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PART The role of minimum wages and minimum income

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					PART 1

The role of minimum wages and minimum income for social inclusion in the member states

EU LEGISLATION
LEGISLATIVE OVERVIEW SCADPlus: § Sufficient resources and assistance, Last updated: 5.12.2006 § Building an inclusive Europe, Last updated: 21.12.2004 § Community programme encouraging cooperation between Member States to combat social exclusion (2002-2006), Last updated: 21.11.2004 § Joint Report on Social Protection and Social Inclusion 2006, Last updated: 21.3.2007 § A new framework for the open coordination of social protection and inclusion policies, Last updated: 19.1.2006 § Community programme for employment and solidarity - PROGRESS (2007-2013), Last updated: 20.03.2007

EP Fact Sheets: Social inclusion: People with disabilities, the elderly and the excluded, Last updated: 02/2007 LEGISLATION IN FORCE 92/441/EEC: Council Recommendation of 24 June 1992 on common criteria concerning sufficient resources and social assistance in social protection systems, Official Journal L 245 , 26/08/1992 P. 0046 - 0048 Regulation (EC) No 1553/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 amending Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) (Text with EEA relevance), OJ L 255, 30.9.2005, p. 6–8 (procedure file in OEIL: COD/2005/0004) Regulation (EC) No 1177/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 June 2003 concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) (Text with EEA relevance), OJ L 165, 3.7.2003, p. 1–9 (procedure file in OEIL: COD/2001/0293) - link to the list of implementing legal acts

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LEGISLATION IN PREPARATION INI/2007/2104: Social reality stocktaking Social Protection and Social Inclusion 2007: Proposal for the Joint Report COD/2006/0180: Labour Force Survey: introduce wages from the main job as a compulsory variable

EU INSTITUTIONS
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT Report on social protection and social inclusion (2005/2097(INI)), 8.2.2006 Report on social inclusion in the new Member States (2004/2210(INI)), 29.4.2005 PARLIAMENTARY QUESTIONS ON MINIMUM WAGE / MINIMUM INCOME, 6TH AND 5TH TERM: Written question by Dimitrios Papadimoulis (GUE/NGL) to the Commission, 20 April 2006, E-1604/06: Guaranteed minimum income Written question by Mary McDonald (GUE/NGL) to the Commission, 22 November 2005, E-4325/05: Minimum income Written question by Alejandro Cercas (PSE) to the Commission, 6 May 2002, E-1257/02: Minimum wage within the EU Written question by Alejandro Cercas (PSE) to the Council, 6 May 2002, E1256/02: Minimum wage within the EU Written question by Paul Rübig (PPE-DE) to the Commission, 8 January 2002, E-3530/01: Obstacles for Austrian service providers posed by the prescribed minimum wage in Germany Written question by Ilda Figueiredo (GUE/NGL) to the Commission, 18 January 2000, E-2742/99: Discrimination with regard to the right to the guaranteed minimum income in Luxembourg Oral question for Question Time at the part-session in January 2000 pursuant to Rule 43 of the Rules of Procedure by Mihail Papayannakis to the Council, 6 January 2000, H-0009/00: Combating poverty and social exclusion

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION Social Reality Stocktaking, Interim report to the 2007 Spring European Council, Brussels, 26.2.2007, COM(2007) 63 final Public consultation on Europe's Social Reality: A ‘stocktaking’ Proposal for the Joint Report on Social Protection and Social Inclusion 2007, Brussels, 19.1.2007, COM(2007) 13 final, adopted by the EPSCO Council on 22 February 2007 Commission Staff Working Document: Joint Report on Social Protection and Social Inclusion, Country profiles, Brussels, 22.02.2007, SEC(2007) 272 Commission Staff Working Document: Joint Report on Social Protection and Social Inclusion, Supporting document, Brussels, 6.3.2007, SEC(2007) 329, see especially p. 10-18 to see previous joint reports on social inclusion, please click here Working together, working better: A new framework for the open coordination of social protection and inclusion policies in the European Union, Brussels, 22.12.2005, COM(2005) 706 final Joint Opinion of the Social Protection Committee and the Economic Policy Committee on the Commission Communication on “Working together, working better: proposals for a new framework for the open co-ordination of social protection and inclusion policies” - including the Objectives of the OMC for social protection and social inclusion, (Annex 1, p. 6-7), adopted by the European Council in March 2006 Commission Staff Working Document: Evaluation of the Open Method of Coordination for Social Protection and Social Inclusion, A synthesis of replies by Member States and other actors to an evaluation questionnaire on the Open Method of Coordination in the fields of social inclusion and adequate and sustainable pensions, Brussels, 8.3.2006, SEC(2006) 345

Synthesis report by the Commission Services on the outcomes of the first stage consultation on active inclusion of the people furthest from the labour market, 2006 See more documents related to the consultation here

Trends, recent developments, active inclusion and minimum resources - First semester report 2006, Network of Independent Social Inclusion Experts

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Website on Peer Review and Assessment in Social Inclusion

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EU agencies EUROSTAT § § Minimum wages 2007 - Variations from 92 to 1570 euro gross per month Eurostat (2007) Statistics in Focus, Population and social conditions, 71/2007 Minimum wages in the EU in January 2007, Statutory minimum wages in euro varied by one to seventeen across the EU Eurostat (2007) News release 85/2007 18 June 2007 Material deprivation in the EU, Eurostat (2005) Statistics in Focus, Population and social conditions 21/2005 Income poverty and social exclusion in the EU25, Eurostat (2005) Statistics in Focus 13/2005 In-work poverty: new commonly agreed indicators at the EU-level, Eurostat (2005) Statistics in Focus, Population and social conditions 5/2005 Poverty and social exclusion in the EU, Eurostat (2004) Statistics in Focus, Population and social conditions 26/2004 Minimum Wages, EU Member States, Candidate Countries and the US, Eurostat (2004) Statistics in Focus, Population and social conditions, 10/2004 Minimum Wages, EU Member States and Candidate Countries, Eurostat (2003) Statistics in Focus, Population and social conditions, 10/2003 Poverty and social exclusion in the EU after Laeken – part1, Eurostat (2003) Statistics in Focus, Population and social conditions 8/2003

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EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS § Income poverty in the European Union, report, 10 July 2007 § Pay developments - 2006, comparative study, 2 July 2007 § Minimum wages in Europe, comparative study, August 2005 § Working poor in the European Union, report, 2004 § Low-wage workers and the working poor, comparative study, September 2002

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
ILO CONVENTIONS § Convention: C131 Minimum wage Fixing Convention, 1970 § Convention: C099 Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) Convention, 1951 § Convention: C026 Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928 Information sheet on Minimum wage policy

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Working out of poverty. Report of the Director- General, 2003

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OECD The Minimum wage: Making it pay / John Martin, Director, and Herwig Immervoll, OECD Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD Observer, May 2007 Labour Force statistics on Statutory Minimum Wages Economic survey of France 2007: Combating poverty and social exclusion

Employment Outlook 2007 Employment Outlook 2006 - Chapter 5 Social Implications of Policies Aimed at Raising Employment Society at a Glance: OECD Social Indicators 2006 Edition Taxing Wages: special feature 'The tax treatment of minimum wages' 2005/2006: 2006 Edition Taxing Wages - Comparative tax rates and benefits 2006 United States 2004 - Tax-benefit country chapter - Benefits and Wages Employment Outlook 2003 - Chapter 2 Making the most of the minimum: statutory minimum wages, employment and poverty The use of wage floors as policy tools, OECD Economic Studies No. 31, 2000/2 An overview: What do we know about policies to make work pay? OECD Economic Studies No.31, 2000 /II. OECD WORKING PAPERS Immervoll, Herwig (2007): Minimum Wages, Minimum Labour Costs and the Tax Treatment of Low-wage. Employment OECD Social Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 46, 31/01/2007, 25 p Whiteford, Peter; Adema, Willem (2007): What Works Best in Reducing Child Poverty: A Benefit or Work Strategy? OECD Social Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 51, March 2007, 55 pages Förster, Michael; Mira d'Ercole, Marco (2005): Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries in the Second Half of the 1990s. OECD Social Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 22,10/03/2005, English, 81 pages

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Förster, Michael F. (2000): Trends and Driving Factors in Income Distribution and Poverty in the OECD Area. OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, No. 42, 11/08/2000, English, 169 pages

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COUNCIL OF EUROPE Recommendations and resolutions of the Council of Europe on poverty and social exclusion based on citizens' responsibility Using social benefits to combat poverty and social exclusion: opportunities and problems from a comparative perspective: European Synthesis report, Trends in social Cohesion no. 3, Sept 2002, 106 p. Promoting the policy debat on social exclusion from a comparative perspective, Trends in social Cohesion no. 1, 2001

COUNTRY APPROACH
Minimum wages database: the minimum wages database provides information on minimum wage legislation in about 100 ILO member States. NATLEX: the ILO database of national labour, social security and related human rights legislation. National legislation on wages USA Data on minimum wage workers, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics Issue Guide on Poverty and family Budgets , Economic Policies Institute (EPI). Information dossier with statistics, key EPI publications and other resources. Issue Guide on Minimum Wages, Economic Policies Institute (EPI). Information dossier with statistics, key EPI publications and other resources. The Minimum Wage: Information, Opinion, Research, website by Brock Haussamen, professor emeritus in English at Raritan Valley Community College in North Branch, New Jersey USA

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INTEREST GROUPS, NGOs
ETUC To bolster social cohesion, ETUC wants an ambitious and efficient OMC applied to social protection and social inclusion, Brussels, 14-15 March 2006 Resolution on European Strategy for Social Inclusion, Brussels, Dec. 2001 BUSINESS EUROPE UNICE reply to the Commission's consultation on the action at EU level to promote the active inclusion of the people furthest from the labour market, May 2006 EUAPME UEAPME position on the Commission’s consultation on action at EU level to promote the active inclusion of the people furthest from the labour market, Oct. 2006 UEAPME's Position on modernising Social protection systems to make work pay, March 2004 to see all EUAPME position papers on social protection and social inclusion, please click here FEDERATION OF EUROPEAN EMPLOYERS Monthly gross statutory minimum wage rates in Europe (table), SOCIAL PLATFORM Achieving effective Minimum Income and Active Inclusion policies in the EU: What the European Union can contribute, 19 April 2006 There should be no going back on commitments made to Eradicate Poverty in the EU, 17 October 2005 Comments of the Social Platform on the Presidency background document, the Commission’s Communication on “Making Work Pay” and the Employment Task Force Report, 15 January 2004 to see all Social Platform policy statements on social inclusion, please click here

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EUROPEAN ANTI POVERTY NETWORK (EAPN) Strengthening the social dimension of the Lisbon Strategy - the EAPN's response to the Lisbon integrated Guidelines, EAPN position paper, 3 July 2007 Focus on Poverty in the EU agenda, Network news no. 121, January/March 2007 EAPN statement on the occasion of the Fifth European Round Table on Poverty and Social Exclusion: Give the fight against poverty the political drive it deserves!, 13 October 2006 Final declaration of the 2006 EAPN General Assembly: The EU we want, 9 October 2006 Report of the Fifth European meeting of people experiencing poverty, 12-13 May 2006 EAPN Response to the Communication concerning a consultation on action at EU level to promote the active inclusion of the people furthest from the labour market: Ensuring a Decent Income and a Better Life for All, 19 April 2006 Final declaration of the 2005 EAPN General Assembly: Delivering the Social Inclusion Agenda - From Promise to Reality, 26 November 2005 Can activation schemes work for social inclusion? EAPN criteria for 'good' activation, EAPN position paper, 18 November 2005 Minimum incomes in Europe, Network news no. 114, September-October 2005 Final declaration of the 2004 EAPN General Assembly: The EU we want Strengthening the EU Social Model, 20 November 2004

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RESEARCH
Auvinen, T. (2007): A Monetary Reformist Road to Universal Basic Income, Basic Income Studies: Vol. 2 : No. 1, Article 8 Dustman, C.; Ludsteck, J.; Schönberg, U. (2007): Revisiting the German Wage Structure, IZA Discussion Paper No. 2685, March 2007 Furman, Jason (2007): A $7.25 income would be a useful step in helping working families escape poverty. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities Washington, Jan 2007, 6 p. Fisher, Gordon.M. (2007): An Overview of Recent Work on Standard Budgets in the United States and Other Anglophone Countries. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Haagh, L. (2007): Basic Income, Occupational Freedom and Antipoverty Policy, Basic Income Studies: Vol. 2 : No. 1, Article 13 Howard, Michael W. (2007) A NAFTA Dividend: A Guaranteed Minimum Income for North America, Basic Income Studies: Vol. 2 : No. 1, Article 4. Sterk, James (2007): Raising the minimum wages will not reduce poverty. The Heritage Foundation, Backgrounder no. 1994, Jan 8, 2007, 3 p. Centre for Research in Social Policy [no author given] (2006): A Minimum Income Standard for Britain,@ Briefings, Issue 21, August 2006, pp. 2-3 Hyun H. Son; Nanak Kakwani (2006): Global Estimates of Pro-Poor Growth. UN International Poverty Centre, Working Paper No. 31. October 2006. Sawicky, Max B. (2007): A fish is not a fow! Tax credits and the minimum wage. Employment Policies Institute (EPI), EPI briefing Papers no. 183, Feb. 2007 Gardiner, Karen; Millar, Jane (2006): Avoiding poverty over time: low-paid workers, households and welfare, CASP Working Paper, 2006 A minimum income standards for Britain: Defining minimum. Minimum Income Standards for Britain (MIS), September 2006 Fox, Liane (2006): Minimum wage trends: Understanding past and contemporary research, Employment Policies Institute (EPI), EPI Briefing Paper no.178, Oct. 2006 Carley, Mark (2005): Key themes in global industrial relations: Minimum wages and relocation of production. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2005, 50 p

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Fields, G.; Kanbur, R.: (2005): Minimum wages and poverty: shifting the perspective from unemployment to poverty leads to an enrichment of the theory of the minimum wage. Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management, Working Paper 2005-18 Gurgand, M.; Margolis, D.N. (2005): Does Work Pay in France? Monetary Incentives and the Guaranteed Minimum Income. IZA Discussion Paper No. 1467 Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark and Wascher, William (2004): The Effects of Minimum Wages on the Distribution of Family Incomes: A Nonparametric Analysis, Federal Bank of Cleveland, Working Paper 04-12, 2004 Peña-Casas, R.; Latta, M. (2004): Working poor in the European Union, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2004, 124 p. Saget, C. (2004): Minimum wage – does it cut poverty? Labour Education 2004/1-2, No. 134, special issue on Poverty Reduction Strategy Process (2004) Vanderborght, Yannick (2004): Universal Basic Income in Belgium and the Netherlands: Implementation Through the Back Door? European Institute Florence, EUI Working Papers SPS No. 2004/4 Gerfin, M.; Leu, Robert E. (2003): The Impact of In-Work Benefits on Poverty and Household Labour Supply. A simulation study for Switzerland. University of Bern and IZA, Bonn, Diskussionsschriften 03-04 Manning, A.; Dickens, R. (2002): The Impact of the National Minimum Wage on the Wage Distribution, Poverty and the Gender Pay Gap, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science, Dec. 2002 Saget, C. (2002) How to get the maximum out of the minimum wage, Labour Education 2002/3, No 128, pp 67-73 (2002) Fedder, Richard K.; Gallagher, Lowell E. (2001): Does the minimum wage reduce poverty? Ohio University, Employment Policies Institute (EPI), June 2001 Sutherland, H. (2001): The National Minimum Wage and In-work Poverty. University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics, Microsimulation Unit Discussion Paper MU0102, July 2001

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Dolado, J.J.; Felgueroso, F.; Jimeno, J.F. (2000): The Role of the Minimum Wage in the Welfare State: An Appraisal. IZA Discussion Paper No. 152 (published in: Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, 136 (2000), 1-33)

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Robson, P.; Dex, S.; Wilkinson, F.; Salido Cortes, O. (1999): Low Pay, Labour Market Institutions, Gender and Part-Time Work: Cross-National Comparisons. European Journal of Industrial Relations (1999) 5 (2): 187-207 Bernstein, Jared (1999): Minimum wages and poverty. Economic Policy Institute Addison, John T.; Blackburn, McKinley L. (1998): Minimum wages and poverty. University of South Carolina, Department of Economics, Columbia, Discussion Paper No. 98-42

GENERAL
BOOKS AND ARTICLES IN THE LIBRARY § § § On minimum wages On minimum income On risk of poverty and working poor

Further reading § Commissioner calls for minimum wages across EU, EUObserver.com, 5 July 2007 § Ein Mindeslohn für jeden land: interview mit EU-Wirtschaftskommissar Almunia, Die Zeit, 5 July 2007 § Funk, L.; Lesch, H. (2006): Minimum Wage Regulations in Selected European Countries. Intereconomics - Review of International Trade and Development 2006 41(2): 78-92 § Šuæur, Zoran (2005): Poverty and social transfers in Croatia, Financial Theory and Practice 2005 29 (1): 17-38 § Mailand, M.; Due, J. (2004): Social Dialogue in Central and Eastern Europe: Present State and Future Development. European Journal of Industrial Relations 2004 10(2): 179-199 § Morris, J.N.; Deeming, C. (2004): Minimum Incomes for Healthy Living (MIHL): next thrust in UK social policy? Policy & Politics 2004 32(4): 441-454 § Neumark, D. (2004): Living wages: protection for or protection from low wage workers. Industrial relations and labor review 2004, Oct 2004 § Poverty Has Faces in Europe : The Need for Family-Oriented Policies. 2nd Report on Poverty in Europe, Caritas Internationalis, 2004 § Sainsbury, Diane; Morissens, Ann (2002) Poverty in Europe in the mid1990s: the effectiveness of means-tested benefits. Journal of European Social Policy 2002 12 (4): 307-329 § Sampson, A.A.; Simmons, R. (2002): The minimum wage in an adverse selection economy. Oxford Economic Papers 2002 54(1): 150160 § Plasman, R.; Rycx, F. (2001) Collective Bargaining and Poverty: A Cross-National Perspective. European Journal of Industrial Relations 2001 7(2): 175-204 § Obinger, H.(1999): Minimum income in Switzerland. Journal of European Social policy 1999 9(1): 29-50

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Robson, P.; Dex, S.; Wilkinson, F.; Salido Cortes, O. (1999): Low Pay, Labour Market Institutions, Gender and Part-Time Work: CrossNational Comparisons. European Journal of Industrial Relations 1999 5(2): 187-207 What is a global basic income? definitions and arguments, Global Basic Income Foundation Wikipedia: Guaranteed minimum income

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