Language Skills, Learning to Read and Reading Intervention by ild18893


									                         Save the Date!
                PBIDA’s 28th Annual Fall Conference

“Making the Connection: Reading Success and Language Skills”
            Keynote Speaker Margaret Snowling, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                    The newsletter of the Pennsylvania Branch of the International Dyslexia Association
             Friday, October 6, 2006 - 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.                                                                                                                                             Summer 2006

                   The Union League, Philadelphia
                                                                                                         Margaret                            Language Skills,
             Continuing Education credits will be offered through                                        J. Snowling
                Act 48, ASHA, APA, and for Social Workers.                                                 The highlight of
                                                                                                                                           Learning to Read and
                                                                                                           this issue of
         Registration will open online at this summer.                                       Focus is an
                                                                                                           article by
                                                                                                                                           Reading Intervention
      For information regarding exhibitors, scholarships and volunteer                                     Margaret J.
                                                                                                                                      Margaret J. Snowling                 fore when the child starts school; the
                                                                                                           Snowling, our
              opportunities, please contact                                                                        University of York                  problem for parents and clinicians
                                                                                    Keynote Speaker at the Fall PBIDA
                                                                                                                                                                           therefore is to know when a language
                                                                                    conference: Language Skills,
                                                                                                                                      hildren vary in the age at which

  JOIN US IN OCTOBER – and make this YOUR inservice day!                                                                                                                   delay is an issue for concern, and
                                                                                    Learning to Read, and Reading
                                                                                                                                      they first start to talk. For        when it is just part of typical variation.
                                                                                    Intervention. Dr. Snowling’s article
                                                                                                                                      many families, late talking               Language is a complex system
                                                                                    addresses the role of language skills                                                  that requires the coordinated action of
                                                                                                                              might go unnoticed, particularly if the
                                                                                    beyond phonology in literacy                                                           four interacting subsystems.
                                                                                                                              child in question is the first born of the
                                                                                    development. She presents                                                              Phonology is the system that maps
                                                                                                                              family and no comparisons can be
                                                                                    fascinating research from her lab on                                                   speech sounds onto meanings, and
                                                                                                                              made, or relatives reassure ‘It’s OK,
                                                                                    vocabulary and grammatical                                                             meanings are part of the semantic
    INTERNATIONAL DYSLEXIA ASSOCIATION                             NON PROFIT                                                 he’s a boy’(which is often the case).
                                                                                    awareness as predictors of reading                                                     system. Grammar is concerned with
                                                                U.S. POSTAGE PAID                                             Later in the pre-school years, a child
    PENNSYLVANIA BRANCH                                                             comprehension, and on the                                                              syntax and morphology (the way
                                                                 BRYN MAWR, PA                                                may be difficult to understand; he or        words and word parts are combined
    P BOX 251
     .O.                                                                            contribution of language fluency
                                                                                                                              she might have a large repertoire of         to convey different meanings) and
    BRYN MAWR, PA 19010                                           PERMIT NO 39      and knowledge (semantics) to
                                                                                                                              their ‘own words’ that others find
                                                                                    reading comprehension. In addition,                                                    pragmatics is concerned with language
                                                                                                                              unintelligible. Often such babble is         use. An assumption of our educational
                                                                                    a comprehensive family study of
                                                                                                                              endearing, the source of family              system is that by the time children
                                                                                    dyslexia suggests that oral language                                                   start school, the majority are
                                                                                                                              amusement, and no one worries much
                                                                                    development plays a compensatory                                                       competent users of their native
                                                                                                                              because an older sibling can translate.
                                                                                    role for phonic decoding deficits in                                                   language. This is a reasonable
                                                                                                                              But speech or language delay can be
                                                                                    a selected group of children. Dr.                                                      assumption. But those who are not
                                                                                                                              the first sign of reading difficulties,
                                                                                    Snowling concludes that “the                                                           ‘very good with words’ start out at a
                                                                                                                              difficulties that will only come to the
                                                                                    developmental outcome for a child                                                      disadvantage, not only in speaking and
                                                                                    at risk of poor reading depends not                                                                     continued on page 4
                                                                                    only on how severe their
                                                                                    phonological differences are, but
                                                                                    also on the language skills they                                          Inside This Issue
                                                                                    bring to the task of learning.” The         MESSAGE FROM THE BRANCH PRESIDENT                                          2
                                                                                    implications of this research for
                                                                                    early identification and for the            THE STORIES OF GROWING UP WITH DYSLEXIA                                    3
                                                                                    nature of interventions are                 SHARON TOMALIN - PBIDA VOLUNTEER                                            8
                                                                                    significant, and the research is
                                                                                    critical to the field of literacy and       NOMINATIONS SOUGHT FOR THE JANET L. HOOPES AWARD                            9
                                                                                    dyslexia. We highly recommend               NEW OFFICERS AND BOARD MEMBERS                                             10
                                                                                    reading this article in full.
                                                                                                                                OUR INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS’ SUMMER PROGRAMS                                 12
               Greetings from                                                        CALENDAR OF EVENTS
                the President                                                        June 26 and 27 - Wilson Language Overview, Crowne Plaza
                                                                                     Hotel, King of Prussia, PA. This two day introduction to the Wilson
                                                                                     Language Program is being co-sponsored by PBIDA and Wilson
                                                                                     Language. For fees and times, visit
                                                                                     Volunteer and scholarship opportunities available; contact Mary Ellen
Dear Friends,                                                                        at
     I accept the position of President of the Pennsylvania                          June 20-21, 2006 - Multisensory Math Magic with Beth Franks, 9
Branch of the International Dyslexia Association with humility                       a.m. to 3 p.m., The Crossroads School, 1681 North Valley Road, Paoli,
and a little trepidation. Having had the pleasure to work with                       PA Multisensory math workshop with Franks, Lower School Math
                                                                                     Chair at The Jemicy School in Owings Mills, Maryland. Materials,
the late Janet Hoopes – I know that our work is vital to the                         games and activities designed to help teachers find creative ways to
lives of so many.                                                                    teach kindergarten through fifth graders. $95 for one day or $165 for
                                                                                     two. Professional Development Certificates provided and Act 48 credits
    We must do all we can to spread the message as Janet did                         available. (610) 296-6765 or
so well for many years. She set the bar high and we must
                                                                                     July 10 through August 18, 2006 - Stratford Friends Summer
continue to live her vision in the coming years. The Board of                        Teacher Training Program, 5 Llandillo Road, Havertown, PA. This
Directors has never been stronger, our membership is at a high                       IMSLEC and ALTA accredited program offers the sessions
point, and we have a dedicated Regional Group in Pittsburgh.                         Introduction Class; Advanced Class; Developing Metacognitive Skills
The challenges are more formidable than ever.                                        in Comprehension Vocabulary; Phonemic Awareness; and Phonics for
                                                                                     Classroom Teachers. Fees and hours at or
    I have just returned from the Spring Leadership Branch                           contact Sara Rivers at (610) 446-3144,
Council of The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) where                        July and August - Cooper Learning Center Teacher Training,
President Emerson Dickman and Executive Director Megan                               Voorhees, N.J. Sessions offered in Project Read; Preventing Academic
Cohen shared the comprehensive vision for the association.                           Failure, Part I; Teaching Comprehension: The Key through Routine;
                                                                                     The Master Notebook System for Developing Organizational Skills;
IDA has set an ambitious course that will increase membership,                       and Storytelling Arts, Inc. For further information call (856) 673-4902
improve services, strengthen partnerships with branches and                          or go to
increase global partners.                                                            July 31-August 4 - NJ Branch of the IDA Summer Institute
                                                                                     Seminars; Masonic Learning Centers in Scotch Plains or Long Valley,
                                 All the best,                                       N.J. Sessions offered in Teaching Grammar and Written Expression to
                                                                                     Struggling Writers; Assessment of Learning Disabilities; Affixes and
                                 Jack                                                Roots; Demystifying Dyslexia; Dr. Orton and the Teaching of Reading;
                                                                                     and Fundamentals of Phonics Awareness. $60 per session. For further
John T. Rogers, JD, succeeded John Kruidenier, EdD, as PBIDA’s President as of       information contact Mary Jo Rieg at
January 1, 2006. He is an attorney who was the Head at The Woodlynde School in
Strafford. Jack is currently at the William Penn Charter School in Philadelphia as   August 15, 2006 - Wrightslaw Special Education Law and
Senior Development Officer. He is on the IRB Board at Fox Chase Cancer Center,       Advocacy Training, 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. at Calvary Church, Souderton,
and former President of the Board at the Pennsylvania Association of Independent     PA. Pete and Pam Wright, authors of Wrightslaw: From Emotions to
Schools. Jack and his wife, Nancy, have three daughters.                             Advocacy and founders of present to parents, teachers,
                                                                                     advocates and attorneys about special education law and helpful
                                                                                     strategies. Registration fee includes two Wrightslaw books, materials,
                                                                                     continental breakfast and boxed lunch. Act 48 and CLE CE’s available.
                                                                                     Sponsored by the North Penn Special Education Council. For further
                                                                                     information and fees and deadlines, call (215) 361-1112, go to
        Wilson Overview Offers                                              “for parents” section, or email
                                                                                     October 6, 2006 - The 28th Annual Fall Conference, “Making
       Scholarship and Volunteer                                                     the Connection: Reading Success and Language Skills”, 8 a.m.
                                                                                     to 4 p.m. at The Union League, Philadelphia Keynote speaker
             Opportunities                                                           Margaret Snowling, PhD, will speak on “Language Skills, Learning to
                                                                                     Read and Reading Intervention.” There will be an additional 16
                                                                                     sessions and workshops offered. Act 48, APA, ASHA and Social Work
      BIDA and Wilson Language Training are pleased to co-                           CE’s offered. Please see the back page of this publication for more

P     sponsor the Wilson Overview on June 26 and 27, 2006 at
      the Crowne Plaza Hotel in King Of Prussia, PA. We will
be welcoming back trainers Nancy Hennessey and Linda
                                                                                     details or visit where online registration will open this
                                                                                     summer. Exhibitors, volunteers and scholarship applicants should
                                                                                     contact Mary Ellen at
                                                                                     November 3, 2006 - Mel Levine, M.D. “Educating All Kinds of
Lentini.                                                                             Minds –Understanding Differences in Learning” 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. at
     PBIDA and Wilson are offering two scholarships for this                         Embassy Suites, Coraopolis, PA. The Laughlin Center presents Dr.
session. Interested applicants should submit several paragraphs                      Levine, Professor of Pediatrics at University of North Carolina School
to                                                               of Medicine. Registration opens August 1. $145 by September 15, $160
                                                                                     afterwards. Includes continental breakfast and lunch. Act 48 credits
     We are also looking for two volunteers for the Overview.                        available. Contact Laughlin at (412) 741-4087 for APA and LSW CE’s.
Volunteers are required to assist with registration, distribute            
materials, and may then attend the training at no charge. Please                     October 5, 2007 - The 29th Annual Fall Conference, featuring
contact the PBIDA office for additional details.                                     keynote Isabel Beck, Ph.D., Professor of Education and Senior Scientist
     Information regarding registration can be found at                              at the University of Pittsburgh. Save the date!
                                                                               -2-                                                                             -15-
      PBIDA’s 28th Annual Fall Conference,                                                                                                             New Feature:
  “Making the Connection: Reading Success and                                                                                            The Stories of Growing Up With Dyslexia
Language Skills” to be at Union League in October                                                                                   In each Focus, we will present an interview with a ‘Hero/Heroine,’ an individual who battled successfully
                                                                                                                                       with dyslexia. We offer these Stories in the hope that they inspire adults and children with dyslexia.
      PBIDA invites you to join us at       What do these Test Scores Mean            School District speaking on “Effective
our 28th Annual Fall Conference             Anyway?”                                  Multisensory Strategies for Teaching                                                 This Feature’s Hero: Bart Harrison, J.D.
“Making the Connection: Reading                  A panel from The Summit              Grammar and the Writing Process to
Success and Language Skills” on             School on “Language Impairment and        Students with Learning Disabilities”

                                                                                                                                        art Harrison was an attorney          for at least one hour every day after       and format throughout his
October 6, 2006 at The Union League         Interventions that Work.”                      a panel from the West Chester
                                                                                                                                        with a large Philadelphia law         school. He remembers looking                professional career. He also
in Philadelphia. We will welcome                Pediatric Neuropsychologist           School District will present the
keynote speaker Margaret Snowling,          Edward Moss, Ph.D., from The              successful implementation of their                firm for years, then a corporate      longingly at his classmates playing         remembers being given a final
Ph.D., from the University of York (an      Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia       district wide acceleration of literacy    executive of several companies, and           outdoors, as he worked to associate         examination made up of only one
article by Dr. Snowling and her             speaking on “Nonverbal Learning           development skills for all K-5 students   currently is working as an independent        each letter of the alphabet with its        essay question, to be written in 60
biography are on the front page).           Disabilities: Update and Intervention”         Joy MacKenzie, Associate             financial consultant. He graduated            particular sound. The Orton-                minutes. The instructor told the
     Our conference co-chairs are               Jennifer Cordivari, M.A.,             Director at the Institute for Teaching    from the Westtown School (cum                 Gillingham instructional program            students they were to spend the first
Sandra Howze, M.A., Director of             Education Director and School             and Learning speaking on                  laude), from Oberlin College, and             used by the school was multisensory,        20 minutes organizing their writing;
Stratford Friends School in                 Psychologist and Dottie Mazullo,          “Vocabulary: A Word to the Wise”          from the University of Pennsylvania           sequential and cumulative. Instruction      they were not permitted to begin
Havertown, PA and Jeannie Bowman,           M.Ed., Assistant Head at The                   Georgia McWhinney, Ph.D.,            Law School, where he was a member             began at the phonemic level and             writing the essay until the 20 minutes
M.L.A., Director of Admissions at           Crossroads School presenting “Oral        Adjunct Professor at Chestnut Hill        of the Law Review. So why do we               proceeded, at a pace individualized to      had passed! Bart used these two
Delaware Valley Friends School in           Language and Comprehension”               College presents “Writing in the          call Bart Harrison a hero?                    the child, with a “systematic               approaches for all his writing in
Paoli, PA.                                      Cecily Selling, M.S., Assistant       Classroom: Strategies that Empower             When Bart was four years old, he         presentation of the structure of the        college, in law school and in his legal
     Sixteen sessions and workshops         Director at Stratford Friends School      the LD Student.”                          entered The School in Rose Valley as          English language.”* Bart said that the      work. What about spelling, the
will be offered at the conference. The      on “Pragmatic Language: Teaching               Continuing Education credits for     a bright and friendly young boy.              advantage of being at The School at         nemesis of dyslexic students? Bart
program includes:                           Social Skills in a a School               Act 48, ASHA, APA, and for Social         However, Bart did not learn to read           Rose Valley was that, as he struggled       explained that he always has a
     Dr. Snowling presenting the            Environment”                              Workers will be offered to attendees.     on his own nor through classroom              with reading, he participated with          dictionary at his side, and that he
additional session, “Reading,                   Karen Rothschild, Ph.D., from the          The conference will be from 8        instruction, and by age seven was             pleasure in other academic and social       looks up words frequently.
Language, and Intervention”                 William Penn Charter School               a.m. to 4 p.m. A continental breakfast    diagnosed as with dyslexia. This was          activities and he had a strong sense of          Do you like to read now? Very
     an update from Maryanne Wolfe’s        presenting the Math session               and a boxed lunch are included in the
                                                                                                                                in the 1930’s, in the middle of the           confidence. He describes Margaret           much so! Before reading a book, Bart
RAVE-O (Retrieval, Automaticity,            “Pathways to Fractions”                   registration fees. Last October more
                                                                                                                                depression, when there was little             Rawson as “a truly remarkable               looks at the chapter headings and
Vocabulary, Engagement,                         Mary Budzilowicz, M.Ed.,              than 350 attended the conference and
                                                                                                                                understanding of the reading process.         person” whose “greatest gift was one        reads some of the beginning and
Orthography) developed at Tufts             Education Resource Center                 visited 30 exhibitors.
University;                                 Coordinator at Cabrini College                 For information regarding            But Bart had two factors in his favor.        of hope…There isn’t anything you            ending, to give himself a context. He
     Michael Castleberry, Ph.D., from       discussing “Assistive Technologies for    exhibitors, scholarships and volunteer    First, he was lucky enough to receive         cannot do if you set your mind to it        reads financial materials for work, and
George Washington University joins          Literacy Instruction”;                    opportunities, please contact             intensive reading instruction at The          and work.” And work he did.                 recently read “Poisonwood Bible” and
The Summit School’s Executive                   Special Education attorney   or call (610) 527-     School in Rose Valley from Margaret                 How did you learn to write as         “The Kite Runner”; Bart says that
Director Jane Snider, Ph.D., and            Dennis McAndrews speaking on the          1548.                                     Rawson, a teacher at the school who           well as you do? Writing and spelling        when he began those books he could
School Psychologist Bernice Conklin-        law regarding learning disabilities            Registration will open online at     was a pioneer in the identification and       are difficult for dyslexics, and yet Bart   not put them down!
Powers, Ph.D., in presenting                    Tricia McLeod, M.Ed., and Sonya this summer.                teaching of students with dyslexia.           wrote extensively for the Law Review             Bart has worked hard to help
“Programming from Diagnostic Data:          Kosc, M.Ed., from the Central Bucks                                                 Second, Bart had “persistence and             and in his legal career. Bart says he       others learn to read as he did. He was
                                                                                                                                determination” and a “strong drive to         learned to write at the Westtown            a board member of the Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                master (his problems) and to catch up         School. He remembers an assignment          Branch of the International Dyslexia
                                         “Focus” is published three times annually.                                             with his classmates,”* a drive which          in which students were asked to             Society (PBIDA) for nine years and
                                                                                                                                sustained his belief in himself as he         analyze the structure of a speech           was Chair of the Fundraising
            We are delighted to announce that Eugenie Walsh Flaherty, Ph.D., Director of Assessment                             worked harder than his classmates.            William Pitt the Elder gave to the          Committee for the 2004 National IDA
                Services at Bryn Mawr Child Study Institute, has agreed to serve as our Editor.                                      How did you learn to read?               House of Commons on the Stamp               conference in Philadelphia. In 2002,
                   To submit an article or an advertisement, please contact the PBIDA office at                                 Margaret Rawson and her colleagues            Act in January 1766. In analyzing Pitt’s    Bart received the Janet L. Hoopes
                                                                                                                                were introduced to the Orton-                 speech, students discovered that Pitt       Award from the PBIDA for his
                          or call (610) 527-1548.
                                                                                                                                Gillingham approach in 1935, and              first presented and discussed two           contributions.
                                                                                                                                quickly brought that program to the           elements, then returned to the original
                                                    PBIDA has been named a                                                      school. Bart worked with Margaret             question and summarized what he             * Developmental Language Disability, Adult
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Accomplishments of Dyslexic Boys (1968, 1978),
                                 2005 “Standards of Excellence” branch                                                          Rawson intensively for three years,
                                                                                                                                from the third through the fifth grade,
                                                                                                                                                                              had said, and finally presented the last
                                                                                                                                                                              two elements. Bart used this approach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          by Margaret Rawson, Educators Publishing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Service Inc. (ISBN 0-8388-1670-3).
                                                      by the National office.

                                                            -14-                                                                                                                                -3-
Language Skills, Learning to Read and Reading Intervention
continued from page 1
listening skills, but also in learning to   reading development of 90 children               recognition, both vocabulary and
read because written language builds        between the ages of 4 years 9 months             grammatical awareness were
on a foundation in oral language skills.    and 6 years 9 months, assessing them             important predictors, together with
      It is useful to distinguish speech    annually on tests of letter knowledge,           earlier word recognition. Thus it
skills from language abilities when         word recognition and phonological                seems that vocabulary and
considering literacy development.           awareness (rhyme and phoneme).                   grammatical awareness together with
Learning to read in an alphabetic           They were also given a test of                   basic word recognition measured at
system, such as English, requires the       vocabulary at 4 years, two tests of              age 5 are the foundations of reading
development of mappings between             grammar at 5 years (one requiring the            comprehension at age 6.
speech sounds and letters – the             child to order words to make a                         With these findings as a
so–called alphabetic principle - and        sentence and one requiring them to               back–drop, we can make some
this depends on speech skills. Wider        inflect words in a morpheme generation           predictions about the risk of reading
language skills are required to             task). We also measured their reading            impairments in children; since
understand the meanings of words            comprehension at the end of the study.           phonological difficulties will affect the
and sentences, to integrate these in             Figure 2 shows a simplified model           development of phoneme awareness
texts and to make inferences that go        of the developmental relationships we            and also affect the child’s ability to
beyond the printed words.                   found among early literacy skills (using         learn letter sounds (a phonological
      More formally, the relationship       path analysis). Basically, there were            learning task), children with poor
between oral and written language           two 4-year-old predictors of individual          phonology will be at risk of poor
skills has been simulated in                differences in word recognition at age 5;        word recognition. On the other
computational models of the reading         these were phoneme awareness and                 hand, we can predict that wider
process. In the triangle model of Plaut     letter knowledge; and from age 5 to age          language difficulties will place children
and colleagues (shown in figure 1),         6 there were three predictors, phoneme           at risk of reading comprehension
reading is conceptualised as the            awareness, letter knowledge and 5-yr-            difficulties. However, identifying the
interaction of a phonological pathway       old word recognition. In short, when             predictors of reading among typically
mapping between letters and sounds          earlier word recognition skills were             developing children is not the same
and a semantic pathway mapping              controlled in this model, there were just        enterprise as identifying who will
between letters and sounds via              two early predictors of word                     become a poor reader. A range of
meanings (Plaut, McClelland,                recognition at age 6, phoneme                    factors both intrinsic to the child and
Seidenberg, & Patterson, 1996). In the      awareness and letter knowledge. Thus,            environmental in origin can modify
early stages of learning to read,           children who come to school knowing              the outcome of a child who might be
children’s attention is devoted to          letters and being able to segment                considered ‘at risk’. So what is the
establishing the phonological pathway       spoken words into speech sounds fare             evidence from atypical populations of
(‘phonics’). Later children begin to rely   better in the reading stakes. As Byrne           the association between different
increasingly on word meanings to gain       (1998) has argued, these two skills are          language deficits and different patterns
fluency in their reading. We can think      fundamental to the alphabetic principle;         of reading impairment?
of this as an increase in the role of the   but what then is the role of wider                     It is now well-established that
semantic pathway, something which is        language skills beyond phonology?                children with dyslexia (who typically
particularly important for reading               To answer this question we ran              have word recognition deficits in the
exception words in English, such as         two further analyses. In the first, we           absence of poor comprehension) have
yacht and pint , words that cannot be       showed that neither vocabulary                   phonological deficits. Figure 3 (panel a)
processed efficiently by the                measured at 4 years nor grammar                  shows the performance of children with
phonological pathway. Arguably,             measured at 5 years predicted word               dyslexia on a task in which they had to
however, this model is limited for          recognition at age 6. However, when              remove a phoneme from a spoken word
considering the risk of reading             the outcome was reading                          (phoneme deletion) and in repeating
difficulties among children with spoken     comprehension rather than word                   nonwords, compared with that of
language impairments; the model is of                                                        children of the same age (CA-controls)
single word reading but most reading                         Semantics                       and younger children reading at the
takes place in context. Language skills                       meaning                        same level (RA-controls). The children
beyond phonology that encompass
grammar and pragmatics are needed
                                                                                             with dyslexia showed impairments on
                                                                                                                                                                              IDA Disclaimer                                       CONTACT PBIDA:
for making use of context.                                                                    Phoneme                                                                                                                            
      In order to discuss the risk of                                                                                                                         The International Dyslexia Association supports efforts to
                                             Orthography                    Phonology
reading difficulties among children              print                       speech
                                                                                                                    Recognition                           provide individuals with dyslexia with appropriate instruction and to      PBIDA:
with language difficulties it is                                                                                                              Word        identify these individuals at an early age. The Association and the     PO Box 251, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
important to begin by considering           Figure 1.
                                                                                               Letters                Letters
                                                                                                                                                          Pennsylvania Branch, however, do not endorse any specific program,              (610) 527-1548
what studies of typical development         Triangle Model of Reading (after Seidenberg &                                                                 speaker, product, or instructional material, noting that there are a
have told us about the role of              McClelland, 1989). In this model, the mappings                                                                                                                                        Pittsburgh Group:
                                                                                             Figure 2                                                     number of such which present the critical components of instruction
language skills in learning to read.        between orthography to phonology comprise the                                                                                                                                          PO Box 536, Wexford, PA 15090
                                                                                             Path diagram showing the relationships between               as defined by IDA.
      Muter, Hulme, Snowling &              phonological pathway; mappings between orthog-
                                                                                             pre-school phonological awareness and later                                                                                                    (412) 761-0898
Stevenson (2004) followed the early         raphy and phonology via semantics comprise the
                                                                                             word recognition skills (after Muter et al., 2004).
                                            semantic pathway.
                                                                                                                    continued on page 5
                                                                 -4-                                                                                                                                             -13-
              Our Institutional Members Announce                                                                                       Language Skills, Learning to Read and Reading Intervention
                                                                                                                                       continued from page 4
                                                                                                                                       both tasks in relation to both CA- and                           shown in Figure 4, they have problems          looked at their motor skills, behaviour
                        Summer Programs                                                                                                RA-matched controls. Perhaps less well
                                                                                                                                       recognised are the phonological learning
                                                                                                                                                                                                        of oral fluency in a task in which they
                                                                                                                                                                                                        are given a target word and have to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and psycho-social development but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       those findings will not be discussed
                                                                                                                                       difficulties of these children. Kristina                         generate semantically related words in a       here). At each point in time they were
       BIDA has many membership                  The Janus School Summer              Orton-Gillingham approach. It

                                                                                                                                       Goetz in our lab taught children with                            30-second interval. They are also              compared with a control group who
       opportunities for our                Program runs Mon. through Fri.,           provides free tutoring in many area              dyslexia a set of Greek letter-names.                            impaired when judging whether pairs of         came from families who had no history
       community. One level is              June 26th – July 28. The Core             schools. Summer courses for educators            Each letter was shown twice paired                               spoken words are similar in meaning,           of reading impairment but were similar
Institutional, for non-profit schools,      Program meets in the morning and          and volunteers can be found at                   with its name, followed by 6 learning                            both in terms of accuracy and in the           in socioeconomic circumstances. As
learning centers and organizations in       individually scheduled tutoring is 100 W.10th St.,           trials with feedback. Figure 3 (panel b)                         time it takes to make the judgements.          predicted, at 8 years of age, we found an
Pennsylvania and Delaware.                  available in the afternoon. Language      Wilmington, DE 19801 (888) 311-1156.             shows the performance of the children                            Thus, poor comprehenders have an               increased risk of poor reading and
      We’re pleased to share the            Arts and Mathematics instruction in            Stratford Friends School                    with dyslexia on the last trial of the                           impairment of semantics that within the        spelling among the children at family
Summer Events planned by some of            small classroom settings. Ages 6 – 16.    Summer Learning Program is                       experiment and after a short delay.                              triangle model compromises the use of          risk of dyslexia. Our definition of poor
our Institutional members.                  205 Lefevre Rd. Mount Joy, PA. (717)      designed for students who need specific          Compared with children of the same                               the semantic pathway. As a                     literacy was having literacy skills 1SD
      Camp Hill Top (Hill Top Prep)         653-0025,          teaching due to a learning difference.           age, they learned fewer letters and                              consequence they have subtle                   below the average of the control group
                                                                                                                                       performed only as well as younger RA                             impairments of exception word reading          of similar SES. In relation to this norm,
is a full day program which features             Laughlin Center offers summer        June 26-July 28. Full day program
                                                                                                                                       controls. Thus, given the problems                               but their use of the phonological              66% of the family sample was affected.
instruction in English, math and            tutoring with day (June 19 – July 14;     including an afternoon camp setting. In
                                                                                                                                       children with dyslexia have in the two                           pathway is unimpaired.                         We then proceeded to compare the
computers and is followed by                July 17 – August 11) and evening (June    addition, the Fast ForWord Program               basic components of alphabetic skill                                   Findings from children with              developmental profiles of the at-risk
recreational activities that build social   19 – August 16) hours. Sessions address   runs for six weeks, starting on June 19.         (letters and phonemes), it is not                                dyslexia and children with selective           affected children (who we will refer to
skills and self-confidence in a relaxed     individual needs or enhance skills in     A speech and language therapist                  surprising that they have difficulties                           deficits of reading comprehension              as dyslexic), those ‘at risk’ children who
and supportive environment. 5th             reading, math, written language and       oversees this part of the program. 5             developing decoding skills (the                                  suggest that there is a degree of              became normal readers and the control
through 9th grades. Hill Top Summer         study and organizational skills. 424      Llandillo Rd. Havertown, PA. (610)               phonological pathway within the                                  modularity in the developing reading           group (removing 4 cases of dyslexia).
Workshops offers an academic                Frederick Ave, Sewickley, PA (412)        446-3144,               triangle model).                                                 system. Furthermore, they confirm              Figure 5 (panel a) shows the
program for 9th through 12th grades         741-4087,               West Chester Friends School                       On the other side of the coin is a                         that poor phonology should be                  performance of the three groups of
in the morning and/or exploration of             The Masonic Learning Centers         Summer Programs offer several                    reading impairment affecting children                            considered a risk factor for problems          children on language and phonological
creativity in the afternoon hands-on        for Children: Altoona, Patty              workshops in the arts, including                 who have been called poor                                        of word recognition, whereas                   tasks at 4 and at 6 years of age. At 4
workshops. 737 S. Ithan Ave.                Harrison, Director (814) 940-5748;        drama, creative writing, the visual arts,        comprehenders. Poor comprehenders                                semantic impairments (principally              years, the oral language development of
Rosemont, PA (610) 527-3230,                New Castle, Bev Anderson, Director        music and photography, as well as                have normal decoding skills but                                  poor vocabulary) carry the risk of             the dyslexic children was slow                        (724) 654-3989; Pittsburgh, Maria         fitness, science and geography. Ages             impaired reading comprehension.                                  poor reading comprehension. But                compared with that of the two normal
      The Summer at Crossroads              Paluselli, Director (412) 931-3181        4 through the 6th grade, depending               Studies conducted by Kate Nation and I                           pure disorders are rare in                     reader groups. At 6, the dyslexic group
Program offers small group                       The Masonic Learning Centers         upon activity chosen. 415 N. High                suggests that these children’s difficulties                      development and more commonly                  were already showing difficulty with
instruction to strengthen academic          provide tutoring at no charge to          Street, West Chester, PA (610)                   are semantic in nature. Thus, although                           children’s reading difficulties reflect        phonological awareness tasks,
skills and strategies as well as            children in Kindergarten through high     696-2962,                      poor comprehenders perform at the                                the balance of their language strengths        particularly phoneme awareness, after
                                                                                                                                       normal level on phonological tasks, as                           and weaknesses, modified by any                only a short time of reading instruction.
kindergarten readiness. Choose the          school who have been diagnosed with            Woodlynde School Summer
                                                                                                                                                                                                        interventions they have received.              On phonological awareness tasks, the
a.m. academic program alone or              dyslexia. They are accredited by          Program and Camp offers                         Panel A
                                                                                                                                                                                                              The interaction of different
combine with the afternoon recreation       IMSLEC, and also offer training to        Elementary and Middle & Upper                    20
                                                                                                                                                                                                        language skills in determining the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Panel A.
program. Entering kindergarten              those interested in receiving initial     School programs for children with                16
                                                                                                                                                                                                        literacy outcomes of children at risk of
through 6th grade. 1681 N. Valley Rd.       certification in the Orton-Gillingham     diverse learning styles. Lower School            12                                                  CA control   reading failure can be seen clearly in a      35
Paoli, PA (610) 296-6765 ext. 302,          method of remediation.                    Programs include Summer Safari Day               10
                                                                                                                                                                                           RA control
                                                                                                                                                                                           Dyslexic     family study of dyslexia recently             25                                                                   Control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Poor compr                Camp, Remarkable Readers and                      6                                                               reported by Snowling, Gallagher and
      Delaware Valley Friends School             Quaker School at Horsham             Writers, and Math Explorations. For               2                                                               Frith (2003). This study followed the         10
Summer 2006 Program is a five               Summer Program offers a five week         students entering 7th through 12th                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                        progress of pre-school children,              0
                                                                                                                                                    phoneme                 nwrep                                                                                             rhyme                   semantic
week program for students entering          program for children with learning        grades, opportunities for                                                                                         recruited just before their fourth
grades 7 through high school who            differences who need help in retaining    reinforcement, maintenance and                  Panel B
                                                                                                                                                                                                        birthday who were considered ‘at risk’        Panel B

need one-on-one tutorials to advance        and reinforcing skills in Language        enrichment of reading, writing and                 6
                                                                                                                                                                                                        of dyslexia. The risk in this case was                         1100

their academic skills in reading and        Arts and mathematics during the           mathematics skills are available. 445              5
                                                                                                                                                                                                        carried by virtue of the fact that they                        1000
writing and small group instruction in      summer. Wilson Reading System and         Upper Gulph Road, Strafford, PA                                                                                   had a parent with a history of reading                          800

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RT (msec)
                                                                                                                                                                                          Last Block
                                                                                                                                         3                                                                                                                              700
Math, study hall and art. June 26 –         Project Read, Framing Your Thoughts       (610) 687-9660,                  2
                                                                                                                                                                                          Delayed Rec   difficulties, although it is interesting to                     600

July 28, 8:45 – 12:45. 19 East Central      offered by a certified tutor. June 26 –        One of our Corporate Level (for               1
                                                                                                                                                                                                        note that some 38% of these children                            500

Ave. Paoli, PA (610) 640-4150 X 2160,       July 28, 8:30 AM through 3:00 PM.         profit organizations) members, Total               0
                                                                                                                                                                                                        were late talkers. A point of note about                        300                       Half day and full day programs            Learning Centers offers intensive
                                                                                                                                                Dyslexia      CA Controls   RA Controls                 the children in this sample was that, as                        200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Synonym Task              Rhyme Task

      Glassworks at The Crefeld             available. 318 Meetinghouse Rd.,          remediation in Orton-Gillingham and              Figure 3.                                                        we will see later, they did not show the                                                Controls    Poor Comprehenders

                                                                                                                                       Panel A. Performance of children with dyslexia                   typical modular deficit in phonological        Figure 4.
School A non-profit glass blowing           Horsham, PA. (215) 674-2875,              other curriculums, multisensory math,            compared with CA- and RA-controls on tests of                    skills that characterises research             Panel A. Performance of poor comprehenders on
and beadmaking facility. Three camp                      study skills, creative writing, social skills    phoneme deletion and nonword repetition, show-                   samples of children with dyslexia who          a test of oral fluency. The poor comprehenders
sessions: June 26 – 30; July 3 – 8               Reading Assist Institute helps       and keyboarding. They have three                 ing that the children with dyslexia are impaired                 are recruited at school age.                   showed normal rhyme fluency but impaired
(closed July 4); and July 10 – 14; 9 am     children with reading disabilities by     Pittsburgh locations: Fox Chapel,                (from Marshall et al., 2001). Panel B.                                                                          semantic fluency. Panel B. Performance of poor
                                                                                                                                       Performance of children with dyslexia on the last                      The children in the ‘at risk’ study
– 3 pm. Field Trips. (215) 242-5545         training tutors and teachers in a         Murrysville, and Wexford. (877)-                                                                                  were assessed at 4, 6 and 8 years of age       comprehenders on aural tests of synonym and
                                                                                                                                       block of trials of a letter learning experiment and                                                             rhyme judgement. The poor comprehenders
ext. 24,                   phonetic-based, multisensory structured   SKILL-1,             after a short delay; the children with dyslexia                  on a large battery of tests of language        showed normal rhyme but impaired semantic
                                            language curriculum inspired by the                                                        learned fewer letters than age-matched (CA) con-                 and reading-related tasks (we also             judgements. (after Nation & Snowling, 1998).
                                                                                                                                       trols (Goetz, unpublished).                                                                                                                                continued on page 6
                                                             -12-                                                                                                                                                          -5-
Language Skills, Learning to Read and Reading Intervention
continued from page 5
‘at risk’ normal readers were not
statistically different from the control
group, but it is interesting to note, that
                                               intervention that involved teaching
                                               reading using a highly structured
                                               phonic approach in which children
                                                                                                                          programme with training in oral
                                                                                                                          phonological awareness made no
                                                                                                                          difference; it was not needed. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Early Warning Signs of
there was a trend for them to be
slightly worse, that was not seen for
oral language development. Figure 5
                                               are taught to link letters and sounds in
                                               the context of their reading. In
                                               addition, some children in the study
                                                                                                                          typically developing children appeared
                                                                                                                          to benefit from a phonic teaching
                                                                                                                          programme that encouraged them to
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Potential Reading Difficulties
(panel b) shows performance of the
groups on tests of early literacy skills.
Here the picture is somewhat different.
                                               had the reading programme
                                               supplemented with oral phonological
                                               awareness training.
                                                                                                                          sound out words and to use context
                                                                                                                          without oral training. However, for
                                                                                                                          the ‘at risk’ group, supplementing the
                                                                                                                                                                                                       in the Pre-Kindergarten Years
As expected, the children with dyslexia              The design of our study was as                                       programme with phonological
were impaired in letter knowledge and          follows: there were 4 matched groups;                                      awareness training was helpful.                            CAUTION: No single behavioral indicator is predictive of potential reading difficulties.
on a test of phonic skill (literally the       one received reading intervention                                               Figure 6 shows the effects of the                           The behaviors listed below should be considered ‘red flags.’ A cognitive
number of words they were able to              comprising phonic reading alone (PR),                                      early intervention for the ‘at risk’                             reading disability, or dyslexia, can be diagnosed only by means of a
write correctly in a spelling test).           one received PR together with                                              children by plotting their performance                           comprehensive psychoeducational evaluation conducted by a professional
However, the performance of the ‘at            training about the rhyming                                                 in standard scores at each time point                            with experience in working with young children.
risk’ children who went on to be               relationships between words, one                                           relative to the non-at-risk mean. It
normal readers was also less good than         received PR and training in phoneme                                        shows that children who receive only                       WARNING SIGNS IN SPEECH:
that of controls; it was midway between        skills and a final group received PR                                       reading tuition show a widening gap
                                                                                                                                                                                         —-Delayed speech development. The developmental norms are for emergence of
that of the controls and the children          and training about phonemes and                                            between their performance and that of
with dyslexia on the test of letter            rimes. To clarify, all children received                                   their peers. However, supplementing                        single words around 12 months, short phrases around 18-24 months, and 3-4 word sentences around
knowledge and as poor as the affected          the same reading programme over five                                       the program leads to a stemming of                         24-30 months.
group on the phonetic spelling test.           terms during the first two years in                                        this decline; this upturn occurs earliest                      —-Pronunciation problems, persistent baby talk, difficulty being understood by
      In summary, the ‘at risk’ children       school; the rhyme group had rhyming                                        for the programme that involves                                   other than immediate family members.
who went on to be classified as                activities, the phoneme group                                              training phonemes. The programme                               —-Slow vocabulary growth.
‘dyslexic’ had impairments on a wide           phoneme manipulation activities and                                        that was used in this study was                                —-Difficulty playing rhyming games at age 5.
range of measures including                    the combined group worked with                                             delivered in the first two years of                            —-Once the child is speaking in sentences, he/she seems to take a long time
phonological awareness and letter              both rimes and phonemes.                                                   school but on a whole-class basis. The                            finding the words.
knowledge but extending to other                     Two points need to be made                                           findings are positive but they suggest                         —-Difficulty remembering people’s names.
measures of oral language, such as             about our results. First, for children                                     that whole-class instruction will not be                       —-Misuse of pronouns (I, me, he, she, you) at and older than 36 months.
vocabulary and expressive grammar.             who were not at risk of poor reading,                                      sufficient to prevent the development
                                                                                                                                                                                         —-Difficulty retelling a story with three details by 36-48 months.
The ‘at risk’ children who went on to          supplementing the phonic reading                                           of reading difficulties in children who
be normal readers were as poor as the        Panel A                                                                      are at-risk of reading problems. These
children with dyslexia in tasks tapping                                                                                   children may need more intensive                           WARNING SIGNS IN LISTENING:
                                                         Age 4 years        Age 6 years
the use of the phonological pathway            30                                                                         intervention, individual or small group                      —-Difficulty understanding when parents talk to him/her.
and they were moderately impaired in           25
                                                                                                                          teaching, to prevent them going on to                        —-Difficulty following sequential verbal directions, difficulty remembering
letter knowledge, but their (non-              20
                                                                                                                          develop reading difficulties.                                  more than one step at a time.
phonological) oral language                    15
                                                                                                    Control                    I began by distinguishing the role                      —-Delayed response when others talk to him/her; seems to need more time than
development was normal. Since these                                                                 At risk normal
                                                                                                    At risk dyslexic
                                                                                                                          of speech and of language skills in the                        the norm to process what others say to him/her.
children did not succumb to reading                                                                                       development of reading. I argued that                        —-Does not listen to age-appropriate reading (from books with colorful
deficits at 8 years, we must assume                                                                                       speech skills (phonology) are the                              illustrations) for 4-5 minutes by age 24-36 months.
that they were able to compensate for            0
                                                       vocab     exp lang   rime      phoneme                             foundation of word recognition
the phonic decoding deficit they             Panel B                                                                      processes in reading while language
                                                                                                                                                                                     WARNING SIGNS IN WRITING:
experienced, possibly by relying on             30
their good language skills. In terms of                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                       —-By age three, should recognize that certain signs (STOP, McDonald’s) have
the triangle model then, the at-risk                                                                                    -0.1                                                             specific meaning.
normal readers showed a selective                                                               control
                                                                                                                                                                   Read+rime +phon
                                                                                                                                                                                       —-Slow to recognize letters of his or her own name.
                                                15                                                                      -0.3
impairment of the phonological                                                                  At risk normal reader
                                                                                                At risk dyslexic        -0.4
                                                                                                                                                                   Read + rime         —-By age 4-5 years, should recognize that reading goes from left to right.
pathway at 6, which was                                                                                                 -0.5
                                                                                                                                                                   Read + phoneme      —-Unable to recognize and name upper-case letters at entry to kindergarten.
                                                 5                                                                                                                 Read
compensated by age 8.                                                                                                   -0.6                                       Norm
       Another potentially protective                   letters (4yrs)      gpc (6 yrs)                                 -0.7                                                         FAMILY HISTORY: a family history of difficulty in learning to read and of slow
factor for children at risk of reading        Figure 5                                                                  -0.8
                                                                                                                                                                                          reading as an adult may place a child at risk for reading difficulties.
failure is early intervention. In a           Early language and literacy skills of children at
                                                                                                                               Age 5   Age 5;06 Age 6;06   Age 7
recent study, Hatcher, Hulme and              high-risk of dyslexia and controls. Panel A shows
                                              that the ‘at risk’ children who went on to be                               Figure 6                                                   THANK YOU to the many professionals and researchers whose work led to this list, and especially to S.
Snowling (2004) attempted to
                                              dyslexic were delayed in their early language                               Reading attainments of children at risk of poor            Shaywitz (Overcoming Dyslexia, 2004) and to S.L. Hall and L.C. Moats (Straight Talk About Reading, 1999).
circumvent the development of                                                                                             reading, relative to controls, during the first two
                                              development (at 4 years) and in the development
reading problems in children who              of phonological awareness (at 6 years). Panel B                             years in school. The graph shows there is a
entered school with poor vocabulary                                                                                       widening gap between the skills of the ‘at risk’           Produced by the Bryn Mawr College Child Study Institute (Roberta Krauss, Ph.D., Anne Robbins, Psy.D.,
                                              shows that the ‘at risk’ children who went on to
and poor phonological awareness.              be normal readers at 8 showed early literacy                                group and their peers. However, the gap is shown           & Eugenie Flaherty, Ph.D.) and by the Pennsylvania Branch of the International Dyslexia Association
This study involved 20 schools in             problems; their letter knowledge was moderately                             as beginning to close in response to a phonic
which we trained the reception and            impaired at 4 years and they were impaired in                               reading intervention supplemented by phonologi-
                                              translating between graphemes and phonemes at                               cal awareness training (after Hatcher, Hulme &
Year 1 teachers to deliver an                                                                                             Snowling, 2004).
                                              6 years (after Snowling et al., 2003).
                                                                                                                                                   continued on page 7
                                                                               -6-                                                                                                                                                         -11-
  PBIDA Welcomes Our New Officers and Board Members                                                                            Language Skills, Learning to Read and Reading Intervention
                                                                                                                               continued from page 6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Nominations sought
     PBIDA announces the 2006 slate        practice in Wayne, PA, a Past President        Michael J. Rudolph is an
                                                                                                                               skills are critical to language
                                                                                                                               comprehension (our focus was on
                                                                                                                                                                                   Carroll, J. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2004).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            for the Annual
of officers:                               of the PBIDA Board of Directors and       investment officer with Davidson
     President, Jack Rogers; Immediate     the 2004 National IDA Conference          Capital Management.
                                                                                                                               semantics but grammar and
                                                                                                                               pragmatics are likely to be important
                                                                                                                                                                                      Language and phonological skills in children
                                                                                                                                                                                      at high-risk of reading difficulties. Journal of     Janet L. Hoopes
Past President, John Kruidenier;           Local Arrangements Co-Chair.                   In addition, two Board members       too, particularly in explaining how                    Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 45, 631-640.
Treasurer, Michael J. Rudolph;                  Sara Rivers, M.Ed., is the           were re-elected to a second three year    children use context during their
                                                                                                                               reading). The findings from atypical
                                                                                                                                                                                   Hatcher, P.J., Hulme, C. & Snowling, M.J. (2004)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Explicit phonological training combined with
Recording Secretary, Cynthia Solot;        Outreach Coordinator and Reading          term:
                                                                                                                               development suggest that speech and                    reading instruction helps young children at
and Corresponding Secretary, Lisa          Supervisor of the Teacher Training             Elissa Fisher, Ed.M., is a founder                                                          risk of reading failure. Journal of Child                BIDA members are invited to

Goldstein.                                 Center at the Stratford Friends School    of the Hill Top School in Rosemont,       language skills work in interaction to
                                                                                                                                                                                      Psychology & Psychiatry, 45, 338-358.
                                                                                                                               determine literacy outcomes. At the                                                                             submit nominations for the 2006
      The following have been elected      in Havertown, PA, and the Program         PA, a private educational consultant,                                                         Marshall, C.M., Snowling, M.J. and Bailey, P.J.
                                                                                                                               core of reading difficulties are                                                                                Janet L. Hoopes Award. The
to a three year term to our Board of       Committee Chair for PBIDA’s 27th          and PBIDA’s Membership Committee          phonological problems, but children                    (2001) Rapid auditory processing and phono-
                                                                                                                                                                                      logical processing in normal readers and           presentation will be made at the 28th
Directors:                                 and 28th Annual Fall Conferences.         Chair.                                    with good language skills beyond                       readers with dyslexia. Journal of Speech,          Annual Fall Conference, “Making the
     Jeannie Bowman, M.L.A., is the             Patricia Roberts, M.Ed., is the           Lisa Goldstein, M.D., is a Child     phonology can use these to bootstrap                   Hearing and Language Research, 44, 925-940.        Connection: Reading Success and
Director of Admissions at the              Executive Director of the Academy in      and Adolescent Psychiatrist in private    their ineffective phonic skills probably            Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., &              Language Skills” on Friday, October 6
Delaware Valley Friends School in          Manayunk (PA), a member of the            practice in Rosemont and has chaired      by using context in reading. This is                   Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, Rimes,
                                                                                                                               why interventions that train phoneme                                                                      at The Union League in Philadelphia.
Paoli, PA and the co-chair of PBIDA’s      27th Annual Fall Conference Public        the Hospitality Committee for PBIDA’s                                                            Vocabulary, and Grammatical Skills as
                                                                                                                               awareness and at the same time                                                                                 This prestigious award, instituted
28th Annual Fall Conference.               Relations Committee and a parent of       26th and 27th Annual Conferences.                                                                Foundations of Early Reading Development:
                                                                                                                               encourage children to make full use of                 Evidence from a Longitudinal Study.                in 1993, will be given to an individual
     Marianne Cook is a tutor in private   a child with dyslexia.
                                                                                                                               phonological, semantic and syntactic                   Developmental Psychology, 40, 665-681.             or individuals from Pennsylvania or
                                                                                                                               cues in text are effective for children             Nathan, L., Stackhouse, J., Goulandris, N., &         Delaware who have made a
                                           Welcome to PBIDA!                                                                   with reading difficulties.
                                                                                                                                     Finally, to return to our initial
                                                                                                                                                                                      Snowling, M. J. (2004). Literacy skills and
                                                                                                                                                                                      Children with Speech Difficulties. Journal of
                                                                                                                                                                                      Speech, Hearing and Language Research., 47,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         significant contribution to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         advancement of the education of
                                                                                                                               question, when does slow speech                                                                           those with learning differences.
PBIDA announces our new                    Jane Gillan, Malvern, PA                       Total Learning Centers, with         development become a cause for                         377-391.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Nation, K., & Snowling, M. J. (1998). Semantic        Additional information about Dr.
members from October 2005                  Melanie Goodman, Elkins Park, PA          locations in Wexford and Etna,            concern? Findings from recent
                                                                                                                                                                                      processing and the development of word             Hoopes and this award can be found
through March 2006.                        Denise Johnson, Exton, PA                 Pennsylvania have joined PBIDA at         research on children who have speech
                                                                                                                                                                                      recognition skills: evidence from children         by visiting the calendar section of our
Evaline Alessandrini, Wilmington, DE       Jennifer Lillenstein, Lebanon, PA         the Corporate membership level.           difficulties suggest that, for them too,
                                                                                                                                                                                      with reading comprehension difficulties.           website,
Grace Ashton, Bryn Mawr, PA                CJ Lyford, Wyndmoor, PA                        All PBIDA members have access        having good language mitigates the                     Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 85-101.
                                                                                                                               risk of reading failure (Stothard,                                                                             The Awards Committee
Charlotte Babinski, Philadelphia           Penny Moldofsky, Paoli, PA                to the members-only pages on our                                                              Plaut, D. C., McClelland, J. L., Seidenberg, M. S.,
                                                                                                                               Snowling, Bishop, Chipchase &                                                                             encourages the submission of
Linda Bryan, McDonald, PA                  Jeanne Morgan, Penn Valley, PA            national website,                                                              & Patterson, K. (1996). Understanding nor-
                                                                                                                               Kaplan, 1998). However, if the                         mal and impaired word reading:                     nominations from a broad spectrum
Catherine Cipressi, Philadelphia           Judy Napoleone, Moon Township, PA         They will receive the following
                                                                                                                               speech difficulty is severe and persists               Computational principles in quasi-regular          of disciplines. All nominations should
Shelia Conway, Pittsburgh                  Nadia Penza, Doylestown, PA               publications: “Perspectives” four times
                                                                                                                               into the school years, then poor                       domains. Psychological Review, 103, 56-115.        include a brief biographical sketch of
Ellen Coulson, Wilmington, DE              Julia Rominger, Wilmington, DE            a year; “Focus” three times annually,     reading is a likely concomitant,                    Seidenberg, M. S., & McClelland, J. (1989). A         the nominee.
Janet Daltmer, Wexford, PA                 Dana Sinclair, Reading, PA                and “Annals of Dyslexia” twice a year.    regardless of whether wider language                   distributed, developmental model of word                Please email nominations to
Catherine Davidson, Pittsburgh             Carol Shore, Ardmore, PA                  Members also receive discounts to all     skills are also impaired (Carroll &                    recognition. Psychological Review, 96, 523- immediately.
Karen Davis, Erdenheim, PA                 Gerri Talley, Wilmington, DE              IDA conferences and symposia.             Snowling, 2004; Nathan, Stackhouse,                    568.
Wendy Farone, Pittsburgh                   C. Taylor-Fickes, Hummelstown, PA              Welcome, and thanks to each of       Goulandris & Snowling, 2004).                       Snowling, M. J., Gallagher, A., & Frith, U.
Rose Follmer, Havertown, PA                Mary Thompson, Apollo, PA                 you for your support.                                                                            (2003). Family risk of dyslexia is continuous:          Previous recipients of the
Benjamin Gallman, Philadelphia             Laurie Vogt, Akron, PA                                                              Maggie Snowling holds a personal Chair in the          Individual differences in the precursors of                Hoopes Award are:
                                                                                                                               Department of Psychology at the University of          reading skill. Child Development, 74, 358-
                                                                                                                               York, where she is a member of the Centre for          373.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1993:    Janet L. Hoopes
                                                                                                                               Reading and Language. Her research interests        Stothard, S. E., Snowling, M. J., Bishop, D. V. M.,
       News from our Pittsburgh Regional Group                                                                                 are in the normal and atypical development of
                                                                                                                               reading, developmental speech and language
                                                                                                                               disorders and reading intervention. She is also
                                                                                                                                                                                      Chipchase, B., & Kaplan, C. (1998). Language
                                                                                                                                                                                      impaired pre-schoolers: a follow-up in adoles-
                                                                                                                                                                                      cence. Journal of Speech, Language &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Virginia Biasotto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Joan Frank
        n February 3, 2006, the            technological accommodations              Pittsburgh, PA. Ninety-six parents and                                                                                                              1996:    Barbara Lorry

O                                                                                                                              a professionally qualified clinical psychologist.      Hearing Research, 41, 407-418.
        Pittsburgh Regional Group of       available through RFB&D.                  educators attended this simulation                                                                                                                  1997:    Thomas Atkins
                                                                                                                               Dr. Snowling has published more than 100 arti-
        the Pennsylvania Branch was             Presenters included Sharon Arffa,    and experienced the challenges that       cles and 8 books including “Dyslexia” now in                                                              1998:    Katherine Gordon-Clark
proud to join Recording for the Blind      Ph.D., Chief of Neuropsychological        an individual with a language-based       second edition (2000) and “The Science of                                                                 1999:    Dorothy Flanagan
& Dyslexic and The Watson Institute        Services at Watson; Maria Paluselli,      learning disability faces daily.          Reading” (with Charles Hulme, 2005), both pub-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sandra Howze
                                                                                                                               lished by Blackwell. She was awarded the
in co-sponsoring the symposium             M.Ed., Director of The Masonic                 Would you like to learn more         British Psychological Society Presidents’ Award                                                           2000:    Jean Bay
“Dyslexia: Description, Diagnosis,         Learning Center in Ross; and Lisa         about our group in southwestern           in 2003 for Distinguished Contributions to                                                                2001:    Elissa L. Fisher
and Treatment” at Watson’s facilities      Bledy, M.Ed., Regional Relationship       Pennsylvania? For more information        Psychological Knowledge and the IDA’s Samuel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rev. James H. Fisher
in Sewickley, PA. Forty people             Manager for RFB&D.                        about these events, dyslexia resources,   T. Orton Award in 2005. She is the
                                                                                                                               President–elect of the Society for the Scientific                                                         2002:    J. Barton Harrison
attended this daylong event and                 The Pittsburgh Group conducted       IDA membership, and volunteer
                                                                                                                               Study of Reading and will take up a British                                                               2003:    Lisa P. Simon
listened to presentations on the           “Put Yourself in the Shoes of a           opportunities with the Pittsburgh         Academy Readership 2005-7.
neuropsychological perspectives of         Dyslexic” on April 20, 2006 at            Regional Group, call (412) 761-0898                                                                                                                 2004:    National Conference in
dyslexia, the specifics of the Orton-      Jefferson Elementary School in the        or email at                                                                                                                                 Philadelphia (no award)
Gillingham approach, and the               West Jefferson Hills School District,                                                                                                                                                         2005:    Adele Gerber
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                  Sharon Tomalin – PBIDA Volunteer                                                                                                    Our Annual Appeal Honor Roll
          eet Sharon Tomalin, the           includes Speech and Language support         Her mother took the children to the

                                                                                                                                                        The Pennsylvania Branch of the International Dyslexia Association would like
          friendly and knowledgeable        for the children she tutors. In their        local Cleveland library frequently.                              to acknowledge the following contributors to our 2005 Annual Appeal:
          voice answering the PBIDA         spare time, Sharon and her husband           When Sharon was older and went to
phones every Thursday. Sharon retired       enjoy their Center City neighborhood,        the library on her own, she              Branch Benefactor ($500 and             Gerard and Elizabeth Stickles Fulda        Kimberley and Marty Grenn
in 2001 from The Crossroads School,         their three grandchildren, and travels all   remembers walking home “while            above)                                  Lisa Goldstein, M.D.                       Randie and Robert Harmelin
where she was Supervisor of the             over the world.                              reading a book-I don’t know why we       Cynthia B. Solot                        Katherine Gordon-Clark, Ph.D.              Shirley Kokesh
Middle School and also taught reading.            Sharon came by her love of             didn’t kill ourselves!” Today, her                                               J. Barton Harrison                         Karen M. Martini
                                                                                                                                  Branch Friend ($100 - $499)
                                                                                                                                                                          S. Hamill Horne                            Beverly McDonell
Sharon began her career as a high           books and reading at a young age.            favorite author is Jane Austen; she      Dr. Charna Axelrod
                                                                                                                                                                          Sandra Howze                               Richard F. Smith, Jr.
school English teacher, and became          Asked how she learned to read,               rereads her books regularly. Sharon is   Bank of America Philadelphia and
                                                                                                                                                                          Thomas and Nancy Jennings                  Gail Rudenstein
involved in reading disabilities and        Sharon answered that she had a sister,       a voracious reader of mysteries (she     Bucks County Market:
                                                                                                                                                                          John and Karin Kruidenier                  Geraldine G. Trent
teaching methods at the Hun School          Sandra, who was three years older,           has just finished all of Tony                    Jeff Adams
                                                                                                                                                                          Barbara J. Lorry, Ph.D.                    Marlyn Vogel
of Princeton Learning Center and then       and that she wanted to do everything         Hillerman’s books) and of political              Michelle Basile
                                                                                                                                                                          Marilyn Mathis
at the Newgrange School prior to            Sandra did, including reading. Sharon        commentary, including her favorites              Barbara Coniglio                                                           Branch Contributor (up to $49)
                                                                                                                                                                          Tamara and Ernest Normington
working at Crossroads. She has a            could read when she entered                  Thomas Friedman and Paul Krugman.                Mitch Cabin                                                                Alice Bussiere
                                                                                                                                                                          Ellen Reese
Masters degree in special education,        Kindergarten, and remembers being                 When Sharon has more time, she              Pamela Corey                                                               Beth Fluke
                                                                                                                                                                          Patricia Roberts
                                                                                                                                          Jessica Cressman                                                           Gail Gillespie
with emphasis on reading and dyslexia.      taught through the ‘See and Say’             hopes to work with adult dyslexics.                                              John T. Rogers
                                                                                                                                          Rose Ann Hennegan                                                          Victoria Reed Hurko
The PBIDA is lucky to have her!             method-essentially a method of               She reports that many adults with                                                Linda Waddell
                                                                                                                                          Angelina Jennings                                                          Laura Lott
     Sharon’s passion for reading is also   visually memorizing the words. The           reading difficulties call the PBIDA,             Janet Jerdon                    Branch Associate ($50 - $99)               Sara Rivers
apparent in her tutoring work with          first chapter book she ever read was         but the resources for helping them are           Dawn Livingston                 Jeffory T. Adams and Mary Ellen            Marilyn Sherwood
children in West Philadelphia. She          called The Five and a Half Club, and         limited. Please come to or call the              Joan Lake                       Trent                                      Kathleen and Richard Wallenius
works with a social service agency          to this day Sharon can retell much of        office, meet Sharon, thank her for               Dennis Romero                   Bryna Berman                               Tracy Geary Whaples
(AchieveAbility) and meets with             the book. She also recalls reading a         helping us, and offer to volunteer if            Wanda Smith                     Nancy and Brian Blair                      Maria Winig
children twice a week, using the Wilson     series of biographies bound in orange-       you can!                                         Alice Whitecraft                Jeannie and Darryl Bowman                  Mary Lee and John T. Young
Reading Program. Sharon’s ‘wish list’       does anyone remember those books?                                                     Michael Bookman and Maria Pia Plata     Cindy Carey
                                                                                                                                  Marianne Cook                           E. David Colburn                           We thank you all for your generous
                                                                                                                                  Eugenie Flaherty, Ph.D.                 Marianne D. Cornely                        support!

  Bank of America
  Runs for Reading
           hen Rosemont resident Jeff

W          Adams decided to start
           training for his first 5K run
this winter, he received some teasing
from his peers at Bank of America
where he’s a Consumer Marketing
Manager for Philadelphia and Bucks
County. Adams, a PBIDA member,
challenged his co-workers to sponsor
him on his first run on March 25. His
only request was that all donations go
to our local branch.
     These Bank of America associates
came through for us! Jeff and fourteen
others raised a total of $400.00 for
PBIDA’s Annual Appeal.
     PBIDA thanks the Bank of America
associates from Philadelphia and Bucks
County. They are individually
recognized in the Annual Appeal
recognitions column in this issue.
     We now have a challenge for our
readers: Can your organization,
business, or group of friends do the
same for PBIDA?

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