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					    Intelligence



Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.
Intelligence
   Why do we want to measure
    intelligence?
   What are some of the reasons we
    measure intelligence?
   If you had to construct an IQ test, what
    kinds of questions would it contain?
   What kinds of abilities do you think you’d
    want to test?
Alfred Binet
Theodore Simon
Jean Piaget
What is Intelligence?
Binet & Simon

   Binet and Simon were commissioned by
    the French government to ID kids who
    would benefit from receiving remedial
    education.
   Assessment: attention, perception,
    memory, numerical reasoning, verbal
    comprehension.
Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal
Development
David Wechsler
   Wechsler’s definition of intelligence: the
    global capacity of the individual to act
    purposefully, think rationally, and to deal
    effectively with his environment.
   Vocabulary scores – the subtest that
    correlates best with overall IQ tests
    scores.
David Wechsler
   “Intelligence is the
    aggregate or global
    capacity of the
    individual to act
    purposefully, to
    think rationally and
    to deal effectively
    with his
    environment.” 1944
The Wechsler Tests
   Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV)
    and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
    (WISC-IV).
   Greatly improved the normative process.
   Wechsler viewed intelligence as an effect
    rather than a cause; for example, non-
    intellective factors, such as personality,
    contribute to the development of each
    person’s intelligence.
Intelligence – Some important
topics.
   Mental Age versus Chronological Age.
   The issue of Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
    •   IQ = (mental age / chronological age) x 100
    •   If a 10 year old can answer questions of the same
        difficulty level as most 13 year olds, then IQ =
        (13/10) x100 = 130.
    •   Now using normative standards.
Intelligence Testing
     1. “One Score Tests”

   Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale IV–
    Ages 2 through adult.
   Modern version – scores no longer
    reflect mental age. You’re now
    compared to others – representative
    sample used to obtain the distribution.
   Links to Cattell-Horn’s theory.
   Greater differentiation of abilities.
Wechsler Tests

   4-6.5 years – Wechsler Preschool and
    primary scale of Intelligence – IV.
   Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – IV
    (16 and older).
   Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV).
Wechsler Tests – WAIS-IV
   Updated in 2008. Why? Flynn Effect
   WAIS-IV: 11 subtests, 3 supplementary
    scales.
   Full scale IQ (FSIQ) or g.
   GAI = General Ability Index = 6 subtests
    that comprise Verbal Comprehension
    Index & Perceptual Reasoning Scale.
Intelligence Testing
Important Issue: Standardization

   Standardization: What does this mean?
    • Lots of people take the test to make sure it’s
        reliable and valid.
    •   Cultural Bias of tests – many have argued
        that tests were written for white middle class
        children and they were standardized in that
        population.
    •   Now – Stanford – Binet & WAIS tests have
        been standardized via diverse populations but
        still….
The Normal Curve
The normal curve
   Describe
    • Show IQ scores for the WAIS-IV.
    • 130 and above very superior
    • 120-129 Superior
    • 110-119 High average
    • 90-109 Average
    • 80-89 Low Average
    • 70-79 Borderline
    • 69 and below – Extremely low
WAIS-IV test now measures:
   Verbal                  Working Memory
    comprehension            Index
    Index                   Processing Speed
   Perceptual
    Organization Index
Verbal comprehension Index
   Verbally acquired          Requires
    knowledge and               understanding of
    verbal reasoning            words, similarities,
   Stored knowledge            knowledge of social
   Oral expression             situations, etc.
   General verbal skills
Perceptual Organization Index
   Visual perception      Comfort with new
   Organization and        and unexpected
    reasoning               situations
   Visual-motor           Ability to understand
    coordination            a problem
   Nonverbal
    reasoning
   Fluid reasoning
Working Memory Index
   Measures the ability       Arithmetic skills,
    to temporarily retain       reading ability,
    information in              verbal fluency
    memory and                 Problem-solving
    manipulate                 Higher-order
   Attention,                  thinking
    concentration,
    mental control,
    reasoning
Processing speed
   Visual perception        Motor coordination
    and organization         Persistence and
   Processing visual         planning
    information quickly
   Attention and
    sustained effort
Interpretation
   Full-scale IQ
   4 indices
   Individual subtests
   Pattern analysis
   Strengths and weaknesses
Extreme scores
   Diagnosis of GT
   Diagnosis of MR
   Do we do a good job with extreme
    scores?
   Difference between intelligence (ability to
    learn) and mastery tests like Wood-cock
    Johnson (what you have learned).
Factor Analytic Approach
   Factor analysis – a statistical procedure for
    identifying clusters of tests or test items (called
    factors) that are highly correlated with each
    other and unrelated to other items.
   Some thinkers believed that IQ score might
    reflect some particular ability, rather than
    overarching intelligence.
   Ask people to perform lots of different mental
    tasks.
   Each factor is a specific mental ability.
Cultural Bias Issues
   Verbal ability is a problem – requires
    specific knowledge of the meaning of
    words. What if you come from a home
    where English isn’t spoken?
Vygotsky
   Vygotsky’s approach to intelligence
    testing: “test, train, retest”
    • Brown & Ferrara (1985)
    • Not all average IQ kids are alike regarding the
        speed of learning or ability to transfer to
        something new.
    •   Low IQ kids – some are slow learners with
        low transfer, some are slow learners with high
        transfer, some are fast learners with high
        transfer.
Vygotsky
   This pattern holds for high IQ children
    too.
   Thus two kids with IQs of 100 may not
    be mentally the same!
   So we should consider this when
    developing individualized learning plans
    for kids.
Robert J. Sternberg
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of
Intelligence
   Successful people = identify & capitalize
    on their strengths, and identify and
    correct or compensate for their
    weaknesses in order to adapt to, shape,
    & select environments.
Sternberg’s theory
   Intelligence = forming competencies,
    and competencies as forms of
    developing expertise.
   Intelligence is modifiable rather than
    fixed.
Raymond B. Cattell
John L. Horn
Cattell-Horn Theory
   Fluid abilities (Gf) drive the individual’s
    ability to think and act quickly, solve
    novel problems, and encode short-term
    memories.
   They have been described as the source
    of intelligence that an individual uses
    when he/she doesn’t already know what
    to do.
Cattell-Horn Theory
   Crystalized abilities (Gc) stems from
    learning and acculturation and is reflected
    in tests of knowledge, general information,
    use of language (vocabulary) and a wide
    variety of acquired skills.
Crystallized Intelligence
   Personality factors, motivation and
    educational and cultural opportunity are
    central to its development, and is only
    indirectly dependent on the physiological
    influences that mainly affect fluid
    abilities.
Horn & Cattell
   Fluid Intelligence = ability to perceive
    relationships, ability to adapt, ability
    to learn new material. Independent of
    culture and formal training.
    Vulnerable to brain damage and aging.
   Crystallized intelligence = completely
    dependent on culture and formal
    training or learning. Increases with
    age.
Howard Gardner (Harvard)
               “I want my children to
                  understand the world,
                  but not just because the
                  world is fascinating and
                  the human mind is
                  curious. I want them to
                  understand it so that
                  they will be positioned to
                  make it a better place.”
               Gardner, 1999
Gardner – Theory of Multiple
Intelligences
   Surveyed atypical populations, e.g. prodigies,
    idiot savants, autistic children, LD children.
   Found jagged cognitive profile.
   These profiles inconsistent with a unitary view
    of intelligence.
   Question: does training in 1 area influence
    skills in other areas. For example, math
    training affect musical ability?
Gardner - MI
   Gardner (1993) defines intelligence as
    the ability to solve problems or to create
    products that are valued within one or
    more cultural settings.
   Within this definition of intelligence, a
    variety of skills valued in different
    cultures and a history setting become
    objects of study.
Gardner – MI – currently 8
intelligences identified
   Linguistic intelligence      Musical Intelligence
    ("word smart“)                (“music smart”)
   Logical-mathematical         Interpersonal
    intelligence                  intelligence ("people
    ("number/reasoning
    smart")                       smart")
   Spatial intelligence         Intrapersonal
    ("picture smart")             intelligence ("self
   Bodily-Kinesthetic            smart“)
    intelligence ("body          Naturalistic Intelligence
    smart")                       (“nature smart”)
Peter Salovey – Yale University
                    Yale University
                    Developed the idea
                     of EQ or emotional
                     intelligence.
                    Goleman expanded
                     upon this theory.
Emotional Intelligence
   Most intelligences can be grouped into 1
    or 3 clusters … abstract, concrete, or
    social intelligence.
   Social intelligence (Thorndike): ability to
    understand and relate to people.
   Emotional intelligence has its roots in
    social intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence includes:
   Being aware of one’s own emotions.
   Being able to manage one’s own
    emotions.
   Being sensitive to the emotions of others.
   Being able to respond to & negotiate with
    other people emotionally.
   Being able to use one’s own emotions to
    motivate oneself.
Emotional Intelligence
   Emotionally intelligent individuals are said
    to be particularly adept at regulating
    emotions.
   Utilized in problem solving. Propose that
    they have the ability to organize their
    emotions to solve problems.
   Goleman includes: conscientiousness,
    self-confidence, optimism, communication,
    leadership and initiative.
Infant intelligence & memory
   The history of studying infant intelligence
    has seriously underestimated their
    abilities.
   Why?
   High sedatives during childbirth, used
    adult based IQ tests, separated from
    mother.
How infants learn?
   Learning is a relatively permanent change in
    behavior resulting from experience.
   We are all born with the ability to learn; but
    learning does not take place without
    experience.
   Only with experience can a baby use his
    intellect to distinguish between sensory
    experiences (like sounds) and to build on
    their inborn repetoire of behaviors (like
    sucking).
Types of learning
   Habituation: repeated exposure to
    something reduces the response, e.g.
    nursing baby.
   Habituation gives us information about
    development. Children with lowered
    apgar scores, brain damage, distress at
    birth, etc.
Types of learning
   Classical conditioning
   Operant conditioning
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • punishment
Self-righting tendency
   Given a favorable environment, infants
    generally follow normal developmental
    patterns unless they have suffered
    severe damage.
   Between 18-24 months, this self-righting
    tendency seems to decrease as children
    begin to acquire skills (like verbal
    abilities).
Infant’s Memory
   Infant researcher: Carolyn Rouie-
    Collier: found that if a mobile was hung over
    an infant’s crib and attached a ribbon to one
    of the baby’s limbs.
   6 week old infants quickly discovered which
    arm or leg would move the mobile.
   Two weeks later, the infants were placed in
    the same situations. They remembered
    which arm/leg to move, even though they
    were not attached to the mobile.
Is infant’s memory conscious?
   One study: 9 month old girls looked for
    ribbons originally kept in a drawer.
    When did not find ribbons, she searched
    new drawer until she found them.
Another study
   7 month old infant will search for an object
    shown to him/her.
   Younger infant will not.
   First 6 months…memory of infants not similar
    to what adults think of as memory.
   It is not conscious memory for specific past
    episodes, but learning of adaptive skills.
Why does conscious memory
develop later than other
learning?
   Possibly conscious memory must await
    the maturation of certain brain
    structures, such as the hippocampus.
   Conscious memory depends on the
    development of cognitive structures, like
    Piaget’s theory suggests.
   Recall minimum before age 3 – infantile
    amnesia.

				
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