Julja Page 1 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. Introduction. Information is offering for a peoples,who interested in healing,natural study ,for strengthening health with your doctor advices. About healing herbs,berries,vegetables and diseases,like a collections herbs use. Chapter 1.Right cooking remedies. 1.Infusions and decoctions. 2.Powders. 3.Ointments. Chapter 1. Infusions,decoctions cooking. From 10 parts mass receives 100 parts infusion or 2 table spoon mass in 200 ml .water. Decoctions. Mass dry cuting in 70 percent spirituse,infuse in a room temperature 10 days,filter,pour off. Powders. In a wood plates deep knead to powder dry mass. Ointments. Ointments cooking in a base internal lard melted or not salted butter oil,adding powder a herb,mix . In phytotherapy also cook fresh juices,fruits,berries,seeds,like or on a skin apply fresh herb. Chapter 2. 1.Wild herbs healing diseases. Gratiola officinalis. Infusion cooking and use in ascitis,fever,gastritis. Julja Page 2 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. 1. Gratiola officinalis, or Hedge Hyssop, is a rhizomatous perennial herb native to Europe. The 4-angled stems will reach about 2 feet (60 cm) in height. Leaves are linear-lanceolate to 1 inch (2.5 cm) long. They are native to marshes and wetlands and are occasionally found along streams. Warning: All plant parts are considered poisonous. They are hardy in USDA zone 6. 2. Blooming: In the greenhouse, the plants bloom from June to October. The small yellow-white flowers are about 10-18 mm long. 3. Culture: Gratiola officinalis needs full sun to partial shade with a moist to wet soil mix. In the greenhouse, we use a soil mix consisting of 1 part peat moss to 2 parts loam to 2 parts sand. The plants are grown in shallow trays with at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water at all times. We fertilize plants monthly with a balanced fertilizer diluted to 1/2 the strength recommended on the label. Plants are very vigorous growers and need to be re-potted on a yearly basis. During the winter months, the plants are allowed to go dormant and kept in cold rooms at 48°F (9°C). Plants are never allowed to dry out thoroughly during this period. 4. Propagation: Gratiola officinalis is propagated from cuttings, division and from seed. 5. Gratiola officinalis was featured as Plant of the Week July 15-21, 2005. Agave Americana. Julja Page 3 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. Description. The Agave genus is part of the Agavaceae family, a group of plants that includes many well-known desert and dry zone types such as the yucca, and Joshua tree. The family includes about 550-600 species in around 18 genera, and is widespread in the tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions of the world. In general, Agavaceae leaves occur as rosettes at the end of a woody stem, which may range from extremely short to tree-like heights, as in the Joshua tree. The leaves are parallel-veined, and usually appear long and pointed, often with a hardened spine on the end, and sometimes with additional spines along the margins. Members of the Agave genus are succulent plants. Members of the family Agavaceae may or may not be succulent. Also known as succulents or fat plants, succulent plants are water- retaining plants adapted to arid climate or soil conditions. Succulent plants store water in their leaves, stems, and/or roots. The storage of water often gives succulent plants a more swollen or fleshy appearance than other plants, also known as succulence. Agaves are chiefly Mexican, but occur also in the southern and western United States and in central and tropical South America. The plants have a large rosette of thick fleshy leaves generally ending in a sharp point and with a spiny margin. The stout stem is usually short, the leaves apparently springing from the root. Each rosette is monocarpic and grows slowly to flower only once. During flowering, a tall stem or "mast" grows from the center of the leaf rosette and bears a large number of shortly tubular flowers. After development of fruit, the original plant dies, but suckers are frequently produced from the base of the stem, which become new plants. It is a common misconception that agaves are a cactus. Agaves are closely related to the lily and amaryllis families, and are not related to cacti. Along with plants from the related genus Yucca, various Agave species are popular ornamental plants. Commonly grown species The most commonly grown species of Agave include Agave americana (century plant), Agave angustifolia, Agave tequilanam (blue agave), and Agave attenuata. Agave americana One of the most familiar species is Agave americana, a native of tropical America. Common names include century plant, maguey (in Mexico), or American aloe (it is not, however, closely related to the genus Aloe). The name "century plant" refers to the long time the plant takes to flower, although the number of years before flowering occurs depends on the vigor of the individual, the richness of the soil, and the climate. When it flowers, the spike with a cyme of big yellow flowers may reach up to eight meters (25 ft.) in height. The plant dies after flowering. During its non-flowering preparation period, the plant is storing in its fleshy leaves the nourishment required for the effort of flowering. The average life-span is around 25 years. Agave americana, century plant, was introduced into Europe about the middle of the sixteenth century and is now widely cultivated for its handsome appearance. In the variegated forms, the leaf has a white or yellow marginal or central stripe from base to apex. As the leaves unfold from the center of the rosette, the impression of the marginal spines is very conspicuous on the still erect younger leaves. The tequ plants are usually grown in tubs and put out in the summer months, but in the winter require protection from frost. They mature very slowly and die after flowering, but are easily propagated by the offsets from the base of the stem. Agave attenuata Julja Page 4 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. A. attenuata is a native of central Mexico and is uncommon in its natural habitat. Unlike most species of Agave, A. attenuata has a curved flower spike from which it derives one of its numerous common names: the foxtail agave. A. attenuata is also commonly grown as a garden plant. Unlike many agaves, A. attenuata has no teeth or terminal spines making it an ideal plant for areas adjacent to footpaths. Like all agaves, A. attenuata is a succulent and requires little water or maintenance once established. Uses The large flower spike of Agave chiapensis Agaves are used for food and fiber, and as ornamental plants. Four major parts of the agave are edible: the flowers, the leaves, the stalks or basal rosettes, and the sap (called aguamiel—honey water) (Davidson 1999). Each agave plant will produce several pounds of edible flowers during the summer. The leaves may be collected in winter and spring, when the plants are rich in sap, for eating. The stalks, which are ready during the summer, before the blossom, weigh several pounds each. Roasted, they are sweet, like molasses. During the development of the inflorescence, there is a rush of sap to the base of the young flower stalk. In the case of A. americana and other species, this is used by the Mexicans to make their national beverage, pulque. The flower shoot is cut out and the sap collected and subsequently fermented. By distillation, a spirit called mezcal is prepared; one of the most well-known forms of mezcal is tequila. In 2001, the Mexican Government and European Union agreed on the classification of tequila and its categories. Pure (100%) Blue Agave Tequila must be made Julja Page 5 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. from the Weber Blue Agave plant to rigorous specifications and only in certain Mexican states. Although Agave americana contains a toxin and is poisonous when eaten raw, it is considered to have a sweat mild flavor when baked or made into a syrup (Herbst 2001). Agave syrup (also called agave nectar) is used as an alternative to sugar in cooking, and is promoted as a healthy alternative. Fiber is obtained from the leaves of several Agave species, including Agave rigida var. sisalana, sisal hemp, and Agave decipiens, false sisal hemp. Agave americana is the source of pita fiber and is used as a fiber plant in Mexico, the West Indies, and southern Europe. The plants have additional uses. When dried and cut in slices, the flowering stem forms natural razor strops, and the expressed juice of the leaves will lather in water like soap. The natives of Mexico have used agave to make pens, nails and needles, as well as string to sew and make weavings. In India, the plant is extensively used for hedges along railroads. When dried out, the stalks can be used to make didgeridoos, a wind instrument. Some agaves are used medically. Leaf tea or tincture taken orally is used to treat constipation and excess gas. It is also used as a diuretic. Root tea or tincture is taken orally to treat arthritic joints. Ecologically, Agave species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Batrachedra striolata, which has been recorded on A shawii. Warnings The juice from many species of agave can cause acute contact dermatitis. It will produce reddening and blistering lasting one to two weeks. Episodes of itching may recur up to a year thereafter, even though there is no longer a visible rash. Irritation is, in part, caused by calcium oxalate raphides. Dried parts of the plants can be handled with bare hands with little or no effect. Taxonomy Agave is a genus within the family Agavaceae, which is currently placed within the order Asparagales. Agaves were once classified in the lily family, Liliaceae, but most references now include them in their own family, Agavaceae. The genus Agave is divided into two subgenera: Agave and Littaea. Agaves have long presented special difficulties for taxonomy; variations within a species may be considerable, and a number of named species are of unknown origin and may just be variants of original wild species. Spanish and Portuguese explorers probably brought agave plants back to Europe with them, but the plants became popular in Europe during the nineteenth century when many types were imported by collectors. Some have been continuously propagated by offset since then, and do not consistently resemble any species known in the wild, although this may simply be due to the differences in growing conditions in Europe. Fresh,or dry in abcess,plexitis. Juice herbal with honey in bronchitis. Cutting leaf middle in 1 glass cold boiling water for 6 hours. After filtering use 1 table spoon 3 times/day before food. Chapter 3. 1.Cultivate herbs heal. Robinia pseudoacacia L. 2 tbl.sp.mass flowers ,flowers calendula ,roots couch grass,like taking 10:5:2,boil in weak fire 7-8 min.in ½ glasses water,infuse 1 hour,filter. Use ¼-1/3 glass /day to the food in acute and chronic cystitis,pyelonephritis. Description Julja Page 6 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. With a trunk up to 0.8 m diameter (exceptionally up to 52 m tall  and 1.6 m diameter in very old trees), with thick, deeply furrowed blackish bark. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, pinnate with 9–19 oval leaflets, 2–5 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad. Each leaf usually has a pair of short thorns at the base, 1–2 mm long or absent on adult crown shoots, up to 2 cm long on vigorous young plants. The intensely fragrant flowers are white, borne in pendulous racemes 8–20 cm long, and are considered edible. The fruit is a legume 5–10 cm long, containing 4–10 seeds. Although similar in general appearance to Honey locust, it lacks that tree's characteristic long branched spines on the trunk, instead having the pairs of short thorns at the base of each leaf; the leaflets are also much broader. Native from Pennsylvania to northern Georgia and westward as far as Arkansas and Oklahoma, but has been widely spread. Reaches the height of seventy feet with a trunk three or four feet in diameter, with brittle branches that form an oblong narrow head. Spreads by underground shoots. The leaflets fold together in wet weather, also at night; some change of position at night is the habit of the entire leguminous family. Bark: Dark gray brown tinged with red, deeply furrowed, surface inclined to scale. Branchlets at first coated with white silvery down. This soon disappears and they become pale green, afterward reddish brown. Prickles develop from stipules, are short, somewhat triangular, dilated at base, sharp, dark purple, adhering only to the bark, but persistent. Wood: Pale yellowish brown; heavy, hard, strong, close-grained and very durable in contact with the ground. Sp. gr., 0.7333; weight of cu. ft., 45.70 lbs. Winter buds: Minute, naked, three or four together, protected in a depression by a scale-like covering lined on the inner surface with a thick coat of tomentum and opening in early spring; when forming are covered by the swollen base of the petiole. Leaves: Parallel, compound, odd-pinnate, eight to fourteen inches long, with slender hairy petioles, grooved and swollen at the base. Leaflets petiolate, seven to nine, one to two inches long, one-half to three-fourths of an inch broad, emarginate or rounded at apex. They come out of the bud conduplicate, yellow green, covered with silvery down which soon disappears; when full grown are dull dark green above, paler beneath. Feather-veined, midvein prominent. In autumn they turn a clear pale yellow. Leafs out relatively late in spring. Stipules linear, downy, membranous at first, ultimately developing into hard woody prickles, straight or slightly curved. Each leaflet has a minute stipel which quickly falls and a short petiole. Flowers: May or June, after the leaves. Papilionaceous. Perfect, borne in loose drooping racemes four to five inches long, cream-white, about an inch long, nectar bearing, fragrant. Pedicels slender, half an inch long, dark red or reddish green. Calyx: Campanulate, givvous, hairy, five-toothed, slightly two-lipped, dark green blotched with red, especially on the upper side teeth valvate in bud. Corolla: Imperfectly papilionaceous, petals inserted upon a tubular disk; standard white with pale yellow blotch; wings white, oblong-falcate; keel petals incurved, obtuse, united below. Stamens: Ten, inserted, with the petals, diadelphous, nine inferior, united into a tube which is cleft on the upper side, superior one free at the base. Anthers two- celled, cells opening longitudinally. Pistil: Ovary superior, linear-oblong, stipitate, one-celled; style inflexed, long, slender, bearded; stigma capitate; ovules several, two-ranked. Fruit: legume two-valved, smooth three to four inches long and half an inch broad, usually four to eight seeded. Ripens late in autumn and hangs on the branches until Julja Page 7 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. early spring. Seeds dark orange brown with irregular markings. Cotyledons oval, fleshy. Cultivation. Black locust is a major honey plant in eastern USA, and, having been taken and planted in France, is the source of the renowned acacia monofloral honey from France. Flowering starts after 140 growing degree days. In Europe it is often planted alongside streets and in parks, especially in large cities, because it tolerates pollution well. The species is unsuitable for small gardens due to its large size and rapid growth, but the cultivar 'Frisia', a selection with bright yellow-green leaves, is occasionally planted as an ornamental tree. Black locust has nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its root system; for this reason it can grow on poor soils and is an early colonizer of disturbed areas. In 1900 it was reported that the value of Robinia pseudacacia is practically destroyed in nearly all parts of the United States beyond the mountain forests which are its home by locust borers which riddle the trunk and branches. Were it not for these insects it would be one of the most valuable timber trees that could be planted in the northern and middle states. Young trees grow quickly and vigorously for a number of years, but soon become stunted and diseased, and rarely live long enough to attain any commercial value. Uses. Black locust is a ring-porous hardwood. The wood is extremely hard, resistant to rot and long lasting, making it prized for fence posts and small watercraft. As a young man, Abraham Lincoln spent much of his time splitting rails and fence posts from black locust logs. Flavonoids in the heartwood allow the wood to last over 100 years in soil. In the Netherlands and some other parts of Europe, black locust is the most rot-resistant local tree, and projects have started to limit the use of tropical wood by promoting this tree and creating plantations. It is one of the heaviest and hardest woods in North America. Black Locust is highly valued as firewood for wood-burning stoves; it burns slowly, with little visible flame or smoke, and has a higher heat content than any other species that grows widely in the Eastern United States, comparable to the heat content of anthracite". It is most easily ignited by insertion into a hot stove with an established coal bed.  For best results it should be seasoned like any other hardwood, however black locust is also popular because of its ability to burn even when wet.  In fireplaces it can be less satisfactory because knots and beetle damage make the wood prone to "spitting" coals for distances of up to several feet. If the Black Locust is cut, split, and cured while relatively young (within ten years), thus minimizing beetle damage, "spitting" problems are minimal. It is also planted for firewood because it grows rapidly, is highly resilient in a variety of soils, and it grows back even faster from its stump after harvest by using the existing root system. Julja Page 8 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. With fertilizer prices rising, the importance of black locust as a nitrogen-fixing species is also noteworthy. The mass application of fertilizers in agriculture and forestry is increasingly expensive; therefore nitrogen-fixing tree and shrub species are gaining importance in managed forestry.   Toxicity Like the honey locust, the black locust reproduces through its distinctive hanging pods. Black locust's pods are smaller and lighter, and thus easily carried long distances by the wind. Unlike the pods of the honey locust, but like those of the related European Laburnum, the black locust's pods are toxic. In fact, every part of the tree, especially the bark, is considered toxic, with the exception of the flowers. However, various reports have suggested that the seeds and the young pods of the black locust can be edible when cooked, since the poisons that are contained in this plant are decomposed by heat. Horses that consume the plant show signs of anorexia, depression, diarrhea, colic, weakness, and cardiac arrhythmia. Symptoms usually occur about 1 hour following consumption, and immediate veterinary attention is required. History. The name locust is said to have been given to Robinia by Jesuit missionaries, who fancied that this was the tree that supported St. John in the wilderness, but it is native only to North America. The locust tree of Spain (Ceratonia siliqua or Carob Tree), which is also native to Syria, is supposed to be the true locust of the New Testament; the fruit of this tree may be found in the shops under the name of St. John's bread. Robinia is now a North American genus, but traces of it are found in the Eocene and Miocene rocks of Europe Amelanchier canadiesis L.medic. 1 table spoon flowers in 1 glass hot water,infuse 2 hour,filter. Use 1-2 table spoon 4 times/day in hypertension. Amelanchier Amelanchier Amelanchier, also known as shadbush, serviceberry, sarvisberry, juneberry, Saskatoon, shadblow, shadwood, sugarplum, and wild-plum, is a genus of about 20 species of shrubs and small deciduous trees in the Rosaceae (Rose family). The genus is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, growing primarily in early successional habitats. It is most diverse taxonomically in North America, especially in the northern United States and southern Canada, and is native to every state of the United States except Hawaii. Two species also occur in Asia, and one in Europe. These plants are valued horticulturally, and their fruits are important to wildlife. The systematics (taxonomy) of shadbushes has long perplexed botanists, horticulturalists, and others, as suggested by the range in number of species recognized in the genus from 6 to 33 in two Julja Page 9 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. recent publications . A major source of complexity comes from the occurrence of apomixis (asexual seed production), polyploidy, and hybridization. Amelanchier species grow to 0.2–20 m tall, arborecent or suckering and forming loose colonies or dense clumps to single-stemmed. The bark is gray or less often brown, smooth or fissuring in older trees. The leaves are deciduous, cauline, alternate, simple, lanceolate to elliptic to orbiculate, 0.5–10 x 0.5–5.5 cm, thin to coriaceous, with surfaces abaxially glabrous or densely tomentose at flowering, abaxially glabrous or more or less hairy at maturity. The inflorescences are terminal, with 1–20 flowers, erect or drooping, either in clusters of one to four flowers, or in racemes with 4–20 flowers. The flowers have five white (rarely somewhat pink, yellow, or streaked with red), linear to orbiculate petals, 2.6– 25 mm long, occasionally andropetalous (bearing apical microsporangia adaxially; only known in this genus in A. nantucketensis). The flowers appear in early spring, "when the shad run" according to tradition (leading to names such as "shadbush"). The fruit is a berry-like pome, red to purple to nearly black at maturity, 5–15 mm diameter, insipid to delectably sweet, maturing in summer.  Etymology The origin of the generic name Amelanchier is probably derived from the Provençal name of the European Amelanchier ovalis. The name serviceberry comes from the similarity of the fruit to the related European Sorbus. A widespread folk etymology states that the plant's flowering time signaled to early American pioneers that the ground had thawed enough in spring for the burial of the winter's dead. Juneberry refers to the fruits of certain species becoming ripe in June. The name Saskatoon originated from a Cree Indian noun misâskwatômina (misāskwatōmina, misaaskwatoomina) for Amelanchier alnifolia. The city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan is named after this plant.  Ecology Amelanchier are preferred browse for deer and rabbits, and heavy browsing pressure can suppress natural regeneration. Caterpillars of Lepidoptera such as Brimstone Moth, Brown-tail, Grey Dagger, Mottled Umber, Rough Prominent, The Satellite, Winter Moth, Limenitis arthemis and other herbivorous insects also have a taste for serviceberry. Many insects and diseases that attack orchard trees also affect this genus, in particular trunk borers and Gymnosporangium rust. In years when late flowers overlap those of wild roses and brambles, bees may spread bacterial fireblight.  Uses and cultivation The fruit of several species are excellent to eat raw, tasting like a slightly nutty blueberry, though their popularity with birds makes harvesting difficult. Fruit is harvested locally for pies and jams. The saskatoon berry is harvested commercially. The Native American food pemmican was flavored by shadbush fruits in combination with fat and dried meats, and the stems were made into arrow shafts. Several species are very popular ornamental shrubs, grown for their flowers, bark, and fall color. All need similar conditions to grow well, requiring good drainage, air circulation (to discourage leaf diseases), watering during drought and acceptable soil. Note that species names are often used interchangeably in the nursery trade. Many A. arborea plants that are offered for sale are actually hybrids, or entirely different species. The wood is brown, hard, close-grained, and heavy. The heartwood is reddish-brown, and the sapwood is lighter in color. It can be used for tool handles and fishing rods. Propagation is by seed, divisions and grafting. Serviceberries graft so readily that grafts with other genera, such as Crataegus and Sorbus, are often successful. George Washington planted specimens on the grounds of Mount Vernon. A taxon commonly cited as Amelanchier "lamarckii" is very widely cultivated and naturalized in Europe, where it was introduced in the 17th century; it is known to be of North American origin, probably from eastern Canada. It is not currently known to occur Julja Page 10 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. in the wild, and is probably of hybrid origin between A. laevis and either A. arborea or A. canadensis; it is apomictic and breeds true from seed Chapter 3. Healing berries,fruits. Cranberry. Subgenus Oxycoccos, sect. Oxycoccos Vaccinium oxycoccos or Oxycoccos palustris (Common Cranberry or Northern Cranberry) is widespread throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere, including northern Europe, northern Asia and northern North America. It has small 5- 10 mm leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with a purple central spike, produced on finely hairy stems. The fruit is a small pale pink berry, with a refreshing sharp acidic flavour. Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccos microcarpus (Small Cranberry) occurs in northern Europe and northern Asia, and differs from V. oxycoccus in the leaves being more triangular, and the flower stems hairless. Some botanists include it within V. oxycoccos. Vaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccos macrocarpus (Large cranberry, American Cranberry, Bearberry) native to northeastern North America (eastern Canada, and eastern United States, south to North Carolina at high altitudes). It differs from V. oxycoccus in the leaves being larger, 10-20 mm long, and in its slightly apple-like taste. Subgenus Oxycoccos, sect. Oxycoccoides Vaccinium erythrocarpum or Oxycoccos erythrocarpus (Southern Mountain Cranberry) native to southeastern North America at high altitudes in the southern Appalachian Mountains, and also in eastern Asia. Vaccinium oxycoccos flowers Cranberries are related to bilberries, blueberries, and huckleberries, all in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium. These differ in having stouter, woodier stems forming taller shrubs, and in the bell- shaped flowers, the petals not being reflexed. Some plants of the completely unrelated genus Viburnum are sometimes inaccurately called "highbush cranberries" (Viburnum trilobum). Cranberries are susceptible to false blossom, a harmful but controllable phytoplasma disease common in the eastern production areas of Massachusetts and New Jersey. Etymology and history. Julja Page 11 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. The Cranberry Harvest on the Island of Nantucket, Eastman Johnson, 1880. The name cranberry derives from "craneberry", first named by early European settlers in America who felt the expanding flower, stem, calyx, and petals resembled the neck, head, and bill of a crane. Another name used in northeastern Canada is mossberry. The traditional English name for Vaccinium oxycoccos, fenberry, originated from plants found growing in fen (marsh) lands. In North America, Native Americans were the first to use cranberries as food. Native Americans used cranberries in a variety of foods, especially for pemmican, wound medicine and dye. Calling the red berries Sassamanash, natives may have introduced cranberries to starving English settlers in Massachusetts who incorporated the berries into traditional Thanksgiving feasts. American Revolutionary War veteran Henry Hall is credited as first to farm cranberries in the Cape Cod town of Dennis around 1816. In the 1820s cranberries were shipped to Europe.  Cranberries became popular for wild harvesting in the Nordic countries and Russia. In Scotland, the berries were originally wild-harvested but with the loss of suitable habitat, the plants have become so scarce that this is no longer done. Cultivation and uses. Geography and bog method. Cranberry harvest in New Jersey Cranberries are a major commercial crop in the U.S. states of Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, Oregon, Washington, and Wisconsin, as well as in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Quebec. According to the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, Wisconsin is the leading producer of cranberries, with over half of U.S. production. Massachusetts is the second largest U.S. producer, with 28% of total domestic production. A very small production is found in southern Chile, in the Baltic States, and in Eastern Europe. Historically, cranberry beds were constructed in wetlands. Currently cranberry beds are constructed in upland areas that have a shallow water table. The topsoil is scraped off to form dikes around the bed perimeter. Clean sand is hauled in to a depth of four to eight inches. The surface is laser leveled with a slight crown in the center to facilitate drainage. Beds are frequently drained with socked tile in addition to the perimeter ditch. In addition to making it Julja Page 12 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. possible to hold water, the dikes allow equipment to service the beds without driving on the vines. Irrigation equipment is installed in the bed to provide irrigation for vine growth and for spring and autumn frost protection. Cultivation Cranberry vines are propagated by moving vines from an established bed. The vines are spread on the surface of the sand of the new bed and pushed into the sand with a blunt disk. The vines are watered frequently during the first few weeks until roots form and new shoots grow. Beds are given frequent light application of nitrogen fertilizer during the first year. The cost of establishment for new cranberry beds is estimated to be about US$70,000 per hectare. A common misconception about cranberry production is that the beds remain flooded throughout the year. During the growing season cranberry beds are not flooded, but are irrigated regularly to maintain soil moisture. Beds are flooded in the autumn to facilitate harvest and again during the winter to protect against low temperatures. In cold climates like Wisconsin, Massachusetts, and eastern Canada the winter flood typically freezes into ice, while in warmer climates the water remains liquid. When ice forms on the beds, trucks can be driven onto the ice to spread a thin layer of sand that helps to control pests and rejuvenate the vines. Sanding is done every three to five years. Harvesting and food uses Cranberries are harvested in the fall when the fruit takes on its distinctive deep red color. This is usually in late September or early October. To harvest cranberries, the beds are flooded with six to eight inches of water above the vines. A harvester is driven through the beds to remove the fruit from the vines. For the past 50 years, water reel type harvesters have been used. Harvested cranberries float in the water and can be corralled into a corner of the bed and conveyed or pumped from the bed. From the farm, cranberries are taken to receiving stations where they are cleaned, sorted, and stored prior to packaging or processing. Although most cranberries are wet-picked as described above, 5-10% of the US crop is still dry- picked. This entails higher labor costs and lower yield, but dry-picked berries are less bruised and can be sold as fresh fruit instead of having to be immediately frozen or processed. Originally performed with two-handed comb scoops, dry picking is today accomplished by motorized, walk-behind harvesters which must be small enough to traverse beds without damaging the vines. White cranberry juice drinks are made from regular cranberries that have been harvested after the fruits are mature, but before they have attained their characteristic dark red color. Yields are lower on beds harvested early and the early flooding tends to damage vines, but not severely. About 95% of cranberries are processed into products such as juice drinks, sauce, and sweetened dried cranberries. The remaining 5% is sold fresh to consumers. Cranberries destined for processing are usually frozen in bulk containers shortly after arriving at a receiving station. To allow air movement deterring decay, cranberries for fresh market are stored in shallow bins or boxes with perforated or slatted bottoms. Because harvest occurs in late autumn, cranberries for fresh market are frequently stored in thick walled barns without mechanical refrigeration. Temperatures are regulated by opening and closing vents in the barn as needed. Julja Page 13 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. Usually cranberries as fruit are served as a compote or jelly, often known generically as cranberry sauce. Such preparations are traditionally served with roast turkey meat and are considered by some to be a staple of English Christmas dinners, and the Canadian and US holiday Thanksgiving. The berry is also used in baking (muffins, scones and cakes) but, unlike many other berries, is normally considered too sharp to be eaten unaccompanied. Fresh cranberries can be frozen at home, and will keep up to nine months; they can be used directly in recipes without thawing. Cranberry juice is a major use of cranberries; it is usually either sweetened to reduce its natural severe tartness and make "cranberry juice cocktail" or blended with other fruit juices. A cocktail, the Cosmopolitan, is made with cranberry juice. Cranberry wine is a well known product in some of the cranberry-growing regions of the United States made from either whole cranberries, cranberry juice or cranberry juice concentrate. 10 gr.leafs in 100 ml.water ,use 1 table spoon 3 times/day in kidney stones,gout,rheumatism. Chapter 4. Vegetables Heal.Cabbage. Fresh cabbage juice drink warm ½ glass 3 times/day to the food for scars healing,in hypo- acid gastritis,atony intestine 4 weeks,in atheroclerosis,kidneys,heart,water-salt metabolism,like dietic for body weight lost,ribse throat,mouth cavity in inflammations. ChaptHistory Cabbage farmer in Gardena, California, 1951 The cultivated cabbage is derived from a leafy plant called the wild mustard plant, native to the Mediterranean region, where it is common along the seacoast. Also called sea cabbage and wild cabbage,  it was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans; Cato the Elder praised this vegetable for its medicinal properties, declaring that "It is the cabbage which surpasses all other vegetables."  The English name derives from the Normanno- Picard caboche (head), perhaps from boche (swelling, bump). Cabbage was developed by ongoing artificial selection for suppression of the internode length. Uses. The only part of the plant that is normally eaten is the leafy head; more precisely, the spherical cluster of immature leaves, excluding the partially unfolded outer leaves. Julja Page 14 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. Cabbage is used in a variety of dishes for its naturally spicy flavor. The so-called 'cabbage head' is widely consumed raw, cooked, or preserved in a great variety of dishes.  Cooked. Cabbage is often added to soups or stews. Cabbage soup is popular in central Europe and eastern Europe, and cabbage is an ingredient in some kinds of borscht. Garbure (from Provençal garburo) is a thick soup of cabbage or other vegetables with bacon. Cabbage may be an ingredient in kugel, a baked pudding served as a side dish or dessert. Cabbage is also used in many popular dishes in India. Boiling tenderizes the leaves and releases sugars, which leads to the characteristic "cabbage" aroma. Boiled cabbage has become stigmatized because of its strong cooking odor and the belief that it causes flatulence. Boiled cabbage as an accompaniment to meats and other dishes can be an excellent source of vitamins and dietary fiber. It is often prepared and served with boiled meat and other vegetables as part of a boiled dinner. Harold McGee has studied the development of unpleasant smells when cooking brassicas and reports that they develop with prolonged cooking. According to Corriher's Compendium smell doubles when prolonging cooking from 5 to 7 minutes; for best results cabbage should be sliced thinly and cooked for 4 minutes. Cabbage rolls, a type of dolma, are an East European and Middle Eastern delicacy. The leaves are softened by parboiling or by placing the whole head of cabbage in the freezer, and then stuffed with a mixture of chopped meat and/or rice. Stuffed cabbage is called holishkes in Yiddish. A vegetable stuffed with shredded cabbage and then pickled is called mango. Bulgarian Cabbage The largest cabbage dish is made in Macedonian city of Prilep, with 80,191 sarmas (cabbage rolls). Bubble and squeak consists of potatoes and cabbage or, especially formerly, potatoes, cabbage and meat fried together. Potatoes and cabbage or other greens boiled and mashed together make up a dish called colcannon, an Irish Gaelic word meaning white-headed cabbage, grounded in Old Irish terms for cabbage or kale (cāl), head (cend or cenn) and white (find). In the American South and Midland, corn dodgers were boiled as dumplings with cabbage and ham.  Fermented and preserved Cabbage is the basis for the German sauerkraut, Chinese suan cai and Korean kimchi. To pickle cabbage it is cut fine, placed in a jar, covered with a brine made of its own juice with salt, and left in a warm place for several weeks to ferment. Sauerkraut (colloquially simply "kraut") was historically prepared at home in large batches, as a way of storing food for the winter. The word comes from German sauer (sour) and kraut (plant or cabbage) (Old Julja Page 15 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. High German sūr and krūt). Cabbage can also be pickled in vinegar with various spices, alone or in combination with other vegetables. (Turnips can be cured in the same way.) Korean baechu kimchi is usually sliced thicker than its European counterpart, and the addition of onions, chillies, papaya, gin, minced garlic and ginger is common. Medicinal properties. Cabbage, raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 20 kcal 100 kJ Carbohydrates 5.8 g - Sugars 3.2 g - Dietary fiber 2.5 g Fat 0.1 g Protein 1.28 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.061 mg 5% Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.040 mg 3% Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.234 mg 2% Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.212 mg 4% Vitamin B6 0.124 mg 10% Folate (Vit. B9) 53 μg 13% Vitamin C 36.6 mg 61% Calcium 40 mg 4% Iron 0.47 mg 4% Magnesium 12 mg 3% Phosphorus 26 mg 4% Potassium 170 mg 4% Zinc 0.18 mg 2% Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database Cabbage is an excellent source of Vitamin C. It also contains significant amounts of glutamine, an amino acid, which has anti-inflammatory properties. It is a source of indole-3-carbinol, or I3C, a compound used as an adjuvent therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, a disease of the head and neck caused by human papillomavirus (usually types 6 and 11) that causes growths in the airway that can lead to death. In European folk medicine, cabbage leaves are used to treat acute inflammation.  A paste of raw cabbage may be placed in a cabbage leaf and wrapped around the affected area to reduce discomfort. Some claim it is effective in relieving painfully engorged breasts in breastfeeding women. Fresh cabbage juice has been shown to promote rapid healing of peptic ulcers . Varieties. There are many varieties of cabbage based on shape and time of maturity.  Cabbages grown late in autumn and in the beginning of winter are called coleworts; their leaves do not form a compact head. "Colewort" may also refer to a young cabbage. The word comes from Latin caulis (stalk of a plant, cabbage) and Old English wyrt (herb, plant, root). A drumhead cabbage has a rounded, flattened head. An oxheart cabbage has an oval or conical head. A pickling cabbage, such as the red-leafed cabbage, is especially suitable for pickling; krautman is the most common variety for commercial production of sauerkraut. Red cabbage is a small, round-headed type with dark red leaves. Savoy cabbage has a round, compact head with crinkled and curled leaves. Winter cabbage will survive the Julja Page 16 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. winter in the open in mild regions such as the southern United States; the name is also used for Savoy cabbage. Other traditional varieties include "Late Flat Dutch", "Early Jersey Wakefield" (a conical variety) and "Danish Ballhead" (late, round-headed). chapter 5. Mushrooms heal. Claviceps purpurea tulasne. Claviceps purpurea From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Claviceps purpurea Claviceps purpurea Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Division: Ascomycota Class: Sordariomycetes Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae Order: Hypocreales Family: Clavicipitaceae Genus: Claviceps Binomial name Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. 1883 ecological races G1 — land grasses of open meadows and fields; G2 — grasses from moist, forest, and mountain habitats; G3 (C. purpurea var. Julja Page 17 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. spartinae) — salt marsh grasses (Spartina, Distichlis). Claviceps purpurea is a fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants. Consumption of grains or seeds contaminated with the fruiting structure of this fungus, the ergot sclerotium, can cause ergotism in humans and other mammals.. C. purpurea most commonly affects outcrossing species such as rye (its most common host), as well as triticale, wheat and barley. It affects oats only rarely. Life cycle fruiting bodies with head and stipe on Sclerotium An ergot kernel called Sclerotium clavus develops when a floret of flowering grass or cereal is infected by a spore of C. purpurea. The infection process mimics a pollen grain growing into an ovary during fertilization. Because infection requires access of the fungal spore to the stigma, plants infected by C. purpurea are mainly outcrossing species with open flowers, such as rye (Secale cereale) and Alopecurus. The proliferating fungal mycelium then destroys the plant ovary and connects with the vascular bundle originally intended for feeding the developing seed. The first stage of ergot infection manifests itself as a white soft tissue (known as Sphacelia segetum) producing sugary honeydew, which often drops out of the infected grass florets. This honeydew contains millions of asexual spores (conidia) which are dispersed to other florets by insects or rain. Later, the Sphacelia segetum convert into a hard dry Sclerotium clavus inside the husk of the floret. At this stage, alkaloids and lipids (eg ricinoleic acid) accumulate in the Sclerotium. When a mature Sclerotium drops to the ground, the fungus remains dormant until proper conditions trigger its fruiting phase (onset of spring, rain period, need of fresh temperatures during inter, etc.). It germinates, forming one or several fruiting bodies with head and stipe, variously colored (resembling a tiny mushroom). In the head, threadlike sexual spores are formed, which are ejected simultaneously, when suitable grass hosts are flowering. Ergot infection causes a reduction in the yield and quality of grain and hay produced, and if infected grain or hay is fed to livestock it may cause a disease called ergotism. Insects, including flies and moths, have been shown to carry conidia of Claviceps species, but if insects play a role in spreading the fungus from infected to healthy plants is unknown. Host range. Early, scientists have observed Claviceps purpurea on other Poaceae as Secale cereale. 1855, Grandclement described ergot on Triticum aestivum. During more than a century scientists aimed to describe specialized species or specialized varieties inside the species Claviceps purpurea. That's how are created the species Claviceps microcephala Tul. (1853) Claviceps wilsonii Cooke (1884) now Neobarya aurantiaca Later scientists tried to detemine host varieties as Claviceps purpurea var. agropyri Julja Page 18 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. Claviceps purpurea var. purpurea Claviceps purpurea var. spartinae Claviceps purpurea var.wilsonii. But molecular biology hasn't confirmed this hypothesis but has distinguished three groups differing in their ecological specificity. G1 — land grasses of open meadows and fields; G2 — grasses from moist, forest, and mountain habitats; G3 (C. purpurea var. spartinae) — salt marsh grasses (Spartina, Distichlis). The criteria to distinguish different groups was the morphology, the color or the density of the sclerotia or the size or the shape of the conidias or the size of the ascospores.  Epidemiology Claviceps purpurea has been known to mankind for a long time, and its appearance has been linked to extremely cold winters that were followed by rainy springs. The sclerotial stage of C. purpurea conspicuous on the heads of ryes and other such grains is known as ergot. Sclerotia germinate in spring after a period of low temperature. A temperature of 0-5°C for at least 25 days is required. Water before the cold period is also necessary.  Favorable temperatures for germination are in the range of 18-30°C, (optimal 20°C) while temperatures above 37°C will cause rapid germination of conidia. Sunlight has a chromogenic effect on the mycelium with intense coloration. Effects. Ergot-derived drug to stop postnatal bleeding Main article: Ergotism The disease cycle of the ergot fungus was first described in 1853, but the connection with ergot and epidemics among people and animals was reported already in a scientific text in 1676. The ergot sclerotium contains high concentrations (up to 2% of dry mass) of the alkaloid ergotamine, a complex molecule consisting of a tripeptide-derived cyclol-lactam ring connected via amide linkage to a lysergic acid (ergoline) moiety, and other alkaloids of the ergoline group that are biosynthesized by the fungus. Ergot alkaloids have a wide range of biological activities including effects on circulation and neurotransmission. Ergotism is the name for sometimes severe pathological syndromes affecting humans or animals that have ingested ergot alkaloid-containing plant material, such as ergot- contaminated grains. Monks of the order of St. Anthony the Great specialized in treating Julja Page 19 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. ergotism victims with balms containing tranquilizing and circulation-stimulating plant extracts; they were also skilled in amputations. The common name for ergotism is "St. Anthony's Fire", in reference to monks who cared for victims as well as symptoms, such as severe burning sensations in the limbs. These are caused by effects of ergot alkaloids on the vascular system due to vasoconstriction of blood vessels, sometimes leading to gangrene and loss of limbs due to severely restricted blood circulation. The neurotropic activities of the ergot alkaloids may also cause hallucinations and attendant irrational behaviour, convulsions, and even death. Other symptoms include strong uterine contractions, nausea, seizures, and unconsciousness. Since the middle ages, controlled doses of ergot were used to induce abortions and to stop maternal bleeding after childbirth. Ergot alkaloids are also used in products such as Cafergot (containing caffeine and ergotamine or ergoline) to treat migraine headaches. Ergot extract is no longer used as a pharmaceutical preparation. Ergot contains no lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) but ergotamine, which is used to synthesize lysergic acid, an analog of and precursor for synthesis of LSD. Moreover, ergot sclerotia naturally contain some amounts of lysergic acid. Culture. Sphacelia segetum on potato dextrose agar Potato dextrose agar, wheat seeds or oat flour are suitable substrates for growth of the fungus in the laboratory. . Agricultural production of Claviceps purpurea on rye is used to product ergot alkaloids. Biological production of ergot alkaloids is also carried out by saprophytic cultivations.  Speculations Human poisoning due to the consumption of rye bread made from ergot-infected grain was common in Europe in the Middle Ages. The epidemic was known as Saint Anthony's fire, or ignis sacer. Linnda R. Caporael posited in 1976 that the hysterical symptoms of young women that had spurred the Salem witch trials had been the result of consuming ergot-tainted rye. However, her conclusions were later disputed by Nicholas P. Spanos and Jack Gottlieb, after a review of the historical and medical evidence. Other authors have likewise cast doubt on ergotism having been the cause of the Salem witch trials. The Great Fear in France during the Revolution has also been linked by some historians to the influence of ergot. British author John Grigsby claims that the presence of ergot in the stomachs of some of the so called 'bog-bodies' (Iron Age human remains from peat bogs N E Europe such as Tollund Man), reveals that ergot was once a ritual drink in a prehistoric fertility cult akin to the Eleusinian Mysteries cult of ancient Greece. In his book Beowulf and Grendel he argues that the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf is based on a memory of the quelling of this fertility cult by followers of Odin. He states that Beowulf, which he translates as barley- wolf, suggests a connection to ergot which in German was known as the 'tooth of the wolf' In gynecology use sclerocia powder 1 gr ,dailt -5 gr. Julja Page 20 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. And water infusion 6 gr a such sclerocia in 200 ml.water,3 table spoons/day for shortening uterus and stop uterus bleeding. Poisoning mushroom! Chapter 6. Herbal healing collections in diseases. 1.Respiratory diseases. Bronchitis,cough,tracheobronchitis,dry,acute. Leafs coltsfoot 1 part. Leafs plantain 2 parts. Herb horse tail field 3 parts,flowers primrose 4 parts. 1 table spoon mass infuse in 1 glass water,drink for a day 1-2 glass warm infusion. 2.Gastritis. Acute gastritis,with food poisoning. Herb hypericum perforatum 1 part,herb agrimonia 1 part,leaf plantain 2 part,leaf mint-2 parts,flowers cammomile-2 parts. 6 gr.mass boil in 0.5l.water,infuse 30 min. Use warm ½ glass /day. 3.Liquid stool in chronic cholecystitis. Flowers sandy everlasting 2 parts,flowers calendula 2 parts,herb oiganum 2 parts,flowers cornflower 1 part. 10 gr.mass in 1 glass water,warm drink 1/3 glass before 30 min to the food 3 months. 4.Kidney heal. Diuretic. Leaf nettle 1 part,leaf strawberry 1 part,leaf birch 2 part,flax seed 5 parts. 1 table spoon mass in 1 glass water,drink 1-2 glass /day to the food. 5.Metabolism destroy. Sugar diabetes. 40 gr oats haw in 0.5l.hot water,boil 30 min,infuse 2 hour,use ½ glass 3 times/day before food. 6.Insomnia. Leafs mint and valeriana root a same. 1 table spoon mass in 1 glass hot water,drink 1 glass before sleep. 7.Wounds. Herb horse tail field,flowers cammomile,herb hypericum perforatum a same. 2 table spoon mass in 0.5l.hot water,boil 15 min. Warm infusion use for compresses for healing and abcess. Conclusion. 6. Herbs have been used for centuries - and still are still being used - in this country any many other parts of the world for all sorts of reasons. We offer advice and information Julja Page 21 7/30/2010 Confidential Pag By Tamara Nikitina. Created by Julja7/30/20103:34:29 AM. about growing and using herbs - in your cooking and medicinal uses. 7. Herb gardening is once again gaining in popularity as we move away from synthetic drugs and chemicals. 8. Never forget that we (mankind) got as far as we have by using herbs for eating and healing. There was no National Health - or even easy access to doctors until after 1940. We got that far with the use of herbs! In the days of 'conversation' Advice and information about herbs was freely available and handed down through generations. As other forms of communication have developed, and modernisation has been the 'Go word' Herbs have lost some of their importance in the western civilizations. On that time we meet about herbs kinds healing in diseases from Russian and where they are used ,like in collections. On that time also a herbal healing is most famous in alternative medicine. Many herbalists founds a much new methods for finding a best healing a not curable diseases.
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