade-offs
with other credits and standards
EAc1 vs. EQc2 (Energy Consumption vs. Ventilation Air)
EAc1 vs. EAc5 (Verification Built into Design)
EAc5: M & V (IPMVP)
– Not usually implemented.
– Key to verifying performance of building systems
once it is in operation.
– Useful in verifying at post-occupancy EAc1,
WEc2, WEc3, EQc1, EQc2, EQc6, EQc7
– Some ease of implementing with a calibrated
energy model and Building Automation System
EQp1, EQc2: ASHRAE 62.1-2004
– Prerequisite is mandatory in CA.
– Additional credits is easily achieved per CA codes.
– Alternate strategies need to be designed to achieve optimal
energy efficiency without sacrificing air quality.
– Sophisticated computer modeling may be required for non-
– Look at technologies, trade-offs and synergies with other
points and ASHRAE standards.
ASHRAE 55, 62.1, 90.1, 129
40% water use reduction
HVAC Standards & Guidelines
ASHRAE 55-2004 Thermal Comfort
ASHRAE 62.1-2004 Ventilation
ASHRAE 90.1-2004 Energy
Cx Requirements for LEED
– IT IS A PREREQUISITE EAp1
– Verify and ensure that fundamental building elements and
systems are deigned, installed and calibrated to operate as
– It is imperative that at least 26 points be achieved to reach
the certification level, Cx is an excellent tool during design,
construction and post-occupancy.
– Do you like the Opera or NFL?
ASHRAE Cx Process
The 4 phases of the Cx Process
Cx Process DESIGN
Pre-1Fundamental Systems Cx
1. Designate a Cx Authority
2. Document OPR and develop BOD
3. Incorporate Cx requirements into CD
4. Develop and implement Cx plan
5. Verify the installation and performance of the
6. Complete a summary of the Cx Report
1. Designate the Cx Authority
Part of the owner’s team (ideally)
Third party in preferred but can be part of the design team
CxA shall be independent of the project’s design and construction
management, though they may be employees of the firms
providing those services.
2. Document OPR & BOD
– Completed by Owner, CxA and Project Team
Owner and user requirements
Environmental and sustainable goals
Energy efficiency goals
Equipment and System expectations
Building occupant and O&M personnel requirements
– Completed by the design team
Primary design assumptions
3. Incorporate Cx into CD’s
– Typically the Cx requirements are in the specs.
– US DOE / PECI Guide
4. Develop & Implement Cx Plan
– Preferably during DD
It is not a rigid document
– changes with planning, scheduling, etc.
5. Verify the installation &
performance of the systems
System performance testing
Evaluation of results compares to OPR/BOD
6. Complete Cx Report
Executive summary on the process & results
Deficiency list with resolutions
Performance test results
LEED Letter template
– Completed OPR and BOD
– Incorporated Cx into specifications
– Cx plan
– Verified installation and performance of systems
– Completed Cx Report
Cre-3 Enhanced Cx
Cx Authority must be an independent party
– The CxA shall perform at least:
Design review prior to CD’s
Review contractor submittals
Review building operation (post-occupancy)
4. Design Review
Minimum one Cx design review of:
– Design documents prior to mid-CD phase
Back check review comments in subsequent
6. Review Contractor Submittals
Only review submittals applicable to systems
being commissioned for compliance with
OPR and BOD.
– Do they meet OPR and BOD
– O & M requirements
– Facilitating performance testing
8. Develop Systems Manual
In addition to the O&M manual that is provided to the staff by
Focuses on operations rather than maintenance.
Specifics of interactions between equipment
– Final version of BOD
– Single line diagrams
– As-built sequences of operation
– Operating instruction for integrated systems
– Recommended maintenance schedules
– Recommended retesting schedules with blank test forms
– Recommended recalibration schedules for sensors and actuators
9. Verify Requirements for Training
Document training expectations and needs
with the owner
Ensure staff and occupants receive training
Special attention should target new or
uncommon design features that have a
potential of being over-ridden or removed
due to lack of understanding.
11. Review Building Operations
After handover ( 8 – 10 months) review
performance of building/facility with owner
and O&M staff.
Create a deficiencies list (prior to
manufacturer / contractors warranty
Any items listed on the deficiencies list that
will not be corrected shall be documented in
the Systems Manual
LEED Letter template
– CxA conducted design review
– CxA reviewed submittals
– Systems Manual
– O&M staff and occupants have been trained
– CxA review of building operation post-occupancy
Cx Standards & Guidelines
ASHRAE guideline 0.
ASHRAE guideline 1.
NIBS guidelines 2 through 14
NEBB Building Systems Commissioning
4619 Viewridge Avenue, Suite C
San Diego, CA 92071