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                        Knee Pain and Osteoarthritis


Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2005 Jul;13(7):575-81.

Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with pulsed electromagnetic fields: a
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Thamsborg G, Florescu A, Oturai P, Fallentin E, Tritsaris K, Dissing S.

Department of Geriatri and Rheumatology, Glostrup Hospital, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark.

OBJECTIVE: The investigation aimed at determining the effectiveness of pulsed
electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee by
conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. DESIGN: The
trial consisted of 2h daily treatment 5 days per week for 6 weeks in 83 patients with knee
OA. Patient evaluations were done at baseline and after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment. A
follow-up evaluation was done 6 weeks after treatment. Activities of daily living (ADL),
pain and stiffness were evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities
(WOMAC) questionnaire. RESULTS: Within group analysis revealed a significant
improvement in ADL, stiffness and pain in the PEMF-treated group at all evaluations. In
the control group there was no effect on ADL after 2 weeks and a weak significance was
seen after 6 and 12 weeks. Significant effects were seen on pain at all evaluations and on
stiffness after 6 and 12 weeks. Between group analysis did not reveal significant
improvements over time. Analysis of ADL score for the PEMF-treated group revealed a
significant correlation between less improvement and increasing age. Analysis of patients
<65 years using between group analysis revealed a significant improvement for stiffness
on treated knee after 2 weeks, but this effect was not observed for ADL and pain.
CONCLUSIONS: Applying between group analysis we were unable to demonstrate a
beneficial symptomatic effect of PEMF in the treatment of knee OA in all patients.
However, in patients <65 years of age there is significant and beneficial effect of
treatment related to stiffness

J Orthop Res. 2005 Jul;23(4):899-908. Epub 2005 Mar 17.

Pulsed electromagnetic fields reduce knee osteoarthritic lesion progression
in the aged Dunkin Hartley guinea pig.

Fini M, Giavaresi G, Torricelli P, Cavani F, Setti S, Cane V, Giardino R.

Department of Experimental Surgery, Codivilla-Putti Research Institute, Rizzoli Institute
of Orthopaedics, Via di Barbiano, 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy. milena.fini@ior.it
An experimental in vivo study was performed to test if the effect of Pulsed
Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) on chondrocyte metabolism and adenosine A2a agonist
activity could have a chondroprotective effect on the knee of Dunkin Hartley guinea-pigs
of 12 months with spontaneously developed osteoarthritis (OA). After a pilot study, 10
animals were randomly divided into two groups: PEMF-treated group (6 h/day for 3
months) and Sham-treated group. Microradiography and histomorphometry were
performed on the entire articular surface of knee joints used in evaluating chondropathy
severity, cartilage thickness (CT), cartilage surface Fibrillation Index (FI), subchondral
bone plate thickness (SBT) and histomorphometric characteristics of trabecular
epiphyseal bone. The PEMF-treated animals showed a significant reduction of
chondropathy progression in all knee examined areas (p<0.05). CT was significantly
higher (p<0.001) in the medial tibia plateaus of the PEMF-treated group when compared
to the Sham-treated group. The highest value of FI was observed in the medial tibia
plateau of the Sham-treated group (p<0.05). Significant lower values were observed in
SBT of PEMF-treated group in comparison to Sham-treated group in all knee examined
areas (p<0.05). The present study results show that PEMFs preserve the morphology of
articular cartilage and slower the progression of OA lesions in the knee of aged
osteoarthritic guinea pigs. The chondroprotective effect of PEMFs was demonstrated not
only in the medial tibial plateau but also on the entire articular surface of the knee.

Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2004 Sep-Oct;22(5):568-72.

Efficacy and safety of a musically modulated electromagnetic field
(TAMMEF) in patients affected by knee osteoarthritis.

Battisti E, Piazza E, Rigato M, Nuti R, Bianciardi L, Scribano A, Giordano N.

Department of Medical Physics, University of Siena, Italy. battistie@unisi.it

OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have demonstrated the utility of extremely low
frequencies (ELF) electromagnetic fields in clinical practice. Moreover, the effects of
these fields seems to depend on their respective codes (frequency, intensity, waveform).
In our study we want to value the effects of the TAMMEF (Therapeutic Application of a
Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Field) system, which field is piloted by a musical
signal. METHODS: Ninety subjects, affected by primary osteoarthritis of the knee, were
enrolled in the study and randomly divided into three groups of 30 patients each: A
exposed to TAMMEF, B exposed to ELF, C exposed to a simulated field. All subjects
underwent a cycle of 15 daily sessions of 30 minutes each and a clinical examination
upon enrolment, after 7 days of therapy, at the end of the cycle and at a follow-up 30 days
later: RESULTS: All the patients of groups A and B completed the therapy without the
appearance of side effects: they presented a significant improvement of the subjective
pain and the functional limitation, which remained stable at the follow-up examination. In
group C, there was no improvement of the pain symptoms or articular functionality.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the TAMMEF system is efficacious in the
control of pain symptoms and in the reduction of functional limitation in patients with
knee osteoarthritis. Moreover, the effects of the TAMMEF system cover those produced
by the ELF field.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Jul-Aug;8(4):50-5.

Effects of static magnets on chronic knee pain and physical function: a
double-blind study.

Hinman MR, Ford J, Heyl H.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

CONTEXT: Static magnets have become an increasingly popular alternative therapy for
individuals with musculoskeletal pain despite limited scientific evidence to support their
efficacy or safety. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of static magnets on the pain
and functional limitations associated with chronic knee pain due to degenerative joint
disease. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING:
Pretests and posttests were conducted in an academic health science center.
PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three ambulatory subjects with chronic pain in 1 or both knee
joints who were recruited from outpatient clinics or who volunteered to participate.
INTERVENTION: Subjects wore pads containing magnets or placebos over their painful
knee joints for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-administered ratings of
pain and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities
Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and a timed 15-m (50-ft) walk. RESULTS: Multivariate
analysis of covariance revealed significantly greater improvements in the group wearing
magnets (P=.002). Univariate analyses indicated that comparative changes in self-rated
pain and physical function (P=.002 and .001, respectively) were greater than changes in
gait speed (P=.042). CONCLUSIONS: The application of static magnets over painful
knee joints appears to reduce pain and enhance functional movement. However, further
study is needed to determine the physiological mechanisms responsible for this analgesic
effect.

Electromagnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Hulme J, Robinson V, DeBie R, Wells G, Judd M, Tugwell P.

Cochrane Collaborating Center, Center for Global Health, Institute of Population Health -
University of Ottawa, 1 Stewart Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1N 6N5.
jhulme@uottawa.ca

BACKGROUND: As the focus for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment shifts away from drug
therapy, we consider the effectiveness of pulsed electric stimulation which is proven to
stimulate cartilage growth on the cellular level. OBJECTIVES: 1)To assess the
effectiveness of pulsed electric stimulation for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). 2) To
assess the most effective and efficient method of applying an electromagnetic field,
through pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) or electric stimulation, as well as the
consideration of length of treatment, dosage, and the frequency of the applications.
SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched PREMEDLINE, MEDLINE, HealthSTAR,
CINAHL, PEDro, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) up to and
including 2001. This included searches through the coordinating offices of the trials
registries of the Cochrane Field of Physical and Related Therapies and the Cochrane
Musculoskeletal Group for further published and unpublished articles. The electronic
search was complemented by hand searches and experts in the area. SELECTION
CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that compared
PEMF or direct electric stimulation against placebo in patients with OA. DATA
COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers determined the studies to be included
in the review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (JH,VR) and extracted the data
using pre-developed extraction forms for the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group. The
methodological quality of the trials was assessed by the same reviewers using a validated
scale (Jadad 1996). Osteoarthritis outcome measures were extracted from the publications
according to OMERACT guidelines (Bellamy 1997) and additional secondary outcomes
considered. MAIN RESULTS: Only three studies with a total of 259 OA patients were
included in the review. Electrical stimulation therapy had a small to moderate effect on
outcomes for knee OA, all statistically significant with clinical benefit ranging from 13-
23% greater with active treatment than with placebo. Only 2 outcomes for cervical OA
were significantly different with PEMF treatment and no clinical benefit can be reported
with changes of 12% or less. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests
that electrical stimulation therapy may provide significant improvements for knee OA,
but further studies are required to confirm whether the statistically significant results
shown in these trials confer to important benefits.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):36-43.

Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of static magnets for the treatment of
osteoarthritis of the knee: results of a pilot study.

Wolsko PM, Eisenberg DM, Simon LS, Davis RB, Walleczek J, Mayo-Smith M,
Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS.

Division for Research and Education, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

CONTEXT: Outpatient clinical studies of magnet therapy, a complementary therapy
commonly used to treat osteoarthritis (OA), have been limited by the absence of a
credible placebo control. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the feasibility and
promise of studying static magnetic therapy for knee OA and determine the ability of a
new placebo-magnet device to provide concealment of group assignment. DESIGN:
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Academic
teaching hospital in Boston. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 29 subjects with idiopathic or
post-traumatic OA of the knee. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects received either high-
strength magnetic (active) or placebo-magnetic (placebo) knee sleeve treatment for 4
hours in a monitored setting and self-treatment 6 hours daily for 6 weeks. MAIN
OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were change in knee pain as measured by
the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index Pain Subscale at 6 weeks and extent of group
concealment at study end. RESULTS: At 4 hours, VAS pain scores (+/- SE) on a 5-item
scale (0-500, 500 worst) decreased 79 +/- 18 mm in the active group and 10 +/- 21 mm in
the placebo group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in any primary or
secondary measure of efficacy between the treatment groups at 6 weeks. Despite
widespread testing for magnetic properties, at study end, 69% of the active group and
77% of the placebo group (P > 0.2) believed that they had been assigned to the active
treatment group. CONCLUSION: Despite our small sample size, magnets showed
statistically significant efficacy compared to placebo after 4 hours under rigorously
controlled conditions. The sustained efficacy of magnetic therapy for knee osteoarthritis
could be assessed in an adequately powered trial utilizing an appropriate control such our
new placebo-magnet device.

Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Aug 30;114(15-16):678-84.

Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee--a double-blind
sham-controlled trial.

Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus CB, Nicolakis J.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, AKH Wien, University of Vienna,
Vienna, Austria. Peter.nicolakis@akh-wien.ac.at

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Pulsed magnetic field therapy is frequently used to
treat the symptoms of osteoarthritis, although its efficacy has not been proven. We
conducted a randomized, double-blind comparison of pulsed magnetic field and sham
therapy in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients were assigned to
receive 84 sessions, each with a duration of 30 minutes, of either pulsed magnetic field or
sham treatment. Patients administered the treatment on their own at home, twice a day for
six weeks. RESULTS: According to a sample size estimation, 36 consecutive patients
were enrolled. 34 patients completed the study, two of whom had to be excluded from the
statistical analysis, as they had not applied the PMF sufficiently. Thus, 15 verum and 17
sham-treated patients were enrolled in the statistical analysis. After six weeks of
treatment the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index was reduced in the pulsed magnetic field-
group from 84.1 (+/- 45.1) to 49.7 (+/- 31.6), and from 73.7 (+/- 43.3) to 66.9 (+/- 52.9)
in the sham-treated group (p = 0.03). The following secondary parameters improved in
the pulsed magnetic field group more than they did in the sham group: gait speed at fast
walking [+6.0 meters per minute (1.6 to 10.4) vs. -3.2 (-8.5 to 2.2)], stride length at fast
walking [+6.9 cm (0.2 to 13.7) vs. -2.9 (-8.8 to 2.9)], and acceleration time in the
isokinetic dynamometry strength tests [-7.0% (-15.2 to 1.3) vs. 10.1% (-0.3 to 20.6)].
CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee, PMF treatment
can reduce impairment in activities of daily life and improve knee function.

Curr Med Res Opin. 2001;17(3):190-6.
Magnetic pulse treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double-
blind, placebo-controlled study.

Pipitone N, Scott DL.

Rheumatology Department, King's College Hospital (Dulwich), London, UK.

We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields
(PEMF) therapy in patients with clinically symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a
randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of six weeks' duration. Patients with
radiographic evidence and symptoms of OA (incompletely relieved by conventional
treatments), according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, were
recruited from a single tertiary referral centre. 75 patients fulfilling the above criteria
were randomised to receive active PEMF treatment by unipolar magnetic devices
(Medicur) manufactured by Snowden Healthcare (Nottingham, UK) or placebo. Six
patients failed to attend after the screening and were excluded from analysis. The primary
outcome measure was reduction in overall pain assessed on a four-point Likert scale
ranging from nil to severe. Secondary outcome measures included the WOMAC
Osteoarthritis Index (Likert scale) and the EuroQol (Euro-Quality of Life, EQ-5D).
Baseline assessments showed that the treatment groups were equally matched. Although
there were no significant differences between active and sham treatment groups in respect
of any outcome measure after treatment, paired analysis of the follow-up observations on
each patient showed significant improvements in the actively treated group in the
WOMAC global score (p = 0.018), WOMAC pain score (p = 0.065), WOMAC disability
score (p = 0.019) and EuroQol score (p = 0.001) at study end compared to baseline. In
contrast, there were no improvements in any variable in the placebo-treated group. There
were no clinically relevant adverse effects attributable to active treatment. These results
suggest that the Medicur unipolar magnetic devices are beneficial in reducing pain and
disability in patients with knee OA resistant to conventional treatment in the absence of
significant side-effects. Further studies using different types of magnetic devices,
treatment protocols and patient populations are warranted to confirm the general efficacy
of PEMF therapy in OA and other conditions.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2001 Sep-Oct;7(5):54-64, 66-9.

Low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields for the treatment
of osteoarthritic knees: a double-blind clinical study.

Jacobson JI, Gorman R, Yamanashi WS, Saxena BB, Clayton L.

Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biophysical Research,
Perspectivism Foundation, 2006 Mainsail Cir, Jupiter, FL 33477-1418, USA.
drjjacobson@aol.com

CONTEXT: Noninvasive magnetotherapeutic approaches to bone healing have been
successful in past clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of low-
amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields on patients with knee pain due to
osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical study.
SETTING: 4 outpatient clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 176 patients were randomly assigned
to 1 of 2 groups, the placebo group (magnet off) or the active group (magnet on).
INTERVENTION: 6-minute exposure to each magnetic field signal using 8 exposure
sessions for each treatment session, the number of treatment sessions totaling 8 during a
2-week period, yielded patients being exposed to uniform magnetic fields for 48 minutes
per treatment session 8 times in 2 weeks. The magnetic fields used in this study were
generated by a Jacobson Resonator, which consists of two 18-inch diameter (46-cm
diameter) coils connected in series, in turn connected to a function generator via an
attenuator to obtain the specific amplitude and frequency. The range of magnetic field
amplitudes used was from 2.74 x 10(-7) to 3.4 x 10(-8) G, with corresponding
frequencies of 7.7 to 0.976 Hz. OUTCOME MEASURES: Each subject rated his or her
pain level from 1 (minimal) to 10 (maximal) before and after each treatment and 2 weeks
after treatment. Subjects also recorded their pain intensity in a diary while outside the
treatment environment for 2 weeks after the last treatment session (session 8) twice daily:
upon awakening (within 15 minutes) and upon retiring (just before going to bed at night).
RESULTS: Reduction in pain after a treatment session was significantly (P < .001)
greater in the magnet-on group (46%) compared to the magnet-off group (8%).
CONCLUSION: Low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields are safe and
effective for treating patients with chronic knee pain due to osteoarthritis.



J Rheumatol. 1994 Oct;21(10):1903-11.

The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of
osteoarthritis of the knee and cervical spine. Report of randomized, double
blind, placebo controlled trials.

Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Markoll R.

Department of Medicine, Danbury Hospital, CT.

OBJECTIVE. We conducted a randomized, double blind clinical trial to determine the
effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis
(OA) of the knee and cervical spine. METHODS. A controlled trial of 18 half-hour active
or placebo treatments was conducted in 86 patients with OA of the knee and 81 patients
with OA of the cervical spine, in which pain was evaluated using a 10 cm visual analog
scale, activities of daily living using a series of questions (answered by the patient as
never, sometimes, most of the time, or always), pain on passive motion (recorded as
none, slight, moderate, or severe), and joint tenderness (recorded using a modified
Ritchie scale). Global evaluations of improvement were made by the patient and
examining physician. Evaluations were made at baseline, midway, end of treatment, and
one month after completion of treatment. RESULTS. Matched pair t tests showed
extremely significant changes from baseline for the treated patients in both knee and
cervical spine studies at the end of treatment and the one month followup observations,
whereas the changes in the placebo patients showed lesser degrees of significance at the
end of treatment, and had lost significance for most variables at the one month followup.
Means of the treated group of patients with OA of the knee showed greater improvement
from baseline values than the placebo group by the end of treatment and at the one month
followup observation. Using the 2-tailed t test, at the end of treatment the differences in
the means of the 2 groups reached statistical significance for pain, pain on motion, and
both the patient overall assessment and the physician global assessment. The means of
the treated patients with OA of the cervical spine showed greater improvement from
baseline than the placebo group for most variables at the end of treatment and one month
followup observations; these differences reached statistical significance at one or more
observation points for pain, pain on motion, and tenderness. CONCLUSION. PEMF has
therapeutic benefit in painful OA of the knee or cervical spine.

Low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields for the treatment
of osteoarthritic knees: a double-blind clinical study.
Jacobson J. et.al. Inst. for Biophysical Research, Jupiter, FL, USA

CONTEXT: Non-invasive magneto-therapeutic approaches to bone healing have been
successful in past clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of low-
amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields on patients with knee pain due to
osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical study.
SETTING: 4 outpatient clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 176 patients were randomly assigned
to 1 of 2 groups, the placebo group (magnet off) or the active group (magnet on).
INTERVENTION: 6-minute exposure to each magnetic field signal using 8 exposure
sessions for each treatment session, the number of treatment sessions totalling 8 during a
2-week period, yielded patients being exposed to uniform magnetic fields for 48 minutes
per treatment session 8 times in 2 weeks. The magnetic fields used in this study were
generated by a resonator, which consists of two 18-inch diameter (46-cm diameter) coils
connected in series, in turn connected to a function generator via an attenuator to obtain
the specific amplitude and frequency. The range of magnetic field amplitudes used was
from 2.74 x 10(-7) to 3.4 x 10(-8) G, with corresponding frequencies of 7.7 to 0.976 Hz.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Each subject rated his or her pain level from 1 (minimal) to
10 (maximal) before and after each treatment and 2 weeks after treatment. Subjects also
recorded their pain intensity in a diary while outside the treatment environment for 2
weeks after the last treatment session (session 8) twice daily: upon awakening (within 15
minutes) and upon retiring (just before going to bed at night). RESULTS: Reduction in
pain after a treatment session was significantly (P < .001) greater in the magnet-on group
(46%) compared to the magnet-off group (8%). CONCLUSION: Low-amplitude,
extremely low frequency magnetic fields are safe and effective for treating patients with
chronic knee pain due to osteoarthritis.

We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of low-frequency pulsed
electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy in patients with clinically
symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a randomised, placebo-controlled,
double-blind study of six weeks' duration.
Nicolò Pipitone, David L. Scott

Patients with radiographic evidence and symptoms of OA (incompletely relieved by
conventional treatments), according to the criteria of the American College of
Rheumatology, were recruited from a single tertiary referral centre. 75 Patients fulfilling
the above criteria were randomised to receive active PEMF treatment by unipolar
magnetic devices or placebo. Six patients failed to attend after the screening and were
excluded from analysis. The primary outcome measure was reduction in overall pain
assessed on a four-point Likert scale ranging from nil to severe. Secondary outcome
measures included the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index (Likert scale) and the EuroQol
(Euro-Quality of Life, EQ-5D). Baseline assessments showed that the treatment groups
were equally matched. Although there were no significant differences between active and
sham treatment groups in respect of any outcome measure after treatment, paired analysis
of the follow-up observations on each patient showed significant improvements in the
actively treated group in the WOMAC global score (p = 0.018), WOMAC pain score (p =
0.065), WOMAC disability score (p = 0.019) and EuroQol score (p = 0.001) at study end
compared to baseline. In contrast, there were no improvements in any variable in the
placebo-treated group. There were no clinically relevant adverse effects attributable to
active treatment. These results suggest that PEMF magnetic devices are beneficial in
reducing pain and disability in patients with knee OA resistant to conventional treatment
in the absence of significant side-effects. Further studies using different types of
magnetic devices, treatment protocols and patient populations are warranted to confirm
the general efficacy of PEMF therapy in OA and other conditions.

Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2005 Sep-Oct;143(5):544-50.

[Adjuvant treatment of osteo arthritis of the knee with weak pulsing
magnetic fields.]

[Article in German]

Fischer G, Pelka RB, Barovic J.

Institut fur Hygiene an der Universitat Graz, Osterreich.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was the objective control of the therapeutic effect of
weak pulsing magnetic fields (series of periodically repeating square pulses increasing
according to an e-function, frequencies of 10, 20, 30, and 200-300 Hz) by means of a
double-blind study on osteoarthritis of the knee. Measured parameters were the Knee
Society score, pain sensation, blood count and cardiocirculatory values. METHODS: 36
placebo and 35 verum test persons (all with a knee gap smaller than 3 mm) were exposed
daily for 16 minutes over 6 weeks to a low frequency magnetic field (flux densities
increasing gradually from 3.4 up to 13.6 microT) encompassing the whole body. The last
data collection was made 4 weeks after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Principally, the
statistically ensured results exclusively favour the used magnetic field therapy; by far the
greatest number of at least significant differences was found at the end of the whole
treatment, lasting 6 weeks. In particular, it is striking that all 4 questioned pain scales
showed at least significant improvements in favour of the verum collective; also the
walking distance was increased. As another confirmed fact, even after 4 weeks without
therapy the persistence of several functional and analgesic effects could be documented.
CONCLUSIONS: Predominantly, on the one hand, pain relief in osteoarthritis patients
was confirmed by a double-blind trial, on the other hand, increases in mobility could be
proven. Furthermore, we describe mainly the modes of action of low frequency magnetic
energy and 3 physical concepts that are seen as the connecting link between
electromagnetic fields coupled into connective tissue and biochemical repair and growth
processes in bones and cartilage. Proceeding from the results of this and preceding
studies, one has to consider seriously whether this kind of magnetic field application
should not be employed as cost-effective and side effect-free alternative or adjuvant form
of therapy in the field of orthopaedic disorders.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1996 Mar-Apr;(2):26-8.

[New methodological aspects in the use of cryotherapy, ultrasound,
magnetotherapy and therapeutic physical exercise in the rehabilitation of
gonarthrosis patients]

[Article in Russian]

Grigor'eva VD, Fedorova NE.

Gonarthritis complicated by synovitis was treated by cryo-ultrasound or cryo-
magnetotherapy in combination with therapeutic exercise. The comparison of the
response has shown that both complexes are highly effective. In the absence of
concomitant diseases and contraindications to ultrasound it is better to use cryo-
ultrasound and exercise, otherwise cryo-magnetotherapy and exercise is preferential.

Bratisl Lek Listy. 1999 Dec;100(12):678-81.

[Personal experience in the use of magnetotherapy in diseases of the
musculoskeletal system]

[Article in Slovak]

Sadlonova J, Korpas J.

Ist Dpt of Internal Medicine, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University,
Martin, Slovakia. bll@fmed.uniba.sk

Therapeutic application of pulsatile electromagnetic field in disorders of motility is
recently becoming more frequent. Despite this fact information about the effectiveness of
this therapy in the literature are rare. The aim of this study was therefore the treatment of
576 patients who suffered from vertebral syndrome, gonarthritis and coxarthritis. For
application of pulsatile electromagnetic field MTU 500H Therapy System was used.
Pulsatile electromagnetic field had a frequency valve of 4.5 mT in all studied groups and
magnetic induction valve 12.5-18.75 mT in the 1st group. In the 2nd group the intensity
was 5.8-7.3 mT and in the 3rd group it was 7.6-11.4 mT. The time of
inclination/declination in the 1st group was 20/60 ms, in the 2nd group 40/80 ms and in
the 3rd group 40/90 ms. The electromagnetic field was applied during 10 days. In the 1st-
3rd day during 20 minutes and in the 4th-10th day during 30 minutes. The therapy was
repeated in every patient after 3 months with values of intensity higher by 50%. In the
time of pulsatile electro-magnetotherapy the patients were without pharmacotherapy or
other physiotherapy. The application of pulsatile electromagnetic field is a very effective
therapy of vertebral syndrome, gonarthritis and coxarthritis. The results have shown that
the therapy was more effective in patients suffering from gonarthrosis, than in patients
with vertebral syndrome and least effective in patients with coxarthosis. Owing to
regression of oedema and pain relieve the motility of patients improved. (Tab. 3, Ref.
19.)

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1996 Mar-Apr;(2):26-8.

[New methodological aspects in the use of cryotherapy, ultrasound,
magnetotherapy and therapeutic physical exercise in the rehabilitation of
gonarthrosis patients]

[Article in Russian]

Grigor'eva VD, Fedorova NE.

Gonarthritis complicated by synovitis was treated by cryo-ultrasound or cryo-
magnetotherapy in combination with therapeutic exercise. The comparison of the
response has shown that both complexes are highly effective. In the absence of
concomitant diseases and contraindications to ultrasound it is better to use cryo-
ultrasound and exercise, otherwise cryo-magnetotherapy and exercise is preferential.

				
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Description: Knee Pain and Osteoarthritis Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with