Rising on the Women s Body nearsightedness by benbenzhou


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									  The Egyptian Center for Women's Rights

              Rising on Women's Bodies
                         Report on
          Women in the 2005 Parliamentary Election

   Advancing women‟s rights can only be achieved if all issues at stake are taken into account,
 including freedom of speech and the right to vote. It is difficult to conceive of achieving tangible
advances without putting these at the forefront of the women‟s rights agenda along with the issues
of poverty and illiteracy, other impediments to women‟s equality making them easy targets during
                                 the parliamentary elections of 2005.

                 Soa'ad Tea'alp, the first woman martyr in the parliamentary election, died at the
                beginning of the election as she was run over by a car. Her attitude was reported as
                                                    the reason.

Throughout the last century, women's right to vote has remained impaired during parliamentary
elections. Women were denied the right to vote during the revolution era, although they actively
participated in the struggle and were among the martyrs. Furthermore, women‟s participation was
barely acknowledged during the codification of political rights during the revolution. In other
words, women‟s political participation was rare and for the most part they were absent from the
political arena.

Women didn't obtain their right to vote until after the Revolution through the constitutional
amendments of 1956. However, this change remained minimal since the amendments did not
include concerted efforts to increase women's participation in the electoral process at all levels.

During the decolonization and civic movements, women's participation was always necessary and
considered as an important factor. Women were asked to participate in the struggle for
independence and they showed a strong spirit of self-sacrifice. Many were among the victims in the
struggle for liberation, but once the goal was achieved, they had to face an extremely harsh situation
in their fight to secure the political rights of their people and family, due to the unemployment that
followed. So the victory did not translate into anything for women and they became overshadowed
by other issues. Today‟s political marginalization of women comes from the original institutions
which failed to include them in the decision making processes and severely restricted their

Women‟s representation in the legislature has ranged from 0.5% to 2.4% since women were first
granted their political rights in the 1956 constitution which allowed them seats in the parliament
until the last legislative elections in the year 2000. The only exception was during the first half of
the 1980s, when female representation rose to the unprecedented level of 9% in the 1979 council
election, due to Law 21 (1979) that reserved a minimum of 30 seats for women.

Although Law 21 was later abolished by Law 188 (1986), female representation remained high
because of the use of a party list system. When resolution 201 (1990) was passed, the party lists
were abolished and replaced by individual elections, restricting women‟s access to the parliament
by forcing them to directly compete with their male counterparts.

The parliamentary elections of 2005 seemed very different; they happened in the midst of national
political reforms that gave hope for a revitalization of Egyptian political life and fair elections. One
feature was the participation of 21 political parties. And for the first time the religious factions
revealed their true colors through representative of Brotherhood Muslim Party.

Another feature of these elections is that the civil and human rights organizations insisted on
monitoring of the elections. This had been granted ten years earlier during the struggles that
stemmed from the 1995 elections

Another familiar aspect that was recorded during these elections was the use of transparent ballot
boxes, finger ink, judicial supervision, use of identity cards for voting and neglecting statements
made by witnesses. This widespread optimism that the elections generated was short-lived and
many insist upon calling the next parliamentary elections the „future elections.‟

Nonetheless, this fostered optimistic reactions among women, particularly when the media
repeatedly approached the issue of their involvement in the process. In turn, it led to a law proposal,
guarantying an additional 26 seats for women (one per governorate) in the parliament. This bill was
submitted to the Ministry of Justice for review. Although this proposal does not tally women‟s
votes, which reached 40%, it fails to representatively express what this number stands for on the

population percentage. This number may, at least, correspond to the minimal level of women's
participation without the endorsement of the law.

Furthermore, the National Democratic Party pledged to nominate 26 women and support their
political participation, emphasized their role during the presidential elections and promoted the
women‟s movement and the National Council for Women.

The political parties committed themselves, during a meeting held last year by the ECWR along
with the Arab Alliance for Women, to promote women‟s participation by appointing a
representative proportional to the number of women on the lists. They also vowed to work with the
women representatives that represent 25% of the El Tagamoa'a party list Master Hussein AbdEl
Razek to ensure safe electoral processes shortly before the election, at a conference held by the
National Council for Women.

The number of women representative appointed remained very low:

However, in the end, only six women were nominated by the National Democratic Party (NDP) out
of their 444 candidates. The national opposition, consisting of 22 political parties and movements
nominated just 7 women from 222 candidates. Three women ran under the El Ghad and El Karama
Parties, one ran for the Muslim Brotherhood, and 111 women ran as independent candidates.
Though the political parties failed to deliver on their promises, Egyptian citizens retained hope that
the election would be fair enough to achieve a representative parliamentary election and a beginning
to true political reform. The results for women were therefore a shock when only 4 women won
seats. Women were extensively used as tools in widespread acts of electoral fraud.

Although the political parties came back on their word, the recent developments on the Egyptian
political scene remained the first step toward achieving a real political reform during the
parliamentary elections. However, the results shockingly remained disappointing as only 4 women
were elected. It is believed that the parties used women during the elections of 2005 to gain more

ECWR has therefore compiled this report documenting with accurate facts with a view to become a
reliable source for further research and to endeavour to change the view of what really happened, as
well as advance towards better participation of women.

This report is divided into two parts:

Part One
    Using women for their votes
    Women candidates
    Monitoring reports
    Demands of the women's movement and its pledge

Part Two
    ECWR‟s plan for monitoring
    Reports from districts in which women ran
    Names and electoral districts of all women candidates

Part One
    Using women for their votes
    Women candidates
    Monitoring reports
    Demands of the women's movement and its pledge

Using women for their votes

The 2005 referendum on article 76 of the Egyptian constitution stipulated that the president was to
be directly elected by the people for the first time, rather than by a 2/3 majority of the parliament,
paving the way for a new electoral framework in which women were declared to play a key role.
However, it was obvious during the elections that no monitoring mechanism was in place and many
violations were reported at polling stations. In addition, if women‟s votes were so important during
this election, then why were no female candidates elected to the parliament and why weren‟t
women‟s issues addressed?

Clearly, the lack of women‟s substantive participation stems from the authorities‟ failure to
prioritize women‟s political participation or opinions. Public policies in the past have only served to
further weaken women‟s position, and contribute to higher illiteracy and impoverishment, making
them vulnerable to increased discrimination. The situation has not changed - women‟s issues are
not a source of concern to politicians and their participation in the political arena remains off the
agenda. This is the reason women became an important tool for gathering more votes during the
2005 parliamentary elections, reminding us of the Algerian experience in which women surrendered
their rights without being aware.

When they first attempted to exercise their political empowerment to voice their opinion on
changing Article 76 of the Constitution, peacefully demonstrating women were subject to sexual
harassment in front of journalist syndicate. Expressing their “new concept of political women's
empowerment,” Farkhanda Hassan, General Secretary of The National Council for Women,
declared no responsibility because “women who demonstrated were expressing their opinions on
the general interest of this country, not specifically on women's rights."

The NCW saw that women were targets for sexual harassment while peacefully demonstrating
during the referendum campaign. Their right to expression of opinion, can obviously not be fulfilled
without women‟s rights and security being addressed. The media too have been repeating a message
of women‟s political empowerment, but have yet failed to show real support when necessary, even
attacking and condemning women‟s participation. And despite these atrocities and the international
scandal they provoked, the Attorney General has not yet declared the results of the investigation,
betraying the way women‟s issues are handled.

In the presidential election of September 2005, women were systematically used to gather more
votes among the different governorates. National Democratic Party (NDP) representatives carried
out the pledges of their leaders to guarantee that women would have their place in the electoral
process, as promised by the president, which ensured minimal representation for women in the local
councils through appointments. Unfortunately, this was made into a mockery. Instead women were
used for their votes through coercion and intimidation during the parliamentary elections by the
NDP and other political groups.

Women candidates

The political power granted to women candidates remained very limited, not enabling them to
compete effectively for parliamentary seats and reducing their participation to a token gesture
during the elections and within other institutional structures. Although political parties always
mention women‟s rights as a priority on their agenda, it remains nonexistent in reality.

The El Wafd party had only two women out of 40 members, representing 5% of the party; only
4.6% of the 64 members of the General Secretariat of El Tagamoa'a were women; the Naserist party

had only two women were in the Central Committee, or 2.7%.

Of course, this meant that women did not have a voice in the decision-making about the elections,
in developing the political campaign or in contributing to the parties‟ results. Political leaders
disregarded women‟s potential contributions, as well as the high number of votes they could have
gained from female constituencies. The women candidates who were nominated were only a token,
rather than true representation of women.

Only six women were nominated by the NDP out of their 444 candidates; the opposition of 22
political parties and movements only appointed 7 women from their 222 candidates; three women
were nominated by the El Ghad and the El Karama Parties, the Muslim Brotherhood party
„embellished‟ its lists by appointing one woman candidate as a gesture and 111 independent
candidates ran for seats in the election. Before the parliamentary elections began, there was a sense
of optimism that the political parties would find support, and that there wouldn't be violent
confrontations in the election districts.

The women were subjected to wild campaigns which prevented certain people from voting, the
political parties and the government were unsupportive of women and also abused the traditional
tribal values and twisted them as a means to discriminate against them, and those supporting them,
there was a case of killing like Soa'd Tealab the female candidate in El Sharkaya, and the use of
death threats and the use of acid to deform women‟s faces and other forms of violence and sexual

This was amplified by the fact that the women nominated were not strong candidates, which lead to
more weakness in their position, just 4 female candidates won in the parliamentary elections, this
had never before happened in the Egyptian parliament.

Women voters:

Women were gathered in huge numbers and used for voting, this was easy to do in light of the
economic recession, and some women viewed it as opportunity to obtain some financial aid.

And so they were used as tool to help fuel the election campaigns without them gaining any real
advantage, this trend towards some women giving up there voting right is a very negative one as it
will lead to women losing what little rights they actually have at present.


Female thugs were widely used to sabotage the election process, and obstruct the female supporters
of competitors also sexual harassment and the spreading of fear and terror among the female voters.
This exposed the reality of the parliamentary elections. Although these events came as a surprise to
most people, if we look more closely, we will discover that there are still a lot of hidden facts,
because of the lack of transparency, lack of dialogue, coalitions and unlawful pacts. This reflects the
nearsightedness of all that has taken place, as the government had not been looking to the future at
all. Since the talk of political reform began, Egypt seems to have taken on a vitality that didn't exist
before. Everyone these days is concerned with the political reform and the new agenda of the
parliamentary elections, but the parties based their strategies on the corrupt reality of the political
scene and accordingly employed the techniques.

The National Democratic Party "is considered a party without ideology, where all the
members are gathered for their own personal interests":

The members of the NDP were chosen based on criteria such as wealth and family power, so it
didn't have much to do with the elections or party‟s agenda, it ignored the reform plans, new
thought and the presidential election program, the declaration of Mohamed Ragab "the
representative of NDP in the National council for Women conference that include nominating one
woman from each governorate total 26 women as well as the trust of women all of that were thrown
in nearest wastepaper basket. That was very clear in the NDP nominations for women, only 6
women were nominated from 444 candidates, so it reduced the nomination approximately the half
in 2000, it was nominated 11 women candidates.

The General Secretary for Women in the NDP "Moa'amna Kamel" said "the support given by the
NDP for their candidate Hawa'a was minimal… In Cairo the NDP nominated Fayda Kamel and
Thuraya Labna… and in El Minya Fayza El Ahnawy and Eman Abdel Hakeem …..And in Giza Dr.
Amal Osman and Fayza El Zomer." In fact we didn't expect this number, we expected a much
bigger number, because women played a great role in the vote on the referendum of Article 76 of
the constitution. During the presidential election around one and half million women from 6 million
total voters voted and there were many women who had identity cards and election cards. It was
surprising, that they didn‟t give women a chance to enter the elections and local council! Why didn't
they reserve seats for women to help them enter this battlefield, was there a realistic chance for
women to win? Is it reasonable that only 6 women were nominated by the NDP from 89 women,
three who spent more than 20 years in political life two who won in the last election, and one new
face? This didn't happen just in the NDP but with all political parties, but the shock was from the
National Democratic Party which was supposed to express and interpret the president words and his
concerns of women in the community and involved them in the political life.

The Opposition

Even parties which consistently attack the NDP both openly and covertly chose to employ the same
methods, depending on the influence of money and the twisting of tribal values to defeat women
candidates. Seven women were nominated, then three were added as representatives of the El Ghad
and El Karama parties. This is a clear difference from 22 women candidates nominated by the
opposition parties in 2000, posing an important question – does the opposition agree to political
reform or to also attack women's participation?!!!

In addition, the opposition nominated women candidates only as gestures, without real support. We
observed that the parties nominated women in districts with strong candidates, where it was very
difficult to win. Examples include the female candidate for El Karama, Mona Foa'ad, who ran in
Souhag governorate, and the two female candidates for El Ghad, Bothaina Zakarya and Nagat
Mohammed, who ran in Bani Swef. Two female candidate out of four ran in Bani Swif and Asyut:
Aza Ez-Eldeen and Sanaa Mohammed. El Wafd Party nominated Hagar Ahmed in Kana
governorate and Mona Abd El Moaty in The Red Sea.

This was an indication that all the ideals and principles were put aside for several months until the
elections ended safely. With this, the issue of marginalized groups such as women became reduced
to a mere trivial matter, or to flattering statements on the importance of the role of women as
mothers, sisters, and great home makers.

In the conference held by the National Council for Women with the leaders of the political parties
before the election to promise the public that a reasonable number of women will be nominated.

And so the parties‟ representatives especially from the opposition declared the following:

AbdEl Ghafar Shokr: El Tagamoa'a                     "To nominate 10 women"
Ahmed El Sabahy: El Omma Party                       "To nominate 10 women"
Nagy El Shahaby: El Geil Party                       "To nominate two Women"
Ahmed AbdEl Hady: Shebab MisrParty                   "To nominate women"
AbdEl Hakeem El Gamel: Misr Al Fata Party            "To nominate women"
Ahmed Hasan: El Nasery Party                         Refused the principle of reserving seats for
                                                     politically marginalized groups; at a time when
                                                     the party was fighting to reserve half of the
                                                     parliamentary seats for labors and peasants (!)

The circumstances and the number of available seats forced women to be set aside just like the
aforementioned ideals and principles were, opposition parties based their programs, on
unconventional views, to create the impression that voters have diverse choices to choose from, and
that by voting they would be contributing to improving the political life in Egypt and to getting it
back on the right track, and that if they didn‟t vote they would only have themselves to blame.

Despite this all the political parties gave in to the corrupt notion of reserving seats and abandoning
their principles. Women were naturally the first to be sacrificed and victimized, so the nominees
were weak, with even weaker results. All the political parties (including the Muslim Brotherhood)
played the election game using sly dishonest methods.

For these reasons voters made their choices as follows:

The National Democratic Party: Egyptians have long suffered and endured the consequences of
their failed policies and oppression, and so they deserved a harsh defeat, but their nominees seemed
to be the better candidates in the absence of better alternatives.

The independents: who entered the party after the 2000 election, betrayed the trust of the voters,
because people thought that their independence meant they were trustworthy, and so they received
severe blows in spite of the good performance of some of their candidates and the hard work
directed towards presenting services in their districts', for example, Fayza El Tahnawy‟s, good
performance was going to be worthless simply because she joined the NDP, she was only chosen in
the end because of her independence. So all candidates should learn a lesson from this, that joining
the NDP could infact hurt their chances rather than be a short cut to parliament.

The opposition parties: The opposition party presented a group of nearly identical candidates, that
used the same old corrupt techniques of using ethnic tensions to his benefit, and didn't present any
different original views that they can use to compete, instead they fought for district domination,
and it was rumored that they coordinated with the NDP, so they lost the voters‟ trust, which led
voters to prefer the 50LE price for their vote instead, they thought that taking the money was better
than nothing at all.

Muslim Brotherhood: They reaped the product of many years of patient suffering as a result of
torture, arrests, investigations and unemployment without legal protection. The party was not
allowed free movement or political participation, but nothing was able to stop them. Their success
seemed to carry feelings of silent revenge against the National Democratic party whose economic
polices had long made the poor become poorer and women's illiteracy more tragic. Because all the
parties were only interested in winning seats but not in improving Egypt‟s future. Issues relating to
equality, justice and reserving seats for women were abandoned. In the end, all that remained was
sense of hatred on the streets towards women, and a general feeling that women will take over

public life and exclude men one day.

The Human Development Reports addressed the future of the region and the absence of women
from the decision making process, but it was useless because winning seats was more important
than truly caring about the future of political life in Egypt, so the seats were lost and so were
women‟s rights as well.

The Status of Women: No party supports women or is willing to spend money on them. Except for
the very few women's organizations supporting women‟s political participation but they have
limited capabilities and are under constant pressure from the security forces.

The National Council for Women (NCW): is considered part of the NDP, as the NDP itself
claims on its website, and its Women's Secretariat copies international NGO projects, but then they
obstruct these projects from being truly implemented to avoid having to truly support women or
putting the government under pressure. The NCW concentrates on supporting the NDP by issuing
ID and voting cards for many women during times when the media is focusing on women's rights
issue. However, what is said about the advancement of women is different from what ends up being
actually implemented.

This reflects Dr. Farkhanda Hassan‟s standpoint as the General Secretary of the National Council
for Women and the Chief of the local development committee in El Shoura Council, when she
expressed her shock towards the political party leaders whom decided to remove women from their
nomination lists for the parliamentary elections. Dr. Hassan responded to the accusations of the
National Council for Women by saying that the NCW had a role in raising awareness about political
participation for women, it held 106 meetings and seminars, 447 women participated from different
political parties and movements, not only women from the National Democratic party participated
like some people imagined because the Council for Egyptian Women also hoped that the
constitutional amendment for parliament during the upcoming period would entail reserving seats
for women in parliament. This change wasn‟t just in Egypt but 81 other countries applied it as well.
If Egypt applies it, it will lead to the effective participation of women in the political and social life
in Egypt.

“Role exchange” can describe how those who are concerned with the political participation of
women function, The National Council for Women role is to influence and group together the main
players in the women's movement and coordinate their efforts, but they get side tracked with
administrative work to hold trainings and to prepare women for political participation, but this isn't
really its role, this is the role of women's organizations.

Although women's organization are limited and are subjected to pressure from state security, they
realized they had to work with the political parties and hold meetings with them and establish
communication with them, and present suggestions for new laws.

Only 4 women won in the parliamentary elections, they were among those who competed, bought
voices and won in the smoke and Tear Gas fights.

Monitoring reports

ECWR monitored all of the women's districts in the parliamentary elections during the three phases
in the 86 election districts, and the 127 female candidates, there were 13 female candidates
nominated by the political parties and one female candidate by the Muslim brotherhood, and 114
independent female candidates as the following:

First Phase: There were 28 districts that had female candidates in 8 governorates: Cairo, Giza,
Bani-Swif, Asuwt, Marsa Matrouh, El Minya, The New Village, and El Monfaya. There were 6
women nominated from the NDP, 7 from the National Group for Change from different political
parties and movements, and the independent female candidates.

Second Phase: There were 33 districts that had females in 10 governorates: Alexandria, El Behara,
El Gharbaya, El Esmalya, Suez, Pour Said, Qena, El Aqsour, El Qalybaya, El Fayom. There were
50 female candidates running in the elections, one from El Wafd Party and one from El Oma'a party
and the rest were independents.

Third Phase: There were 25 districts that had female candidates in 7 governorates: Souhag, the
Red Sea, Kafewr El Shakh, El Dakahlaya, El Sharkaya, North Sinai, Domyat. 35 female candidates
ran, one from El Wafd Party and one from El Karama party and the rest as independents.

ECWR monitored the election in the female candidates' districts, from all angles under the
framework of ECWR‟s vision with respect to monitoring which includes the social and political
environment and the general political climate surrounding the elections, the ECWR‟s monitors
addressed gender issues and the importance of observing the women's participation in the voting
process, the experience of female candidates, problems or obstacles they met and if the elections
had negative and positive effects on women's participation?

ECWR found the following results from their observations:

Emulation of political reform: Democratic progress in return for reserving seats in parliament and
the continued marginalization of certain groups especially women.

Use of tribal values against the female candidates by harassing and attacking election campaign
representatives and assistants, as well as voters, for supporting women instead of men and accusing
them of disintegrating traditional values, so as to obstruct the support of female candidates.

Using violence and death threats and the deforming of women’s faces: Terrorizing and
spreading fear among the female candidates and using violence as well as death threats, in other
words they were forcing female candidates and their supporters and steering them towards
nomination of the NDP candidates.

Use of different forms of sexual harassment, for removing women either by deforming them or
through sexual harassment in front of the polling stations.

Exploiting the poverty of female voters, by paying bribes to the female voters in exchange for
their votes especially the votes of poor women, house-wives and illiterate women, they
concentrated their efforts on these women because their voting price was cheaper than men, the
price of voting for women was 20 LE, while for men 150 LE.

Use of female thugs, to cause problems and start fights to terrorize and scare the voters and make
the judges close the polling stations. Money, bribes and corruption was used in gathering the voters
for specific candidates whether from the National Democratic Party or other opposition parties or
independent candidates. There were mistakes in the election lists of voter's names, there were
similarities in names and there were other miscellaneous mistakes concerning the names in addition
to having voters vote more than once which was possible because of the many similar names.

The administrative interventions: use of public funds and government employees for presenting
services to NDP candidates.

The negative role of the security forces in the first phase and the dangerous abuses in the
second and third phases, neutrality was transcended and reached the point of anarchy in some
polling places, as the security forces failed to protect both the voters and the candidates. The
security did not face the threat against female candidates and one woman was even shot, they didn‟t
protect female voters from being assaulted and sexually harassed during the first phase. While in
the third phase, the security interfered to stop the election process and prevent the voters from
entering the poll stations.

Demands of the women’s movement and our pledges:

ECWR and the Women's Forum for Change demand the following

       That President Mubarak, Egypt's first elected president, carry out the following:

          Implement the promises entailed in his election program ensuring a minimum number of
           seats for women, by requiring that at least 2/3 of women be elected.
          Change the law governing political rights and elections to implement a Quota system to
           ensure that a minimum number of parliamentary seats (30%) for women in the election
           will be met.

       That the attorney general publish the results of the investigations relating to the abuses that
       occurred on May 25th and the events that happened after that, and to investigate the abuses
       and violence that took place during the parliamentary elections.

       That the political authorities allow women and women‟s organizations actual participation
       (not just symbolic), in the dialogue concerning the future of democracy in Egypt and the
       legal and political reform, by what insure the expression about the women's requests and
       their opinions in the general issues, and working together to save Egypt.

Action plan:

ECWR pledges to cooperate with the women's organizations to work on:

1. Changing the political parties‟ law and declare that there will be privileges for the political
   parties that have better female representation.
2. Liberating NGOs from the raised level of guardianship and interference in its affairs so it can
   practice its work freely for increasing women's participation.
3. Starting subjective evaluation of the previous efforts, and the analysis of the political
   environment, and its effects on women's participation and to evaluate the performance and the
   results of the National Council for Women.
4. Bring legislative change that ensures women will exercise their rights.
5. Having the media Monitor the abuses against women, and push for changing the media‟s policy
   towards covering the struggle for women's rights.
6. Establishing that the parliament needs to address women's issues on it‟s agenda.

Therefore we must:

    -   Participate in the discussion for the constitutional amendments and study the specific
        requests for women and the means needed to achieve it, so that the political rise of the
        Muslim Brotherhood Party doesn't lead to the abandoning of women's rights and the spread
        of ideas that are not in favor of female candidates "Makarm El Deary" in the election such
        as " women are mothers"
    -   Struggle to change the Political Rights Law, to include in the Quota system and make sure
        to include women as 30% of their total list of nominated candidates.
    -   Struggle to change the law governing the political parties through encouraging the political
        parties that have a high percentage of female representatives by giving these parties public
        financial aid to support them.
    -   Seriously study the reserving of seats for women and to legislate a new law for that.
    -   Struggle towards making NGOs have more freedom by canceling restrictions enforced by
        the Ministry of social affairs and the state security from it in order for them to be able to
        practice their activities freely.
    -   Struggling against the ideas that harm democracy which have lead to a rise in the Muslim
        Brotherhood party. Establish the fact that the absence of democracy is the reason for the
        decline in Egyptian political life. So the reason behind the Muslim Brotherhood Party being
        chosen was because there weren‟t any other respectable alternatives. It is necessary for the
        reform movements to work together and communicate more, and make sure that their
        respective agendas include points on women‟s political empowerment. As democracy alone
        will not lead to women's participation.

This will not happen except through real pressure campaigns, using tools such as:

 Evaluating previous efforts and analyzing the political environment and its effects on women's
    participation, as well as evaluating their performance and the results of NCW activities and
   Coordinating between the NCW and other women's organizations as partners working for just
    media objectives.
   Forming political and legal committees to study the laws from a critical gender perspective to
    work on removing discrimination against women in laws and practices.
   Forming committees to draft alternative laws, which can be debated seriously in discussion
    tables rather than media conferences.
   Coordinating women‟s groups to present drafts of laws in press conferences for political parties,
    especially the NDP and Muslim Brotherhood, and request that serious procedures be taken.
   Coordinating with parliament members to discuss the drafts of alternatives laws.
   Organizing demonstrations in coordination with other reform movements to request from the
    parliament to respond to women's requests.
   Include television programs in the media plans that are prepared and presented by journalists
    who understand the political process, instead of programs prepared and presented by television
    personnel that have no idea about women‟s issues.
   Raise awareness about the importance of women's participation through holding roundtable
    discussions with women at places that are known to have lots of women attending, so as to
    reach many of them.
   Present simple publications that make links between women's participation and democratic
    progress and freedom in Egypt.

Part Two

  ECWR‟s plan for monitoring
  Reports from districts in which women ran
  Names and electoral districts of all women candidates

ECWR's plan for monitoring

During this complicated stage, the ECWR prepared for the parliamentary elections by coordinating
with the NGO Coalition to Monitor the Election, which trained 1600 local observers in 14
governorates to monitor the elections at the three levels in 26 governorates.

The women's rights organizations were present on Referendum Day and witnessed the abuses
against women, it was very clear that the security forces harassed the female journalists, lawyers,
activists. These organizations are necessary for improving women‟s political participation and are
integral to building a community that is going through a democratic transition phase.

Therefore, the ECWR decided to cooperate with women's organizations that advocate like the
Women's Forum for Change, which includes: the Arab Alliance for Women, New Women Research
Center and ECWR.

ECWR‟s plan for monitoring the parliamentary election depended on two things:

1) Volunteers: ECWR‟s volunteers opened a hotline for receiving complaints and information
relating to the women's election campaigns. 55 activists were trained to serve in the operation room
at ECWR during all the phases of the election and publish press releases and reports related to
women's participation in the elections and the challenges that confront women, and to spread the
ideas that political involvement is for both men and women. In addition, 1400 observers were
trained with cooperation from the coalition of NGOs.

2) The female candidates and their staffs: ECWR trained female candidates for the 2005
parliamentary elections as follows:
    - The first training was held from December 30, 2004 to October 3, 2005. 30 female
       candidates attended from Esmaliya, Alexandria, Giza, Cairo, El Minya, Port Said and North
       Sinai, and addressed the following topics: managing the election campaign, communication
       and negotiations skills, preparing an executive plan, preparing a media plan, how to manage
       difficult people.
    - Training for the female candidates‟ staff was held on October 30th, 2005, for 10 female
       candidates and their staff, which included 6 members for each candidate from Souhag,
       Esmalaya, Aswan, El Fayom, the Red Sea, Qana, Alexandria and El Qalybaya. The training
       addressed: managing the campaign, assistant staff skills, communication skills, how to
       confront problems on voting day, practical training for election day.
    - Training female candidates for the second and third phase from November 10 to 11, 2005.
       35 female candidates from Qana, El Fayom, El Kaalybaya, El Esmalya, El O'ksor,
       Alexandria, El Sharkaya, The Red Sea and Souhag attended. The training addressed the
       following topics: managing the election campaign, communication skills, presentation skills,
       assistant staff skills and the role of the assistant staff in organizing the campaign, and how to
       make the election program a success

Reports from districts in which women ran

The report lists the abuses that occurred, focusing on important districts.

1. Threatening and terrorizing women candidates and the exploitation of women
Women's polling stations witnessed a lot of violence, which took on many forms including threats
to female candidates, deformation of their faces, and one being shot, and also the supporters of
female candidates and their families were subjected to physical violence, not to mention that

women were exploited in the voting process through encouraging them to vote for certain
candidates and paid to instigate fights and disputes among the female candidates, while women
were used in other polling stations for monitoring the female voters during the voting process, in
addition to persuading poor women with money as a way of gathering a large number of votes for
the NDP candidates.


In the Embaba District the female candidate Nashwa El Deeb, was shot by the NDP candidate. In El
Khalifa District, O'lafat Abd El Badeea El Arabi was threatened that they would deform her face. In
Abdeen, the representative of El Ghad party was assaulted and thrown out of the polling station and
the voters supporting her were threatened by the supporters of the NDP candidate. In Shoubra, the
candidate was Mona Makram Ebeed, and women and girls were forced by the NDP candidate to
dance and sing in front of polling places to attract the voters. In Bab El Sharaya, the female
candidate of El Ghad party was assaulted in the polling place at El Shorfa School. She filed a report
at the police station in the same district. Two women from El Ghad Party guided voters and
encouraged them to vote for the female candidate of El Ghad party in front of Khalil Agha School.
In Dar El Salam and El Basateen inside Gamal Abdel Naser School, election cards were collected
for voting instead of having the voters vote for themselves.

In El Khalifa District, where the candidates were Karima Awad and Fayda Kamel, the women were
gathered in front of the polling stations for dancing and drums to promote the NDP candidate, and
the women were used to create disputes in order to boost voting for the NDP candidate. In Shoubra,
at polling station number 10, the women employees of the rail company were gathered collectively
to vote for the NDP candidate.

In Nasr City, women were assembled and asked to wear shirts with the NDP candidate‟s name, and
the nurses of Cairo Hospital in Wahba were placed on a bus number 32880 and voted 30 times. In
El Manial District, money was also distributed to lure voters as well as financial vouchers ranging
from 50-100LE. Students at the institutes were also given financial cards as bribes.

Supporters of the NDP shot female candidate Ashaia Hamed Mohmmed of the Independence
Group. Labor candidate Rood El Farag and her supporters were also assaulted and her banners were

In Misr El Kadima, El Salam, the female candidate Hanan El Saeddi of the Independence Group
reported that polling station 69, Amer Ebn El Ase, had two polling sites for women. Candidates for
the NDP, El Wafd, and some of the independent candidates gathered women and gave them
anywhere from 30 to 150 LE for their votes.

Supporters of the NDP at the Manshiat El Serg School shot gunfire, which resulted in one person
being injured which spread fear among the rest of the voters. In addition, many women were
gathered outside to make defamatory remarks about some of the candidates.

Microbuses (numbers 14721- 72495- 36109) were used to transfer women to polling stations in
Heliopolis to vote for women candidates of the NDP. While female supporters of the independent
female candidate Makarem El Derry were prevented from voting at polling station 70 in Heliopolis
under the pretext that there were scheduling mistakes and that the names of certain candidates did
not exist.

In the runoff:

40 women were brought into El Khalifa District carrying microphones, and dancing to attract
voters. Additionally, women were brought in on microbus no. 150872 and in a Jeep Cherokee No.
575048, blaring sirens and frightening voters into believing that the NDP candidate had police

Rumors were spread and the exploitation of both women and men were used to obtain votes. A false
announcement was made in El Khalifa District on the day of the election that the NDP candidate
had won the parliamentary vote in an attempt to sway supporters of the non-NDP candidates, and
fool them in to thinking that their votes were already useless. The NDP candidate made use of a DJ
to rally his supporters with the slogan “Why are you still here? You should go home!” Meaning,
that there is no hope for anyone but the NDP to win.

Transportation of voters to the polling stations from various governorates in Egypt continued and
was used for the specific purpose of obtaining their votes. Buses used to transport these individuals
had numbers 1086 and 535 from Menoufiya, number 17 from Beni Suef, Dahab Company tourism
bus number 32880 was used to carry nurses from the Cairo Specialist Hospital, as well as microbus
number 13999 used to bring voters from Gharbiya to polling station 6 in Nasr City District to
support the NDP candidate.

The ECWR hotline in Nasr City District also filed a complaint for the campaign representative of
female candidate Dr. Makarm El Derey as they discovered a voter with two ballots, one for
Menoufiya and the other for Nasr City. The judge for the polling station refused to issue a report on
the incident and instead decided to destroy one of the voter‟s two ballots. Moreover, the female
candidate‟s representative was accused of impersonating a police official.

Marsa Matrouh:

In Marsa Matroh, the first District, female candidate Nema'a Esmail of the Independence Group
reported that women were gathered inside Matrouh bus number 8 where their election cards were
collected and they were promised money in exchange for their votes for the NDP candidate.
Following the vote, these women did not receive the money promised to them, which led to heated
verbal exchanges and physical violence where women were beaten. In District (1), polling stations
No (11, 18), women were collected from their homes and given 150LE to vote for the NDP
candidate. At polling station No (21, 22), the Independent and NDP candidates urged voters not to
vote for women in Quran Saving School, Matrouh.

Around 80 women were gathered from the villages to the voting places for the NDP candidates in
trip bus no 8, and Matrouh cars no 3974, 328. They voted in polling station no 16, 17 and 18 and
they were promised 150 LE by the NDP candidate supporters and representatives, but they didn't
give them the money, which led to fights between them and the women.

El Minya:

In El Minya, El Adwai District, the female candidate Eman Abd El Hakeem, reported to ECWR
that there weren't polling stations exclusive to women. Polling sites, such as El Adwi secondary
industrial school, were accessible to all, in opposition with the traditions of the governorate. The
threat of harassment prevented many women from leaving their homes to vote.

Women were transferred in buses no 2755 to vote for the NDP candidate in polling station no 33
Bander El Minya. In El Adwa District, women were gathered for voting for NDP candidate in
many buses.

In the runoff, El Adwai District, women were gathered to vote for the NDP candidate in many cars.

Suez Governorate:

In the Suez Police Station District 1, where the candidate was Hala Said, her ballot number was
changed from 28 to 27. She filed a report (#4565) in the police station the night of the election.

El Arbayeen, District 2, where the candidate was Mona Shawky, there were election posters in front
of many polling places that alleged that Mona Shawky withdrew her candidacy, committed suicide,
was an agent of America, or accused her of moral corruption and religious accusations aimed at
ruining her reputation.

Ismailia Governorate:

Magda El Newashy from District number 1 complained to the ECWR that she and her supporters
were insulted in public by the NDP candidate. She also received a death threat from the NDP
supporters. She filed official reports of these threats to the police. Following this, there were
protests against her, resulting in the destruction of her campaign banners, for which she filed
another report to the security director.


At Kasm Awal Souhag, female candidate Mona Foua'd found that many women were assaulted in
front of the Army‟s Secondary School polling station by the policemen and the chief officer, and
they threatened the female candidate to leave the polling stations or face arrest.

El Sharkaya:

In Abou Hamad District, Soa'ad Tea'alp (female candidate) had two cars crash into her deforming
all of her body. The investigations cited tht this was done by an unidentified person.

In the first District, candidate Samira Said Ahmed faced slander and threats. Her representative was
also slandered and harassed. They pulled her clothing and the husband of the representative
received death threats.

At the Police Station in Belbees, in front of polling station number 8, female candidate, Marrwa
Nabeel, objected to the harassment she had suffered by the relatives of one of the candidates, but
they threatened to deform her face using acid.

2. The threat of violence

We are used to hearing about and seeing violence in the parliamentary elections. Yet, we didn't
expect the level of violence observed in these elections to be so high. Many disputes and fights
occurred in a lot of the women's districts and voters were prevented from voting, affecting the
election process and its results.


In Abdeen District, polling station no 16, where the female candidate was Nadia Ahmed El Sabahy,
a woman created problems and fights as she took women from the streets and disabled and blind
people to vote. This woman also assaulted the El Ghad party representative. At Bab El Sharya, El
Shourfa school, the candidate for the NDP threatened voters and assaulted and beat them. In the
same district, all the schools had thugs distribute announcements and publications for the NDP
candidate, in Misr El Kadima District, in the Hasan El Anwar school polling station which is where
there were the candidates Hana El Saydy, the NDP candidate supporters and independent candidate
created fights and disputes between women and men voters to ruin the election process and made
the judges (in charge of the polling station) close the polling station.

Complaints came in from Heliopolis and Nasr City Districts claiming that ANPI Company for
Petroleum workers were gathered and threatened with collective punishment, including preventing
workers from receiving the benefit of early pensions if they did not vote for the NDP candidate. In
front of the polling station, the NDP candidate representative took the names of workers that did not
vote for the NDP candidate.

In the runoff:

Complaints came in from Heliopolis and Nasr City Districts claiming that ANPI Company for
Petroleum workers were gathered and threatened with collective punishment, and preventing
workers from receiving the benefit of early pensions if they did not vote for the NDP candidate. In
front of the polling station, the NDP candidate representatives took the names of workers whot did
not vote for the NDP. And company employees that came in to vote were also threatened in front of
the polling stations, that if they didn't vote for the NDP candidate they should leave. In El Khalifa
District, there was fighting between the NDP candidate and representatives of the independent
candidate because they had distributed money to the voters.

Bani Swief :

In Barouk Village, there was fighting and shooting between two of the NDP candidates one of them
is called Ali El Bakry Seleem (labor) and the other Abou El kher Abdel Aleem (groups), 12 people
were wounded.

At Bander Bani Suef, El Rahba Preparatory School polling station in El Ghamrawy, the
representatives of the Muslim Brotherhood forced one of the voters to vote for his candidate, and
when the voter refused the representatives insisted to give him their publications.

Marsa Matrouh:

District 1, Adel El Safty school polling station number 18, there was a dispute between the
representative of one of the female candidates and the woman was physically assaulted by the
representative of the female candidate, so the judge threatened to report the women. When they
asked the woman she said that the NDP candidate offered to give her 150 LE if she voted for the
camel and crescent symbols.

Ismailia Governorate:

In District number 1, where Magda El Newashy ran, at polling stations 84, 85, 86, the NDP
candidate tore up the documents of the candidates of the Muslim Brotherhood and the
representatives of the female candidate Magda El Newashy. So the number of members in her
delegation was reduced. One of Magda El Newashy's supporters (Mohammed Hussien) was

physically assaulted in El Hakeem Ammer Street resulting in a neck injury that required medical
attention. The judges were careless and the security was absent and didn't perform their role.

Also in District number 1, Magda El Newashy‟s District, at El Shouhada'a preparatory for boys
school and secondary school for girls, polling station no 86, at 7:30 the NDP candidate and their
thug supporters assaulted the voters and beat them, as the security forces looked on and didn‟t
interfere. There was a cameraman monitoring the accident, he was beaten as well and his camera
was smashed. El Shouhada'a preparatory boys‟ school was closed and every one entering the
polling station was searched, the judge didn't allow the ECWR's observer to enter the polling

In District number 1, in front of El Mousheer Ahmed Esmail school, there were many youths
wearing yellow shirts with the picture of one of the candidates on the front called Mahmoud Osman
and a picture of another candidate (Ahmed Abou Zeed) on the back, and tear gas, pocketknives and
swords were used. They also shot some rounds of fire to terrorize the voters and candidates.

In District number 1, El Sadat school polling station, there were cars filled with thugs to terrorize
the voters and beat those who didn't vote for NDP candidate, and they beat the representatives of
the Muslim Brotherhood and shredded their banners, which led to many voters not voting.

In District number 1, El Tegara Secondary School, there were female thugs harassing the youths of
the Muslim Brotherhood and abusing the voters to create disputes and fights.

In District number 1, in front of El Zerraa School for boys, women following the NDP candidate
(Ahmed Abou Zeed) beat the women from the Muslim Brotherhood party and pulled the full face
veil off Mona Said AbdEl Kader (she reported this at the police station number 12 second section).

In Bor Foua'ad District, polling stations numbers 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, El Tegara secondary school, the
women were gathered to vote for independent candidate Mohamed El Tahan and his representatives
gave each woman 20 LE. There were microbuses transferring the voters to vote for the NDP
candidate and gave them 30 LE each.

El Fayoum:

In El Fayoum, Bander El Fayoum District, parliamentary candidate Amal Mohammed Abdel
Gawad informed the ECWR that men wielding pocketknives and swords closed the polling stations
of El Saha El Shabaia, Mohammed Salem School, El Sofy School, and El Bassel School in favor of
the NDP candidate. One member of the NDP cursed all of the other election candidates and stated
"No voice is higher than the NDP voice."

El Kalyubeya:

In the Second Kasam, Shoubra El Khama District, there were disputes among the supporters of the
NDP candidates (labor) and the supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood (labor), resulting in seven
people being hurt and transferred to Nasser hospital, and the security interfered, and they threw the
supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood out of the voting area and left the supporters of NDP
candidates (Mohamed Awad).

El Sharkeya:

In El Sharkeya governorate, first District, polling place El Zeraa school: The candidate was Fatma
Mohammed. The NDP candidate brought 20 large men and positioned them in front of the polling
places and at the front they positioned a large woman to intimidate female voters and disperse them
far away from the polls.

In District 8, polling place El Katiba: The candidate was Marwa Nabel. The competitor assembled
thugs and positioned them at polling places to threaten voters and force them to vote for him. He
brought his sisters to assault the female candidate and threatened to assault her if she made any


In Domiat, Bander District: The candidate was Fatma Mohammed. In front of polling places 73, 74,
75 and 76 of the Azhar Religious Institute, the Chief of Police of Bander Domiat cooperated with
thugs to prevent voters from entering the polling station to vote. Security made a barrier around the
polling station to prevent voters from entering.

In Domiat Center District, polling place El Lowzy secondary school: The candidate was Laila
Ebrahim. The state security cooperated with some large women in assaulting female voters and
tearing their clothes to prevent them from entering the polling station. They also gathered thugs in
four microbuses and arrested all the other candidate‟s representatives as well as some voters.

Red Sea Governorate:

In the Red Sea governorate, the female candidate Mona Abdel Moty filed a report stating that her
election number was changed from 18 to 16. Her prefix and suffix weren‟t on the election card,
which made her voters confused.

3. Gathering and using women:

El Beheira Governorate:

At polling stations 22, 23, and 24 in El Baheira Governorate, where candidate Soa‟ad Ahmed
Mohamed was running for the election in District 4 Shortat El Mahmoudaya, the NDP candidate
transported women, and their families and neighbors, to the polling stations in microbuses. El
Beheira is a largely rural area where many of the inhabitants are illiterate and the NDP candidate
exploited the disadvantaged economic situation of these women in order to obtain their votes.

Ismailia Governorate:

In front of the El Zeraa School in El Ismailia Governorate, buses were used to collect the female
employees from the El Dwagen Company to transport them to polling stations in order to vote for
the NDP candidate Ahmed Abu Zeed.

Alexandria Governorate:

In Mohram Beek District, where the candidates were Samiya Taher and Sourya Sorour, at Samier
school polling place, there were women dancing to attract voters and singing a song called “we
chose him ….. we chose him” for promoting the NDP candidate " Mamdoh Hosny"

In Alexandria, District. 6 Ghabrial, Nabuaia Mousa School, polling station no 52, the NDP
candidates gathered women in buses and paid each one 300LE for their votes.

Port Said Governorate:

At polling stations 63, 64, 65, 66, and 67 in the Port Said Governorate, Kesm Shortat El Mankh
District, where candidates Faten El Said Sadiq, Nadia Ibrahim Hassen, and Amany Shata were
running for the elections, the representatives of AbdEl wahab Otaa and El Said Metwaly candidates
transported women in microbuses nos. 4022 and 194 to the polling stations. Each woman was given
anywhere between 50-100LE for their votes.

4. Judges refusal to record some violations, interventions and corruption:


In Bab El Sheraya, Mohamed Abdouh School polling place, there was someone inside the polling
station marking the ballots instead of voters, in the same district, at the following schools (khalil
Agha, Mohammed Abdouh and El Nasr), there weren't voter lists out of the polling stations. In El
Salam District, El Nasr School, polling places no (37- 38- 39- 40- 41) the polling stations opened at
8:50 am. At polling station 38, the judge went out from the polling station during the election
process to get something from his car. At polling station no 39 the judge arrived to the polling
station at 9:30.

In Misr El Kadima, polling station no 17, there wasn't curtains in side the polling station, so some of
the voters openly objected. In Omar Ebn El A'as the polling stations were closed at 6: 50pm and the
voters were prevented from entering the polling station to vote even though many people still
wanted to vote, they kicked them out and closed the polling station.


In Kerdasa District, polling place no 1, the female chief of the polling station put the ballot cards in
her bag after the voters had marked them, and she prevented the journalists from entering the
polling station.

Bani suif:

In the first District, which is the district of the female candidate Aza Eaz El Deen, the supporters of
the NDP candidates and the brotherhood influenced the citizens by distributing announcements in
front of the polling station and inside it, which is an illegal act.

At El Rahba School, the representatives of the candidates were inside the polling station looking for
the names of voters, which something the chief of the polling station should do and not them, and
The representatives entered inside the stations with the voters while they were voting, which is not

A lot of the polling stations were located so far away from the voters‟ place of residence that they
were not able to vote, and some voters‟ names were listed incorrectly in polling stations of another

Marsa Matrouh:

In the first District, polling station no 17, Adel El Safty School, the judge refused to put the fingers
of one of the voters in the ink, after she voted because she had henna tattoo on her hand saying that"
these hand are too beautiful to be put in the ink !!"

El Minya:

In Bander El Minya, the election boxes were sealed at 6: 40 pm (before the appointed time), at the
polling stations of the old girl‟s secondary school, the new secondary girl‟s school, and the
preparatory school. And all the polling stations opened at 9:30 am (after the appointed time.) In the
same district, there were publications inside the polling station and on the stairway, especially at the
polling station of Abna'a ElThawra school and The new secondary girl‟s school, so the
representatives of the candidates distributed the ballot cards to the voters inside the polling stations.

In ElAdwa District, the security forces were not doing their role properly which is ensuring that
election process runs smoothly and protecting the voters, and so commotion broke out as well as
incidents of sexual harassment.

In the runoff, in El Adwa District, there was 3000 citizen, in front of Masady school polling stations
no (69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74) because the chief of the polling station didn't allow them to enter to the
polling stations and vote, which resulted in the voters objecting and causing much chaos, and so the
chief of polling station intervened allowing for 300 citizens to enter the station to vote and then
closed the polling station again till the end of the election day at 7:00 pm, because there were a lot
of mistakes in the voter lists.


In Bander Asyut, at the polling station of Ali Ebn Abi Taleb, the chief of the polling station
exppelled the representatives and the monitors saw the banner hanging inside the school, for the
candidate Abdalla El Nadeem, and in polling station no 33 in the same district, there were just
banners for the NDP candidates, in El Khaiat secondary school for girls, the security prevented
people from entering the school. In candidate Afaf Youssif‟s District, the employees of the local
council used their power to support the NDP candidate and encouraged people to vote for them.

In ElFath School, Dewan Elfath for Book polling station, policemen stood at the doors to search the
voters before entering the polling station to intimidate them.

Alexandria Governorate:

At Moharam Beek District, El Nabawy ElMohandes school, which was candidate Sana'a Helmy
Mohamed,‟s district the judge didn't count the voting cards in most polling stations and didn't
record the interventions.

Moharam Beek District, El Talla'a school, where was the candidate Samya Taher. The NDP
candidate made registration collectively to 3000 citizens working on the Public Authority for
Transferring the Citizens in Alexandria, and El Naser Company for Smoke, although there is
judgment declared on November 17, 2005 no 2095 include stopping the collective registration, this
lawsuit was raised by candidate called Hessen Abou El Magd against the Justice Minster and others.

Moharm Beek District, polling station no 61, Tawfeek El Hakeem school, where was candidate
Samyia Taher, the judge didn't use the ink in voting, when our observer asked him "why did you
use the ink?" he answered" I use the stamp and every one has personal freedom"

In El Raml District, where was candidate Sana'a Helmy Mohamed, the judges in polling stations no
139, 99 didn't allow entering for our observers, they refused to do a report of objection from our
observers, there wasn't privacy for the voting process at the tow polling places, and the judges
allowed to the voters to vote without election cards.

El Montazah District, the representatives and the delegations were prevented to enter Mostafa
Mosharf school polling station except the representatives and delegations of NDP candidate.

El Fayoum:

At Bander El Fayoum District, polling station no 106, female candidate was Amal El Saiady, the
security were inside the polling station and outside it and they threatened and arrested all who
objected on the interventions of NDP, and prevented the voters to enter for voting expect who voted
for the interest of NDP candidate.

District 1, Kasm Bander El Fayoum, polling station no 17. the brotherhood representatives didn't
allowed to enter the polling station for two hours.

District 1, Kasm Bander El Fayoum, there weren't curtains at many polling stations, and that lose
the privacy of voting.

Qana Governorate:

Naqada District, polling place 1, where was candidate Hamida Kamal Abdel Mongy, representative
of south upper Egypt radio objected to harassment by the policemen representative of south upper
Egypt radio.

Port Said Governorate:

In El Dawahy District, where candidates Huda Ibrahim Ismail and Hanan Ibrahim are running for
election, there were four boxes of election cards were entered to the polling station during dispute
between the representatives of brotherhood party and NDP.

El Gharbaya Governorate:

El Mahal, Safaya Zaghloul school in El Manshaya, where was candidate Naa'met Rashad
Mohamed, the judge allowed to the voters to vote without the election cards and identity cards, the
fingerprint ink removed easily.

El Mahal District, where was candidate Naa'mat Rashad Mohamed, there were many policmen
inside and outside the polling stations and there were police officers in poling stations inside most
the districts.

El Mahala District, the NDP candidates were allowed to make announcement and publication inside
and outside the polling stations and the rest candidates were prevented to do that.

El Mahala District, the son of candidate Hamdy Hussein (labor), was prevented to enter the polling
station at the front of El Salam School although he had general delegation.

El Mahala District, Abdel Megeed Seleem school, the voters signed on two lists, one with the judge
(the supervisor) inside the poling station and the second with the employee at the NDP outside the
polling station. And they forced the voters to voter for the NDP candidate. When the independent
candidate "Mohamed Omer El Kady" objected, the judge refused to record his objection in an
official report.

Ismaliya Governorate:

In Kantart Gharb District 3, polling station 42, where was the candidate Aliya Fahmy, there was no
ink in the polling station.

El Dakahlaiya:

El Semblaween, District 13, polling place in front of Meet Ghourab school: The candidates were
Howaida Mostafa and Zenab El Said Abdel All. The polling stations opened at 10 am, causing
security to threaten violence. The NDP candidate and police prevented voters from entering polling
stations 111 and 112. Police assaulted one of the voters (a lawyer) and prevented him from entering.

In Mansoura District number 1, at the Sandoub Preparatory School for Boys, The secondary Taha
Hussen School for boys, and the administrative of Preparatory Mansoura East, only the voters who
had NDP cards were allowed to vote. So the supporters of the opposition party couldn't enter the
polling station, and the security forces helped terrorize the opposition‟s voters.

El Sharkaya:

At Ebn Aleem Village, Aby Aleem Primary School, polling station 56, the female candidate
complained that the judge marked on the ballots instead of the voters.

El Kateeba District, District 1, where Marwa Shoua'ab was running, the judge started the voting at
9:30 am, although there were representatives inside the polling station. And there wasn't fingerprint
ink available in the village of Awlad Moughny and the judge used stamps instead!

Souhag governorate:

Kasem Awal Souhag O'm El Moa'amneen preparatory school for girls, polling stations 33 to 38,
women were gathered in microbuses 3146, 835, and 1962 for the interest of the NDP candidate. In
addition to the women gathered their neighbors and family to vote.

Red Sea governorate:

Second Kasem, Hurghada District 1, in front of El Shahed Hasan Kamel school, polling station no
18, where was Mona Abdel Moatte. Many women were used ululating and beating drums and
cheering for the interest of NDP candidate, and that happened also in front of many polling stations.

In the Red Sea governorate, the female candidate Mona Abdel Moty filed a report stating that her
election number was changed from 18 to 16. Her prefix and suffix were also lacking on the election
card, which made her voters confused.

Police station, Hurghada District, the observers were prevented to monitor the election in most
polling stations.

5. Tribal values awakened in the Egyptian community:

The strongest trend the ECWR observed during monitoring the women's districts in the
parliamentary election, was how the candidates of the NDP used the conservative traditions of the
Egyptian community and tribal values against female candidates, in order to negatively influence
the voters and destroy the hopes of the female candidates, the National Democratic Party didn't
implement the President's program of ensuring a minimum of parliamentary seats for women, and
instead opened the door for the candidates to do whatever they pleased in the election campaign,
even things that are against the state civil values.


In the Embaba District, the NDP candidate created negative publicity against the female candidate
Nashwa El Deeb, and the supporters of the National Democratic Party harassed her representatives
and assistants.


In Bander Asuwit, Sahel Selem, where the candidate Thana'a Esmail was running, men from the
same family of Thana'a were encouraged to run up against her in the same district, to save their
family‟s image, as they were told “where are the men in the family !?”

Marsa Matrouh:

In the first District, where the candidate Nea'ama Esmail ran, the National Democratic Party incited
tribal values within the Egyptian community by harassing and reproaching the election campaign
representatives and assistants, as well as the voters, for supporting women instead of men and
accusing them of disintegrating traditional values. NDP supporters ripped banners and election
advertisements for female candidates at many polling stations under this pretext. The same thing
happened in El Minya, Bani Suif, Asuwit.


In Souhag, Gizirat Shandweel District, polling stations no 47 and 48, that included the candidate
Mona Fou'ad, Tribal values are extremely important in this governorate, and the tribes agreed with
the NDP candidate to vote for him, so that no one else can compete.

6. The use of bribes, money and drugs


At Bab El Sharaya, El Shorfa School, where the candidate Hanan Mohamed El Zouhary ran, the
supporters of El Ghad distributed key-rings to the voters. At El Salam District, Fatma El Zahara'a

polling station, where was the candidate Esmat El Marghany, the female candidate gathered women
who were given monthly allowances to vote for her. At some polling stations, drugs were
distributed to attract young voters to support the NDP's candidate and prevent them from voting for
the female candidate.

In the runoff, the use of bribery was employed at El Khalifa District to further attract voters. Bribes
started from 50LE to 100 LE as a kind of prizes in front of polling station, Nasr City and Helioples,
the candidates competed of distributing the money that started from 50 and growing in the last
hours before closing the polling stations.

Bani Suif:

In Bani Suif, the first District, where candidate Aza Eaz El Deen ran, meals, juice and money were
distributed to the voters in front of the polling stations, for encouraging them to support the NDP
candidate. Likewise, the supporters of the candidate Ebrahim Soubeh (independent) distributed gifts
and meals to the voters, and the candidates of Brotherhood party and the NDP did the same thing in
front of the polling station in the El Koum el Ahmar village.

In El Rahba school, the supporters of Eisa Abd El Wahed distributed 50 L.E to each person who
voted for him, also the supporters of candidates tempted the poor voters with money and gifts to
vote for them. At El Akbat school and El Zahara'a school, money, meals, and gifts were distributed
for the voters to influence on them, that leading to dispute between the voters.

Marsa Matrouh:

In the first District, where candidate Nea'ama Esmail ran, there were disputes between women and
supporters of the NDP because they didn't give them the money that they were promised, in El
Methak school in the same district, the NDP candidates distributed bribes and money till the vote
price reached 150 LE, in the preparatory school for girls, polling station no 16 the vote price was
between 50 and 80 LE.

El Minya:

In El Adwai District, the female candidate Eman AbdEl Hakeem, El Adwi secondary industrial
school, the supporters of candidates paid money for voters, and distributed gifts for the voters and
encouraged them to vote for them.

In the runoff, El Adwai District, polling station no 70, the representative of the NDP candidate
carried a weapon inside the polling station; there were fights among the supporters of the NDP
candidates and the brotherhood party. In addition to the fights between the security and the
candidates of the Muslim brotherhood party.

When the vote counting started, the representatives, the candidates and the monitors from the civil
community for the election were prevented from attending.


The supporters of NDP candidate "El Said Ali Ebrahim" distributed money and gave each voter 30
LE after voting for him.

El Behara Governorate:

At polling stations No. 22, 23, and 24, the Preparatory Baurout School, in the El Beheira
Governorate, where the female candidate Soa'ad Ahmed Mouhammed ran, the NDP candidate
transported voters to the polling station in bus no. 27681 and distributed financial cards to obtain
their votes. And his supporters were rounded and called the following statement out loud “anyone
with an election card, should ride with us to vote and take his complimentary financial card !”

Alexandria Governorate:

In District 6 Ghabrial, Nabuaia Mousa School, polling station 52, the NDP candidates gathered
women in buses and paid each one 300LE for their votes.

Moharm Beek District, Sameir school, where candidates Sourya Sameir, Samiya Taher ran. The
NDP candidates ( Mamdouh Housni and Ahmed Abdel Mena'am) paid each voter from 100 to 150

Port Said Governorate:

In Port Said Governorate, Ali Ebn Aby Taleb District, women‟s polling station nos. 60, 61, and 62,
representatives of NDP candidate conveyed women to the polling stations in buses no 30229 where
each was paid 30LE for their votes.

In front of the Port Said Sport Club, polling station no 11 and 12, Kesm Shortat El Mankh, female
voters fought with NDP representatives for an increase in their payment from 20 to 30LE, during
which they ripped up the money they had received.

In Pour Foua'ad District, where the candidate Waffa Ali Houssni ran, Elkhoutout El Arabaya
school. The representatives of the candidate Mohamed El Nakeeb distributed money to the voters
outside the school.

In Pour Foua'ad District, where the candidate Waffa Ali Houssni ran, the El Nasser primary school
polling station no (1,2,3,4,5 and 6). The candidate Mahmoud Soubhy (NDP) gathered men and
women voters to vote collectively and paid each voter 50 LE to obtain their votes.

In Shourtat El Manakh District, polling stations no (70, 71, 72 and 73) where candidates Faten Said
Sedeek, Nadia Ebrahim Hassin, Amany Shata. The voters were conveyed to the polling stations in
cars no (3998- 670) for voting collectively for the NDP candidate Abdel Wahab Qouta and paid
each voter 20 LE. And there were four women were speaking with the representative of the NDP
candidate Abdel Wahab Qouta about the money and requested 120 LE, but the representative said "
we will not pay more than 80, then the women responded" we will go to the candidate Said
Metwaly and give him our votes", after that the representatives agreed to give them the money that
they requested.

El Sharkaya governorate:

In Abou Hamad District, poling station no 1,2. The NDP candidates distributed money to the voters
from 40 to 50 LE, and the representatives were present inside the polling station telling voters who
to vote for and the NDP candidate and his supporters were out side the polling stations distributing

7. Problems with voter lists and procedures

Despite all the calls and requests form the political parties, NGOs, and syndicates to check the voter
lists and delete the dead people, and those who have changed their voting places, and automatically
add the new names of those who have reached 18 years, and request from the Interior Ministry to
make a link or connection between the voters lists and Identity cards.

Despite all these calls and requests, the Interior Ministry declared that they checked the voting lists,
and discovered all the old problems of the previous years had remained, with some names repeated
and others being dropped, and there were different copies of the voting lists in different places. And
also there were discrepancies between the voting lists that were hung up in the polling stations
doors and the voting lists that were with the independent candidates and the opponents' candidates,
and there were differences between the voting lists inside the polling stations and the voting lists
that were with the NDP candidates.

All these problems in the voting lists prevented many from voting, and was considered to be what
triggered people‟s disbelief in the impartiality and neutralism of the elections, because people
suspected that these mistakes were exploited for the interest of the NDP candidates.


In El Manial, where candidate Dr. Shahenaz El Nagar ran, there was clear mistakes in the voters'
names on the voter lists which resulted in the voting and election process being hampered with, a
woman called Raghda, had her name written on the voter lists as Baghda, also Enyat Zedan was
wrote Ayad Zayan, so some woman entered the polling station to vote, only to find that their was
already checked, this was also caused by the similarities of many names as well as deliberate
forgery. In Dar El Salam District, El Nasr language school, there were many names dropped out
from the election lists such as Aykat Tadrous Hana, election No 1560, and there were many
repeated names.

Many citizens issued complaints concerning both the first Election Day (November 9) and the
Return Election Day (November 15) voting rosters. In the Districts of Heliopolis and Nasr City,
complainants indicated that voter rosters on Election Day were different than those on Return
Election Day. Voter names could not be found on Return Election rosters, although they were listed
on the first Election Day rosters and had in fact voted. There was collective voting for the NDP
candidates at many districts in different governorates, the voters were transferred in cars no (21529
Kalybaya taxi, 30090 Monfaya taxi, and bus 1068, tourism bus Bani Suif no 1, trip bus Monfaya no
535, and general transfer bus Cairo no 53308, Microbus Gharbaya 13999, it has announcements for
El Salaab NDP candidate. likewise ANPI Company for Petroleum workers were gathered and
threatened with collective punishment, including preventing workers from receiving the benefit of
early pensions if they did not vote for the NDP candidate. In front of the polling station, the NDP
candidate representative took the names of workers that did not vote for the NDP candidate.


In all districts of the governorate, there were differences between the voting lists inside the polling
station and the voting lists outside of the polling stations, the monitors found a lot of mistakes in the
voters names and many similarities in names that caused confusion, because they wrote their full
family names.

Bani Sweif:

In the first District, El Rahabaya school, where candidate Aza Eaz El Deen ran, the supporters of
the NDP candidates controlled the voter lists and told the voters whether their names were on the
lists or not, there were youths under 18 years old that voted after they found their names on the
voter lists and they voted without election cards. El Adwa District, the voters voted without the
election cards, and some voters found that their names had mistakes and others didn't find their
names at all, which prevented them from voting.

Marsa Matrouh:

In The first District, where Naema'at Esmail was running, at the Local Health Center, in the village
of El Kasr, some voters went to vote but found that their names were already marked! One voter
called Rezk Abdel Molaa Mousa objected to this inside the polling station.

El Monofeya:

In Bander Shebeen El Koom District, at the preparatory school for girls, where the candidate Nadia
Saaid ran, there were many mistakes in the voter lists with the chief of the polling station, so many
voters couldn't vote.


In El Fath District, many citizens didn't find their names on the voter lists, even though they had
voted in the presidential election, In the same districts. And other mistakes were found in their
names that prevented them from voting.

El Gharbeya Governorate:

In Kasm Awal Tanta, El Shahed Yahiya El Watany, where was the candidate Tamadour Abdall El
Sedeek. The mistakes were founded in the voter lists and many voters didn't found their names.

In The Preparatory Religion Institute, where the candidate Amal Abouel Yazeed ran, many female
voters didn't find their names on the lists, although they had previously voted at the same polling

Qana Governorate:

In El Hamdyat Sheyakha District, Bander Qana, where the candidate Huda Naa'em Makar ran,
police station (Qana District 1) 850 voters found that their names were written in the files but not on
the voting lists.

Port Said Governorate:

In Shortat El Manakh District, where the candidate Faten Said Sedek, Nadia Ebrahim Hasan and
Amany Shata ran, the polling stations no 68 and 69, had several mistakes in the voting lists which
prevented many from voting.

El Behera Governorate:

In El Mahmoudaya District, El Sedawy District, El Menasa District, El Hager District, where the
candidate Sou'ad Ahmed Mohammed was running, many mistakes were founded on the voting lists.

Alexandria Governorate:

In El Montazah District, there were many mistakes on the lists; and the voters‟ names were
transferred to other polling stations

El Dakahleya:

In El Semblaween, District 13, at the polling place in front of Meet Ghourab school: The candidates
were Howaida Mostafa and Zenab El Said Abdel All. The polling stations opened at 10 am, which
caused the security forces threaten to use violence.

In El Semblaween, District 13, Mubarak Primary School, polling places 105, 106, 107, 108, there
were mistakes in the voter's lists, so the voters couldn't vote.

El Sharkeya

In District 1, at the police station of El Sharkaya, candidate Samira Ahmed observed that the polling
stations were closed after 5:45 and police prevented the voters from voting. According to the female
candidate, the ballots were signed inside the polling stations.

Red Sea governorate:
In The second District, North Sinai, Rafah, the Art school polling station 8 where female candidate
A'asha Souliman Fared was running, the judge found that one of the voters who had voted for the
NDP candidate had forged his ballot.

8. Security interference and closing of polling stations


In El Raml District, that included Sana'a Helmy Mohammed, El Montazah District as candidates,
Zenab Ahmed Mohamed, Mona Moneer Ya'akoup Hana, Faten Mohammed Shayboub, Sa'ad Ali
Hassn, El Mansheya District where there was candidates Satouta Mohamed Hassn, Nagla'a Ebrahim
Abdo, Vivyan Mohamed Wagdy, Karmouz District where there was candidate Amal Abdel Razeek,
and El Attareen District where there was the candidate Fatheya Omar Helal, The ECWR received
complaints concerning suspicious meetings between security forces and male and female ex-
convicts to devise schemes to terrorize the parliamentary candidates and instill fear in citizens in
order to force their votes in favor of the NDP candidate.

In El Ramel District, at the Ebn Sina school, polling stations 67 to 75, had thugs wielding
pocketknives and swords for beating the voters.

In El Gomrok District, many people were killed, such as Khalil Mohammed Khalil, (the driver of
one of the candidates), and another individual named El Abarry. Much of the violence and the
killings, were done by under cover policemen in normal clothing.

In El Faloga District, Barkok where the candidate San'a Helmy Mohammed Karkouk ran, the thugs
opened gun fire in the Bahary area and prevented voters from entering the polling station, and only
allowed the voters of NDP to enter.

In District 1, El Tegara secondary school for girls, female thugs followed the NDP for the purpose
of abusing and harassing women of the Muslim Brotherhood to create disputes and fights.

El Raml, Ebn Sina School, thugs assaulted the voters using swords at polling stations 67-75.

In Moharam Beak District, El Zera'a college school, the thugs gathered in front of the school
carrying sticks to prevent the women of Muslim Brotherhood party from voting.

In El Manshaya, in front of the Egyptian Company for Navigation, the thugs prevented one of
candidates (labor- independent) enters the polling station and prevented the voters as well
instigating fights.

In El Manshaya District, polling stations no 22, 23, 24 some of thugs gathered to beat the
candidates using glass and sticks and prevented the opposition candidates from making

In Karmouz District, in front of Ebrahim Bekhet school, and Karmouz preparatory school. The
voters were attacked by thugs wielding pocketknives and swords and the thugs threatened to deform
them as well, and tear gas was used, all to create an atmosphere of terror and intimidation and to
force people to vote for the NDP candidate, these events led to many voters getting wounded and
were transferred to El Asafra hospital.

El Behera:

In Abou Homous District, the new preparatory school, where the candidate Mona Abd El Aziz ran,
the representatives of the NDP and the brotherhood party fought, and yet the security didn't

In District 4, El Mahmoudaya police station, the new preparatory school and El Salam School,
where were the candidates Soa'ad Ahmed Mohammed and Saidada Abdel Azeem, the voters were
threatened by the thugs wielding the tears gas, pocketknives and swords, to remove them from the
polling stations. Many voters were hurt and the rest ran away form the polling stations, there were
eight cars of central security forces but they didn't interfere!

Port Said governorate:

In front of the El Kapaty Primary School in El Dawahy District, polling stations nos. 9, 10, and 11,
in Port Said Governorate, where candidates Huda Ibrahim Ismail and Hanan Ibrahim are ran for the
election, the central security threw tear gas in fear that the voters would harm the candidates. The
judge closed the polling site from 11 am to 2 pm. In addition to the representatives of NDP
candidates fought with the supporters of brotherhood party wielding the pocketknives and swords.

In the same district, outside of Ouhed Primary School, the central security also beat many women
with sticks and struck them down in clear view of bystanders and the other Egyptian women voters
and candidates.

In El Dawahy District, four boxes filled with election cards were sneaked in to the polling station
during a dispute between the supporters of the NDP and the brotherhood party, and immediately
after the polling station was closed.

In the same district, the male and female thugs and the police officers agreed to terrorize the
candidates and the voters that happen on the Election Day, under the control some police officers in
different districts.

Ismailia Governorate:

In the Nozal El Shabab District 1, where was Magda El Newashy. The observers monitored that the
thugs were gathered with NDP candidates and some police officers, who left the female candidates
and voters prey to the thugs' supporters the NDP, the thugs controlled on many polling stations with
many trained dogs.

El Fayom governorate:

In El Fayom, Shortat El Fayom District 1, the candidate Amal Mohammed Abdel Gawad ran. The
police officer arrested some of the representatives of the candidates on the night of the Election Day
and used them in the El Saha El Sha‟beyaya polling stations, which included 8 polling stations for
the interest of the NDP candidate at the Mohamed Salem School and El Soufy School, and El Basel

El Dakahlaiya:

In the Mansoura District 1, at the Sandoub Preparatory School for Boys and the Sandoub Secondary
School for Girls, the polling stations were closed from 3:00 pm to 7:00 pm. Many voters came to
vote but policemen sent them away.

El Sharkeya:

At the Police Station in Belbees District, in front of polling station number 8, female candidate,
Marrwa Nabeel, there wasn't fingerprint ink inside the polling stations, and the judges marked the
ballots instead of the voters. And the polling stations of El Sa'adatb and El Kaeba abd El Sharnaba
were closed at 10:00 am.

In the Belbees District, polling station no 1, where female candidate Marwa Shoua'ab ran, the
polling station was closed at 2:00 pm for the interest of the NDP candidate, with cooperation from
members of parliament and the chief of the police station in Belbess.


In Kasem Awal Souhag, at the night of election, 250 supporters of The Muslim Brotherhood party
were arrested from El Sala'a Village, and the village residents were terrorized and threatened for not
voting for the Brotherhood party candidate. So the people didn't go out to vote at all. There weren't
representatives for the Brotherhood at the district such as the Al-Amery Primary School, Eh-
Tayseer Primary School, El Shaheed Tayar School, Preparatory O'm El Mou'mneen School for

In Kasm Awal Souhag, female candidate Mona Foua'd found many women were beaten in front of
the Army Secondary School polling station by the policemen and the chief of policemen, and they
threatened the female candidate to either leave the polling stations; or have her arrested.

In Kasm Awal Souhag, at the female candidate, Mona Foua'd's polling stations no. 45 to 48,
policemen arrested all the representatives of the female candidates who spoke on behalf of them –
but did not arrest the representatives of the NDP candidates.

Kafr El Sheikh:

In Bander El Sheekh, number 1, female candidate San'a Mahmoud Ali said that the polling stations
were closed at the following schools: Industrial Heritage School, Sakhaa Commercial School, Huda
Sharawy School, and El Sadat Primary School. They closed these stations in order to prevent the
voters from entering. They stopped all the voters expect the ones who were planning on voting for
the NDP candidate. They used thugs in front of the polling places with pocketknives and swords.
We received information that at these 4 schools there were about 60 thousand voters.

9. Sexual harassment


In Domiat Center District, Ezpet El Laham, the security forces assaulted the voters of the opposition
parties to prevent them from entering the polling stations and voting.

In Domiat Center District, polling place El Lowzy secondary school: The candidate was Laila
Ebrahim. The state security used some strong women in assaulting female voters and tearing their
clothes to prevent them from entering the polling station. They also gathered thugs in four
microbuses and arrested all the other candidate‟s representatives as well as some voters.

Names and electoral districts for the female candidates in the 2005 parliamentary elections

Phase I


  #        Female candidate               Party/                   District             Symbol
  1     Easha Hamed Ataya          Independent/Labor  El Sahel District,               Umbrella
                                                      District 1
  2     Mona Makram Ebeed          Independent/Groups Shoubra District,                  Pigeon
                                                      District 4
  3     Esmat El Marghany          Independent/Labor Eluzha District, District            Cup
  4     Mabrouka Youssif Ali       Independent/Labor Hada'ak ElKoba District,             Car
                                                      District 10
  5     Zakaya Mahmoud             Independent/Labor Hada'ak ElKoba District,           Candle
        Hassen                                        District 10
  6     Samira Mahmoud             Independent/Labor ElMatarya District,                  Bag
        Ebrahim                                       District 8
  7     Nadia Ahmed Sabahy         O'ma/Group         Abdeen District, District           Car

    8     Amyna Shafek Youssif     Tagamoa'a/Group       Abdeen District, District        Umbrella
    9     Samya Mokhtar            Independent/ Group    El Zawya El Hamra
                                                         District, El Zaher
    10    Magda Mouhammed El Independent/Group           El Zawya El Hamra
          Said                                           District, El Zaher
    11    Taghred Shams El Deen Independent/Group        El Kaser El A'any                   Car
                                                         District, District 18
    12    Fathya El Asal           Tagamoa'a/Labor       El Kaser El A'any                  Boat
                                                         District, District 18
    13    Fayda Mahmoud Kamel      Watany/Group          El Khalifa District              Crescent
                                                         District 20
    14    O'alfat El Arabi         Independent/Group     El Khalifa District                Pistol
                                                         District 20
    15    Houda ElBadry            Independent/Labor     El Khalifa District                 Car
                                                         District 20
    16    Shahenaz El Nagar        Independent/Group     El Manial District,                Tank
                                                         District 21
    17    Makarm El Deery          Brotherhood/Group     Kasem Awal Nasr City,              Palm
                                                         District 6
    18    Thouraya Labna           Watney/Labor          Kasem Awal Nasr City,             Camel
                                                         District 6
    19    Hanan El Sa'ady          Independent/Group     Misr El Kadima, District          Balance
    20    Hanan Mohammed Abdel Independent/Labor         Bab El Sha'arya District         Open Book
          Lattef                                         13


    #       Female candidate         Party/                          District                Symbol
    1 Faten Atya Radwan       Independent/Labor           Police station Giza               Umbrella
    2 Amal Osman Abdel Reheem Wattany/ Group              El Doky District, District 2      Crescent
    3 Sawsan Said Mahmoud Ali Independent/Group           El Doky District, District 2      Cup

    4   Nermeine Ahmed Fathy       Independent/Group      ElHaram District, District 3      Horse
    5   Nashwa ElDeeb              Nasery/Group           Embaba District, District 5       Star
    6   Farida Yahya Saied         Wattany/Group          Kardasa District, District 8      Crescent
    7   Rada Asaker                                       El Kanater El Khayraya


#         Female candidate              Party/                      District                  Symbol
1 Nagat Ahmed Moharem            Independent/Labor     Police station Asuit, District 1       Plane
2 Sana'a Mahmoud Said            Independent/Labor     Police station Asuit, District 1       Sun
3 Sana'a Ahmed Mohammed          Independent/Labor     Police station Asuit, District 1       Palm

4 Afaf Youssif Ahmed              Independent/Farmer Police station El Fath, District 7        Sword

Bani Swif Governorate:

 #    Female candidate             Party/ classification            District                   Symbol
 1 Aza Ez-Eldeen                  Tagamoa'a/independent Bani Swif, District 1                 Pin
 2 Bosayna Zakaraya               Independent/Group      El Manakh Police station,            Pin
   Ebrahim                                               District 3

Marsi Matrouh:

#         Female candidate       Party/ classification                District                  Symbol
1       Na'ema Esmail         Group/Independent               Matrouh District, District 1      Palm

El Minya:

#         Female candidate      Party/                            District                     Symbol
1       Fayza      Mohammed Wattany                 ElMinya Police station District 1         Crescent
2       Wedad AbdEl Hakeem        Independent   Matay Police station District 4               Palm
3       Eman Ahmed Gamal          Group/Wattany El Adwa Police station District 6             Crescent

El Monfaya

 #  Female candidate     Party/ classification                      District                  Symbol
 1 Nadia          Saeid Group/independent                Police     station       Banaton      Sword
   Mohamed                                               District 2
 2 Fadya Labeb El Said Independent/labor                 Qusana District 6                     Lamp
 3 Madiha Salem Ahmed Independent/farmer                 Qusana District 6                      Cup

 4 Nagla Hamed El Said       Independent/group           El Bagour       police    station Pistol
                                                         District 7
 5 Amira Hasan Abdalla       Independent/group           El Bagour       police    station      Tank
                                                         District 7

Phase II


    #          Female candidate               Party/              District                   Symbol
    1    Zenab Ahmed Mohammed             Group          El Montazh District 1               House
    2    Mona Moneer Ya'akoup Hana        Group          El Montazh District 1               Deer

 3    Faten Mohammed Shaypop             Labor         El Montazh District 1           Feather
 4    So'ad Ali Hasan                    Group         El Montazh District 1
 5    Sana'a Helmy Mohammed              Group         El Ramel District, District 2   Telephone
 6    Magda Osman Radwan                 Labor         Bab Shark District              Pistol
 7    Aza Mohammed Mohamed               Labor         Bab Shaerk District             Sword
      Abdel All
 8    Samia Taher                        Group         Moharm Beek, District 5         Bicycle

 9    Sourya Sorour Abdouh               Labor         Moharm Beek, District 5         Pyramid

 10   Satouta Mohamed Hassen             Labor         El Manshaya District 8          Umbrella
 11   Nagla'a Ebrahim Abdoh              Group         El Manshaya District 8          Violin
 12   Vivyan Mohamed Wagdy               Group         El Manshaya District 8          Lotus
 13   Amal Abdel Razek                   Group         Karmous District 9              Clock

El Behara:

  #          Female candidate   Party/                District          Symbol
  1 Saieda Abdel Azeem Ali  Labor          El Mahmodaya Police station, Boat
                                           District 4
  2 So'ad Ahmed Mohamed     Labor          El Mahmodaya Police station, Lantern
                                           District 4
  3 Mona     AbdEl     Azez Group          Abou Homos police station, Boat
    Ebrahim                                District 9

El Esamalya:

  #  Female candidate           Party/ classification          District              Symbol
  1 Magda Elnwashy              Labor                 Nazlet ElShabab District 1   Pigeon
  2 Alaya Fahmy                 Group                 Kantrat Gharb, District 3    Car

Port Said:

  #     Female candidate               Party/                  District                Symbol
  1 Wafa'a Ali Hosny             Group                Bour Fou'ad police   station House
                                                      District 1
  2 Houda Ebrahim Esmail         Labor                El Dawahy police     station Star
                                                      District 2
  3 Hanan Ebrahim Ebrahim        Labor                El Dawahy police     station Telephone
                                                      District 2
  4 Faten El Said Sedek          Labor                El Manakh police     station Boat
                                                      District 3
  5 Nadia Ebrahim Hassan                              El Manakh police     station Star
                                                      District 3

     6 Amany Shata                     Labor                   El Manakh police station
                                                               District 3


# Female candidate              Party/ classification                  District                  Symbol
1 Hala El Said Ali             Group                        Suez police station, District 1   Open Book
2 Mona Shaouky Rady            Group                        El Arbeen District                Lamp


    #             Female candidate                 Party/             District                     Symbol
 1          Wafa'a Mohamed Ali                 Labor          Banha District 1                Sword
 2          Zenab Abdel Hady                   Labor          Banha District 1                Pigeon
 3          Alya Mohamed El Morsy              Labor           Shoubra El Khima District Sword
 4          Gamalat Abdel Halem Rafa'a         Labor           Toukh District 3          Pigeon
 5          Mona Hassan Ahmed Afify            Group           Toukh District 3          Telephone
 6          Entsar Afify                       Labor           ElKhanka police station, Lamp
                                                               District 3
 7          Manal    Yaseen   Ahmed     El Group               Banha District 1          Star

El Gharbaya:

 #               Female candidate           Party/                 District                          Symbol
1           Amal Abou El Yazed          Labor          Tanta District, District 1                   Boat
2           Tamadour Abdellah El Sedeek Labor          Tanta District, District 1                   Candle
3           Gehan Shaouky Abas             Labor              Mahalt Rouh District, District 3      Clock
4           Ne'amet Rashad Mohammed        Labor              El Mahala El Kobra District 6         Boat
5           Shadya Mohammed Hamed          Labor              El Santa police station               Umbrella
6           Fatma ElZahra Mohammed         Group              Katour police station, District 13    Stairs
7           Katkota Hamada Mostafa         Labor              Tanta distract, District 1            Hand

El Fayoum:

        #           Female candidate                Party/                District      Symbol
     1        Aml Mohamed Abdel Ghwad           Group          El Fayoum Police station Lamp
                                                               District 1
     2        Awatef Abdel Kader Kahk           Labor          Ebshway police station Hand
                                                               District 6


#           Female candidate              Party/                   District                         Symbol
1 Houda Naeem Maker                   Group          Qana police station, District 1            Car
2 Hamida Kamal Abdel Magdy            Group          Kaft police station, District 2            Stick
3   Layla Refa'a Maghraby             Group             Nakada police station, District 3       Lantern
4   Thana'a Mohmoud Maghraby          Group             Nakada police station, District 3       Eye
5   Madeha Hussen Mahmoud             Group             El Oksor police station, District 5     Star
6   Hager Ahmed El Nady               Labor             Arment police station                   Tank
7   Fatma Said Ahmed Mohmed           Group             Esna police station District 7          wristwatch

Phase III


    #         Female candidate              Party/                     District                 Symbol
    1     Zenab Abdella El Morsy      Labor                   El Mansoura first police        Cup
                                                              station, District 1
    2     Hayam Abdel Azez            Labor                   Belkaes police station,         Car
                                                              District 7
    3     Houda Mostafa Salem         Group                   Elsemblween          police     Wristwatch
                                                              station, District 13
    4     Zenab ElSaid Abdel All      Labor                   Elsemblween          police     Hand
                                                              station, District 13
    5     Layla Refa'a ElMortada      Group                   Aga      police     station     Sun
                                                              District 15
    6     Sabah Mohamed Lotfy         Group                   Atmeda Police station           Balance
                                                              District 17
    7     Saher Mohamed Ameen         Labor                   Kafer Ghanem, police            Wristwatch
                                                              station District 14
    8     Hamdaya        Mohamed Labor                        Kafer Ghanem police Primed
          Mater                                               station District 14

El Sharqaya

#          Female candidate            Party/                       District                        Symbol
1       Fatma Mohamed Ebrahim      Group             Sharqaya first police station District 1       Car
2       Samira Said Ahmed          Group             Sharqaya first police station District 1       Boat
3       Nagat Mohamed Ebrahim      Labor             Sharqaya first police station District 1       Palm
4       Heba Waff'a Mohamed        Group             Sharqaya first police station District 1       House
5       Na'aema Eisa AbdEl Aziz    Group             Abou Hamada police station District 5          Lantern
    6 Marwa Nabel Abdel           Labor             Belbeas police station District 8          Boat
    7 Sa'eda Abdel Rahman         Labor             Kafer Saker police station District 13     Pistol

    8 Malk Ali Goma'a             Farmer            Kafer Saker police station District 13

The Red Sea

# Female candidate         Party/ classification                District              Symbol
1 Mona Abdel Mo'aty        Labor/ Wafd               Ghardaka, Second police station Grapes
                                                     District 1


#          Female candidate         Party/                   District                           Symbol
1       Mona     Fou'ad   Abdel El Karama      Souhag District, District 1                    Boat
2       Mahasen Ezat Osman        Group             Jouhayna District, District 1             Lantern
3       Shokraya Hamza Hamam      Labor             El Monsha'a police station District 9     Pigeon
4       Mervet Ahmed Abdallh      Group             Sakalta police station, District 7        Lamp
5       Karima Abdell Rahman      Group             Gerga Police station, District 12         Car


#          Female candidate           Party/                  District                         Symbol
1       Layla Ebrahim Sherbeny    Labor          Farskour District, District 3               Flag

Kafr El Sheikh

    #        Female candidate           Party/                  District                            Symbol
1        Sawsan Ali Hamed Farag     Labor          El Agozaya police station District 8         Fish

2        Fathya Mohamed             Independent
3        Sania'a Mohmoud Ali        Independent       Kafer El Shekh, District 1
4        Fadia Abou El Foutoh       Independent       El Hamoul Elbrouls, District 4
5        Nadia Ebrahim Fahmy        Independent       Saidy Salem District 6
6        Entsar                     Independent       Saidy Salem District 6
7        Waffa Morsy Mohamed        Independent


#        Female candidate   Party/ classification               District           Symbol

1   Nagah AbdelHakeem       Independent             El Agozaya police station
                                                    District 8
2   A'asha Soliman Faried   Independent             North Sayna'a, Rafh District

3   Hamdya Gr               Independent             Ra'as Sedr District 2

4   Galiyla Goma'a Awad     Independent             Ra'as Sedr District 2


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