Drugs Study- ER emergency meds by chacyn0706


									    Name of Drug            Action           Indication       Contraindication           Adverse Reaction        Nursing Consideration
Paracetamol        Anti-pyretic      Symptomatic          · Contraindicated in       Hematologic: hemolytic     Use liquid form for
                                     relief of pain and   patients                   anemia,                    children and
                                     fever.               hypersensitive to drug.    neutropenia, leucopenia,   patients who have
                                                          · Use cautiously in        pancytopenia.              difficulty
                                                          patients with long         · Hepatic: Jaundice        swallowing.
                                                          term alcohol use because   · Metabolic:               · In children, don’t
                                                          therapeutic                Hypoglycemia               exceed five doses
                                                          doses cause                · Skin: rash, urticaria.   in 24 hours.
                                                          hepatotoxicity in these                               · Advise patient that drug
                                                          patients.                                             is only for
                                                                                                                short term use and to
                                                                                                                consult the
                                                                                                                physician if giving to
                                                                                                                children for
                                                                                                                longer than 5 days or
                                                                                                                adults for
                                                                                                                longer than 10 days.
                                                                                                                · Advise patient or
                                                                                                                caregiver that
                                                                                                                many over the counter
                                                                                                                contain acetaminophen;
                                                                                                                be aware
                                                                                                                of this when calculating
                                                                                                                total daily
                                                                                                                · Warn patient that high
                                                                                                                doses or
                                                                                                                unsupervised long term
                                                                                                                use can
                                                                                                                cause liver damage.
Diclofenac Na      * For relief of the      Voltaren® (diclofenac        Body as a Whole: fever,       Do not take an NSAID
                signs and symptoms of       sodium enteric-coated        infection, sepsis             medicine:
                osteoarthritis              tablets) is
                   * For relief of the      contraindicated in           Cardiovascular System:           * if you had an asthma
                signs and symptoms of       patients with known          congestive heart failure,     attack, hives, or other
                rheumatoid arthritis        hypersensitivity to          hypertension,                 allergic reaction with
                   * For acute or long-     diclofenac.                  tachycardia, syncope          aspirin or any other
                term use in the relief of                                                              NSAID medicine
                signs and symptoms of       Voltaren should not be       Digestive System: dry            * for pain right before
                ankylosing spondylitis      given to patients who        mouth, esophagitis,           or after heart bypass
                                            have experienced             gastric/peptic ulcers,        surgery
                                            asthma, urticaria, or        gastritis, gastrointestinal   Tell your healthcare
                                            other allergic-type          bleeding, glossitis,          provider:
                                            reactions after taking       hematemesis, hepatitis,
                                            aspirin or other NSAIDs.     jaundice                         * about all your
                                            Severe, rarely fatal,                                      medical conditions.
                                            anaphylactic-like            Hemic and Lymphatic              * about all of the
                                            reactions to NSAIDs          System: ecchymosis,           medicines you take.
                                            have been reported in        eosinophilia, leukopenia,     NSAIDs and some other
                                            such patients (see           melena, purpura, rectal       medicines can interact
                                            WARNINGS,                    bleeding, stomatitis,         with each other and
                                            Anaphylactoid                thrombocytopenia              cause serious side
                                            Reactions, and                                             effects.
                                            PRECAUTIONS,                 Metabolic and
                                            Preexisting Asthma).         Nutritional: weight
                                            Voltaren is
                                            contraindicated for the      Nervous System:
                                            treatment of                 anxiety, asthenia,
                                            perioperative pain in the    confusion, depression,
                                            setting of coronary artery   dream abnormalities,
                                            bypass graft (CABG)          drowsiness, insomnia,
                                            surgery                      malaise, nervousness,
EPHEDRINE   Ephedrine is a central     Ephedrine Sulfate             This medication is not       Nervousness, anxiety,        Special care should be
            nervous system stimulant   Injection, USP is             recommended for use if       dizziness, headache,         used when administering
            used to treat breathing    indicated in the treatment    you have the following       nausea, loss of appetite,    Ephedrine Sulfate
            problems (as a             of allergic disorders,        medical conditions:          or trouble sleeping may      Injection, USP to
            bronchodilator), nasal     such as bronchial             glaucoma (closed-angle       occur. If any of these       patients with heart
            congestion (as a           asthma. The drug has          type), certain psychiatric   effects persist or worsen,   disease, angina pectoris,
            decongestant), low blood   long been used as a           conditions (e.g.,            notify your doctor           diabetes,
            pressure problems          pressor agent,                psychoneurosis). Tell        promptly. Tell your          hyperthyroidism,
            (orthostatic               particularly during spinal    your doctor your medical     doctor immediately if        prostatic hypertrophy or
            hypotension), or           anesthesia when               history, especially of:      any of these serious side    hypertension and to
            myasthenia gravis.         hypotension frequently        heart problems (e.g.,        effects occur: chest pain,   patients receiving
                                       occurs. In Stokes-Adams       arrhythmias, chest pain),    unusually fast or            digitalis. Prolonged use
                                       syndrome with complete        blood vessel problems        irregular heartbeat,         may produce a syndrome
                                       heart block, ephedrine        (e.g., stroke or TIA),       vomiting,                    resembling an anxiety
                                       has a value similar to that   diabetes, over-active        tremor/shakiness,            state. Tolerance to
                                       of epinephrine. It is         thyroid                      sweating, severe weight      ephedrine sulfate may
                                       indicated as a central        (hyperthyroidism),           loss, difficult or painful   develop, but temporary
                                       nervous system stimulant      prostate problems, high      urination, stomach pain      discontinuance to the
                                       in narcolepsy and             blood pressure                                            drug restores its original
                                       depressive states. It is      (hypertension), kidney                                    effectiveness.
                                       also used in myasthenia       problems, any allergies.
Nalbuphine   Nalbuphine                  Nalbuphine                    Nalbuphine                  CNS Effects:                 Nalbuphine
             hydrochloride is a          hydrochloride is              hydrochloride injection     Nervousness, depression,     hydrochloride injection
             synthetic opioid agonist-   indicated for the relief of   should not be               restlessness, crying,        should be administered
             antagonist analgesic of     moderate to severe pain.      administered to patients    euphoria, floating,          as a supplement to
             the phenanthrene series     Nalbuphine                    who are hypersensitive to   hostility, unusual           general anesthesia only
             .                           hydrochloride can also        nalbuphine                  dreams, confusion,           by persons specifically
                                         be used as a supplement       hydrochloride, or to any    faintness, hallucinations,   trained in the use of
                                         to balanced anesthesia,       of the other ingredients    dysphoria, feeling of        intravenous anesthetics
                                         for preoperative and          in nalbuphine               heaviness, numbness,         and management of
                                         postoperative analgesia,      hydrochloride injection.    tingling, unreality. The     respiratory effects of
                                         and for obstetrical                                       incidence of                 potent opioids
                                         analgesia during labor                                    psychotomimetic effects,
                                         and delivery.                                             such as unreality,

                                                                                                   Constipation, dry mouth,      Keep all medicines out
Hyoscine     Antispasmodic               Relief of colicky             # Abnormal muscle           trouble urinating, or        of the sight and reach of
                                         abdominal pain (caused        weakness (myasthenia        nausea could occur. If       children.
                                         by painful spasms in the      gravis).                    these continue or are         Make sure that the
                                         muscles of the stomach        # Abnormally large or       bothersome, notify your      person prescribing this
                                         or bladder regions)           dilated large intestine     doctor promptly. Very        medicine knows about
                                         including irritable bowel     (megacolon).                unlikely but report: rash,   any other medicines that
                                         syndrome.                     # Closed angle              itching, swelling of the     you are taking. This
                                         Sometimes used to             glaucoma.                   hands or feet, trouble       includes medicines you
                                         reduce secretions in the      # Hereditary blood          breathing, increased         buy and herbal and
                                         lung.                         disorders known as          pulse, dizziness,            homeopathic medicines.
                                                                       porphyrias.                 diarrhea, vision              If you buy any
                                                                                                   problems, eye pain.          medicines check with a
                                                                                                                                pharmacist that they are
                                                                                                                                safe to take with your
                                                                                                                                other medicines.
Lanoxin    Digoxin is used to treat    Heart Failure:               Digitalis glycosides are      Gastrointestinal: Digoxin    Laboratory Test
           congestive heart failure.   LANOXIN is indicated         contraindicated in            may cause anorexia,           Monitoring
                                       for the treatment of mild    patients with ventricular     nausea, vomiting, and        Do not drive or
                                       to moderate heart failure.   fibrillation or in patients   diarrhea. Rarely, the use     perform other
                                                                    with a known                  of digoxin has been           possibly unsafe tasks
                                                                    hypersensitivity to           associated with               until you know how
                                                                    digoxin. A                    abdominal pain,               you react to Lanoxin;
                                                                    hypersensitivity reaction     intestinal ischemia, and      this drug may cause
                                                                    to other digitalis            hemorrhagic necrosis of       dizziness or blurred
                                                                    preparations usually          the intestines.               vision. These effects
                                                                    constitutes a                 CNS: Digoxin can              may be worse if you
                                                                    contraindication to           produce visual                take it with alcohol
                                                                    digoxin.                      disturbances (blurred or      or certain medicines.
                                                                                                  yellow vision), headache,
                                                                                                  weakness, dizziness,
                                                                                                  apathy, confusion, and
                                                                                                  mental disturbances
                                                                                                  (such as anxiety,
                                                                                                  depression, delirium, and

                                       Pitocin is indicated for     hypersensitivity to the        Hypertensive            Pitocin, when given for
Oxytoxin   Oxytocin in a nine amino    the initiation or            drug.                           episodes                induction of labor or
           acid peptide that is        improvement of uterine                                      Nausea                  augmentation of uterine
           synthesized in              contractions, where this                                    Vomiting                activity, should be
           hypothalamic neurons        is desirable and                                            Premature ventricular   administered only by the
           and transported down        considered suitable for                                      contractions            intravenous route and
           axons of the posterior      reasons of fetal or                                         Pelvic hematoma         with adequate medical
           pituitary for secretion     maternal concern, in                                        Subarachnoid            supervision in a hospital.
           into blood.                 order to achieve vaginal                                     hemorrhage
                                       delivery.                                                   Hypertensive
                                                                                                   Rupture of the uterus
Cimedifine   inhibit the action of       Cimetidine is used for       contraindicated for          constipation, diarrhea,        Rare instances of cardiac
             histamine on the acid-      the treatment of duodenal    patients known to have       fatigue, headache,             arrhythmias and
             producing cells of the      ulcers, active gastric       hypersensitivity to the      insomnia, muscle pain,         hypotension have been
             stomach and reduce          ulcers, gastroesophageal     product.                     nausea, and vomiting           reported following the
             stomach acid.               reflux disease (GERD),                                                                   rapid administration of
                                         pathological                                                                             Tagamet (cimetidine
                                         hypersecretory                                                                           hydrochloride) Injection
                                         conditions (e.g.,                                                                        by intravenous bolus.
                                         Zollinger Ellison
                                         syndrome), heartburn
                                         and the prevention of
                                         gastrointestinal bleeding.

Frusemide    diuretic inhibits           Loop diuretics are given     It is contraindicated in     jaundice, ringing in the          Obtain baseline data.
             primarily the absorption    to help reduce the           anuria, those with history   ears (tinnitus), sensitivity      Note for side effects
             of Sodium and Chloride      amount of water in the       of allergy to frusemide,     to light (photophobia),            of drug
             in both the proximal and    body. They work by           hypokalaemia,                rash, pancreatitis, nausea,       Note for
             distal tubules and in the   acting on the kidneys to     hyponatraemia, precoma       diarrhea, abdominal pain,          hypersensitivty of
             loop of Henle.              increase the flow of         stage associated with        and dizziness. Increased           drug
                                         urine. Frusemide is also     hepatic cirrhosis and        blood sugar and uric acid         Monitor BP
                                         used to treat                addisons disease.            levels
                                         hypertension in those
                                         patients who are not
                                         helped by other drugs or
                                         in those patients who
                                         have renal problems.
Metoclopramide   Metoclopramide is a          used to treat the            contraindicated in         drowsiness, restlessness,
                 "prokinetic" drug that       symptoms of                  patients with              fatigue, anxiety,
                 stimulates the muscles of    gastroesophageal reflux      pheochromocytoma           insomnia, depression,
                 the gastrointestinal tract   disease (GERD) like          because the drug may       and sedatio
                 including the muscles of     heartburn. It is also used   cause a hypertensive
                 the lower esophageal         to treat people with slow    crisis, probably due to
                 sphincter, stomach, and      emptying of the stomach      release of                                                Metoclopramide
                 small intestine by           and intestinal tract.        catecholamines from the                                    therapy should be
                 interacting with receptors                                tumor. Such hypertensive                                   discontinued in
                 for acetylcholine and                                     crises may be controlled                                   patients who develop
                 dopamine on                                               by phentolamine.                                           signs or symptoms of
                 gastrointestinal muscles                                                                                             tardive dyskinesia
                 and nerves.                                                                                                         Treatment with
                                                                                                                                      metoclopramide for
                                                                                                                                      longer than 12 weeks
                                                                                                                                      should be avoided in
                                                                                                                                      all but rare cases
                                                                                                                                      where therapeutic
Clonidine        Clonidine treats high           treatment of high        hypersensitivity to        lightheadedness, dry            benefit is thought to
                 blood pressure by                blood pressure           clonidine                  mouth, dizziness, or            outweigh the risk of
                 stimulating α2 receptors        Clonidine lowers                                    constipation. Clonidine         developing tardive
                 in the brain, which              blood pressure by                                   may also cause                  dyskinesia.
                 decreases cardiac output         decreasing the levels                               hypotension
                 and peripheral vascular          of certain chemicals
                 resistance, lowering             in your blood.                                                                     Patients who wear
                 blood pressure. It has                                                                                               contact lenses should
                 specificity towards the                                                                                              be cautioned that
                 presynaptic α2 receptors                                                                                             treatment with tablets
                 in the vasomotor center                                                                                              may cause dryness of
                 in the brainstem.                                                                                                    eyes.
                                                                                                                                     Patients who engage in
                                                                                                                                      potentially hazardous
                                                                                                                                      activities, such as
                                                                                                                                operating machinery
                                                                                                                                or driving, should be
                                                                                                                                advised of a possible
                                                                                                                                sedative effect of
Methergine   semi-synthetic ergot        For routine management      Hypertension; toxemia;   acute myocardial                 Patients should be
             alkaloid used for the       after delivery of the       pregnancy; and           infarction, transient chest       instructed not to
             prevention and control of   placenta; postpartum        hypersensitivity.        pains, arterial spasm             discontinue therapy
             postpartum hemorrhage.      atony and hemorrhage;                                (coronary and                     without consulting
                                         subinvolution. Under full                            peripheral), bradycardia,         their physician
                                         obstetric supervision, it                            tachycardia, dyspnea,
                                         may be given in the                                  hematuria,                    Caution should be
                                         second stage of labor                                thrombophlebitis, water       exercised in the presence
                                         following delivery of the                            intoxication,                 of sepsis, obliterative
                                         anterior shoulder.                                   hallucinations, leg           vascular disease, hepatic
                                                                                              cramps, dizziness,            or renal involvement.
                                                                                              tinnitus, nasal               Also use with caution
                                                                                              congestion, diarrhea,         during the second stage
                                                                                              diaphoresis, palpitation,     of labor.
                                                                                              rash, and foul taste.

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