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How to Utilize the Activity Books

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					Contents
How to Utilize the Activity Books National Science Education Standards Teamwork and Science Process Skills Targeted The Idaho TECH Lab Notebook 1 2 7 8 9 18 21 26 34 42 51 57 61 67 69 76 78 80 83 89 94 98 105

PART ONE: TEAMBUILDING
Building a Working Team The Spaghetti Incident Copy Cat Parts of the Whole 3-2-1 Pop! - An Effervescent Race Earthling Exploration of Mars Idaho TECH WWW Activity

PART TWO: EXPLORING MARS
Pepsi on Pluto – Weighing In & Growing Old Hangin’ Out on Mars!?! Mars in Reverse Crater Creation Martianscape The Winds of Change Geography & Mission Planning Mars Mosaic Strange New Planet Mapping Unknown Surfaces What on Earth Mars? Online Resources – More Fun on the Web

Before you begin these activities, talk with your students about how to create their Idaho TECH Lab Notebook (see page 8 for details). The Notebook is a very important part of Idaho TECH, and is referenced in all of the activities in this book. The activities presented in this book were placed in a specific order for maximum educational benefit. We highly recommend that you complete the activities in the order they are presented so the activities will build on each other as intended. Questions? Call (208) 885-6030, or email idahotech@uidaho.edu
Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition *

How to Utilize the Activity Books
The activities presented in these books are intended to prepare your team for the design phase of the Idaho TECH program. Although these activities are considered an optional component of Idaho TECH, we strongly recommend that you complete as many activities as possible before you receive your Lego ® kits. Please refer to the recommendations below and the information on pages 2-7 when choosing activities to complete with your team. The activities have been placed in a specific order to ensure maximum educational benefit. We highly recommend that you complete the activities in the order they are presented so the activities will build upon each other as intended. They are divided into two general categories: (1) Teambuilding Activities These activities focus on communication, cooperation, taking on roles, and group decision-making skills. Teams with strong teamwork skills tend to progress through the Idaho TECH program well and are extremely successful at competition. Mars Exploration Activities These activities focus on specific characteristics of Mars and the process of space exploration. The information that students will gain from these activities will help them design their Rover by introducing ideas regarding what NASA must consider when planning to explore the surface of another planet.

(2)

At the minimum, we recommend that teams complete the following activities to prepare for specific Idaho TECH program requirements:  Several teambuilding activities to strengthen teamwork skills early  Earthling Exploration of Mars to complete the timeline requirement  3-2-1 Pop! – An Effervescent Race to learn about the Engineering Design Process, as well as the Lab Notebook and Rover Display & Presentation compe tition events  Copy Cat to learn about the Blind Driving competition event For your convenience, a copy of each student activity book activity instructions immediately follows the teacher instructions for that activity, respectfully, in order to allow teachers/parents to adequately prepare prior to engaging in each activity (refer to the pages marked “Student Version” following each activity).

Please Note
 When the activity has been designed to be student-led, the full directions will be located in the Student Activity Book; and when the activity has been designed to be teacher-led, the full directions will be located in the Teacher Reference part of the Teacher Activity Book.  The Teacher Reference portion contains useful tips and suggestions for the teacher who conducts each activity with the students. Many questions have been included to stimulate post-activity discussion with the students to ensure the successful completion of activity objectives.  Most often, the Student Activity Book will contain background information, simplified directions, and, at times, worksheets for student use.

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National Science Education Standards
The Idaho TECH program, founded in 1997 by the NASA Idaho Space Grant Consortium, was created to follow the National Science Education Standards for grades 5-8 as closely as possible. Specifically, there are three standards the program adheres to – Science as Inquiry, Science and Technology, and the History and Nature of Science. Each component of the Idaho TECH program, including the Activity Book, contributes to the program’s overall fulfillment of these standards. Below are some excerpts from the National Science Standards, brief descriptions of how the activities address the standards, and charts detailing which components of each standard are present in each activity. We have also included a chart detailing the teamwork, leadership, and science process skills targeted within each activity.

NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry
Students in grades 5-8 should be provided opportunities to engage in full and partial inquiries. In a full inquiry, students begin with a question, design an investigation, gather evidence, formulate an answer to the original question, and communicate the investigative process and results. In partial inquiries, they develop abilities and understanding of selected aspects of the inquiry process. The experiments and investigations that students conduct become experiences that shape and modify their background knowledge. With an appropriate curriculum and adequate instruction, middle-school students can develop the skills of investigation and the understanding that scientific inquiry is guided by knowledge, observations, ideas, and questions. The instructional activities of a scientific inquiry should engage students in identifying and shaping an understanding of the question under inquiry. Students should know what the question is asking, what background knowledge is being used to frame the question, and what they will have to do to answer the question.

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Students need opportunities to present their abilities and understanding and to use the knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas. In middle school, students produce oral or written reports that present the results of their inquiries. Such reports and discussions should be a frequent occurrence in science programs. Writing, labeling drawings, completing concept maps, developing spreadsheets, and designing computer graphics should also be a part of science education. The majority of the Activity Book activities address the Science as Inquiry standard. Most activities, such as “Crater Creation,” are based on the power of observation, which forms the foundation of scientific inquiry. These inquiry-based activities require students to design, conduct, analyze, or communicate their own scientific investigations about Mars or space science. Most of these activities are also student-centered, allowing students to make their own observations, form their own ideas to explain their observations, and discuss these ideas with their peers.

NS.5-8.5 Science and Technology
Students in grades 5-8 can begin to differentiate between science and technology. One basis for understanding the similarities, differences, and relationships between science and technology should be experiences with design and problem solving in which students can further develop some of the abilities introduced in grades K-4. The understanding of technology can be developed by tasks in which students have to design something and also by studying technological products and systems. In the middle-school years, students’ work with scientific investigations can be complemented by activities in which the purpose is to meet a human need, solve a human problem, or develop a product rather than to explore ideas about the natural world. Students should also, through the experience of trying to meet a need in the best possible way, begin to appreciate that technological design and problem solving involve many other factors besides the scientific issues. Suitable design tasks for students at these grades should be well-defined, so that the purposes of the tasks are not confusing. During the middle-school years, the design tasks should cover a range of needs, materials, and aspects of science. Regardless of the product used, students need to understand the science behind it. There should be a balance over the years, with the products studied coming from the area of clothing, food, structures, and simple mechanical and electrical devices.

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Certain activities, notably “3-2-1 Pop! – An Effervescent Race,” address the Science and Technology standard. In this example, students follow the Engineering Design Process to research, design, construct, and test their own effervescent-powered rockets. The Engineering Design Process embodies the Science and Technology standard by requiring students to use problem-solving skills and technological design to develop a product for a real-world situation.

NS.5-8.7 History and Nature of Science
Experiences in which students actually engage in scientific investigations provide the background for developing an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. In general, teachers of science should not assume that students have an accurate conception of the nature of science in either contemporary or historical contexts. To develop understanding of the history and nature of science, teachers of science can use the actual experiences of student investigations, case studies, and historical vignettes. Historical examples are used to help students understand scientific inquiry, the nature of scientific knowledge, and the interactions between science and society. It is part of scientific inquiry to evaluate the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical models, and the explanations proposed by other scientists. Although scientists may disagree about explanations of phenomena, interpretations of data, or about the value of rival theories, they do agree that questioning, response to criticism, and open communications are integral to the process of science. Again, the majority of the activities address the History and Nature of Science standard by addressing issues that involve working with a diverse team, accepting alternate explanations and opinions, and examining historical perspectives of science and how ideas have changed over time.

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National Science Standards Chart
NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry
Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence Communicate scientific procedures and explanations
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations

Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions

Activity
Building a Working Team The Spaghetti Incident Copy Cat Parts of the Whole 3-2-1 Pop! – An E ffervescent Race Earthling Exploration of Mars Idaho TE CH WWW Activity Pepsi on Pluto – Weighing In & Growing Old Hangin’ Out on Mars!?! Mars in Reverse Crat er Creation Martianscape The Winds of Change Geography & Mission Planning Mars Mosaics Strange New Planet Mapping Unknown S urfaces What on Earth Mars?

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

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Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry

Design and conduct a scientific investigation

National Science Standards Chart
NS.5-8.5 Science and Technology
Evaluate completed technological designs or products Identify appropriate problems for technological design

NS.5-8.7 History and Nature of Science
Develop understanding of the nature of science
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Develop understanding of science as a human endeavor

Implement a proposed design

Activity
Building a Working Team The Spaghetti Incident Copy Cat Parts of the Whole 3-2-1 Pop! – An E ffervescent Race Earthling Exploration of Mars Idaho TE CH WWW Activity Pepsi on Pluto – Weighing In & Growing Old Hangin’ Out on Mars!?! Mars in Reverse Crat er Creation Martianscape The Winds of Change Geography & Mission Planning Mars Mosaics Strange New Planet Mapping Unknown S urfaces What on Earth Mars?

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X

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Develop understanding of the history of science

Communicate the process of technological design

Design a solution or product

Teamwork and Science Process Skills
Teamwork Skills Science Process Skills

Non-Verbal Communication

Verbal Communication

Activity
Building a Working Team The Spaghetti Incident Copy Cat Parts of the Whole 3-2-1 Pop! – An E ffervescent Race Earthling Exploration of Mars Idaho TE CH WWW Activity Pepsi on Pluto – Weighing In & Growing Old Hangin’ Out on Mars!?! Mars in Reverse Crat er Creation Martianscape The Winds of Change Geography & Mission Planning Mars Mosaic Strange New Planet Mapping Unknown S urfaces What on Earth Mars?

X

X X

X

X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

X X

X X X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

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Compare and Contrast
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Time Management

Decision Making

Taking on Roles

Organize Data Calculate

Record Data

Cooperation

Summarize

Listening

Patience

Measure

Observe

Analyze

Discuss

Predict

The Idaho TECH Lab Notebook
The Idaho TECH Lab Notebook is referenced often in the Activity Books. What exactly is this Notebook? The Lab Notebook is a vital part of Idaho TECH because it teaches each team how to document the Engineering Design Process. A detailed description of the Lab Notebook requirements will be included in the Competition Manual that you will receive in January. For reference, the following is the justification from the Manual: “Due to the budgetary concerns expressed by Congress, and in the nature of sound scientific research, the team MUST maintain a Lab Notebook of the design process and expenses. The Notebook must have DATED entries and must OUTLINE your work as your team progresses through the Engineering Design Process. Your Lab Notebook is a record of the work your team does on your Rover, and must be handwritten, not typed. The budget pages must include both actual expenditures and estimated values of any materials used but not purchased. It may also contain drawings, brainstorming sessions, anything fun that happened at the meeting, and anything your team learned.” Encourage your team to select a notebook (spiral, binder, etc. – any form is acceptable), and start recording entries as they work through the activity process. We hope the contract created during the “Building a Working Team” activity will be included in the Notebook. Please note: None of the activities are required to be included in the notebook, but we highly encourage that your team include their notes if possible. Remember to have the students leave the first page blank, where their timeline will be placed.

 The Engineering Design Process
The entire Engineering Design Process when you start designing/constructing your Rover must be reflected throughout the Lab Notebook. Every step in the process must be recorded in detailed entries that are dated and hand-written.

Recommended Activity: “3-2-1 Pop! – An Effervescent Race”

 Timeline
The timeline must detail when and in what order the team will complete ALL components of the Idaho TECH Program, including the Engineering Design Process. It must be the first entry in the Notebook. Recommended Activity: “Earthling Exploration of Mars”

 Budgets
Three separate, itemized budgets must be included in the Lab Notebook to document the expenditures for (1) Additional Lego ® parts ($50 maximum); (2) Use of Non-Lego® Allowable Elements; and (3) Display construction ($30 maximum).

 Pie Charts
A pie chart for each team member must be included in the Lab Notebook. Each pie chart should categorize that team member’s contributions to the design process. If you have any questions regarding the Notebook process, please contact the Idaho Space Grant Consortium at (208) 885-6030 or idahotech@uidaho.edu, or visit the Idaho TECH web site at http://isgc.uidaho.edu/idahotech.
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NS.5-8.7 History and Natur e of Science

Building a Working Team
Adapted from the Putnam Northern Westchester BOCES Outdoor Education Program Challenge Course

Introduction & Purpose
At times, one of the biggest challenges that teachers face in supporting Mars Rover teams is team dynamics. Frustrations caused by breakdowns in communication between team members, and built up emotions that sometimes arise while working through the design and construction process can place negative strain on the team. You can prepare ahead of time to avoid or alleviate these situations by assisting your group in building a strong team ethic. Challenges or initiatives can be an excellent tool for helping to build a strong sense of team spirit, and can give mentors a basis for leading teams through the process of assessing and improving their group dynamics. Like any lesson, without a structured format and a strong reflection and evaluation component, initiatives can be just an activity without a solid learning outcome. The following is a guide for working through initiatives with your students. This can be applied to any of the challenges on pages 12-16 that you pose to your group.

Objective:

Students will determine, develop, and assess qualities that are associated with positive teamwork behavior through guided preparatory discussion, practical challenges and debriefing discussions. (1) Set up the challenge. Use clear, concise instructions. Have students restate all of the tasks of each initiative before they start. It is important that they fully understand the task before them and any information that is relevant for solving the problem. Besides the Idaho TECH Lab Notebook which is needed for each initiative, you will need additional materials for four of the challenges: Pulse: You will need a timer / watch with a second hand Rope Knots: You will need a 10 foot piece of rope with one knot on the rope per team member Probe Levitation: You will need a tent pole Space Walk: You will need two blindfolds and four 1’ x 1’ pieces of cardboard (2) Prompt your students. Before they begin, ask your students what a good plan would be for working through the challenge as a team (but don’t devise the plan for them). Some examples of good leading questions that can get students off to a good start are: Examples of Leading Questions: * What are characteristics of a good team member?
(Listening, contributing ideas, being supportive, etc.)

* What are characteristics of a good team?
(Cooperation, everyone has a part, strong communication, etc.)

*What kind of support do you need from the other team members?
(see the four “C”s below to add to this question)

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* What are you excited about today? *What do you think will be difficult for you today? *What is your plan for solving this problem? Are you going to try the first idea that comes to mind, or will you brainstorm many ideas before you choose one to try? *Is there one right answer to any and/or all problems? (3) Introduce your group to “The 4 Cs”. These are:     Communication Cooperation Compromise Caring

Included as the first exercise in the Student Activity Book is a prompt for students to brainstorm and write down the 4 C’s. They are also asked to think of other words that exemplify good team behavior and to sign the bottom portion of the page as a type of “contract” for the team to follow. It is highly encouraged that this contract be cut out and placed in their Lab Notebook as a daily reminder of the words that will continue to help them be a great team. (4) Let them go for it! This is a time to be watching what is going o n and making notes for leading the discussion later on. Look for specific examples of strong teamwork skills. Look for the examples of poor teamwork. Try to think of something positive to comment on for every team member.



When things aren’t going so well……………………
If the group is struggling and experiencing team melt down (this does happen! --- and it can be a good thing, depending on how you lead the discussion ), now is a good time to call a time out. This is a great opportunity to start the discussion about what is working and what is not working. You can give them a nugget of information to help get them on track. Maybe they are exhibiting strong team skills, but are not getting anywhere with the problem. In this case, give them a little nudge in order to get them back on track. Highlight and commend them on all the things they are doing right.



(5)

Lead the students in a debrief after they have successfully completed the task. This is the portion of the activity that lends significantly to lessons learned. Using your observations as a guide, lead the team in assessing how well they worked together. Start with asking students “What did you learn about your team today?”, “What did you or your team do today that you are particularly proud of?” and “What skill do you want to work on improving?” You can usually draw out most of the issues you want to address through this discussion with the students.

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Now ask them what they could do differently to improve their teamwork skills. Have them think about the task that is coming, the Mars Rover Challenge. How can they use what they have just gone through when facing challenges in building their Rover? Have your students write overall comments in their Idaho TECH Lab Notebook. If you are wishing to address certain skills or abilities that were targeted in each initiative, the following questions adapted from the Putnam Northern Westchester BOCES Outdoor Education Program’s Challenge Course Handbook may be helpful: Communication  Did you have effective communication within your team today?

 How did you know that your communication with the team was understood?  What could the communicator do next time to make their message more clear?  How did it feel not to be heard when you made a suggestion?  What interfered with your ability to listen to others?  Give examples of how your team cooperated during the activity.  Give examples of how your team was uncooperative during the activity.  How is cooperation important in other areas of your life (i.e. building a rover)?

Listening  How did it feel to be heard when you made a suggestion?

Cooperation

Patience  How does it feel when people are impatient with you?

 How can you tell when someone is being impatient?  Why do people become impatient?

Group Decision-Making  How were group decisions made when completing the various initiatives?

 Were you satisfied with the way decisions were made? Explain why or why not.  Did everyone have input in making overall group decisions?  What is the best way for a group to make a decision?  In what ways are your team members similar? In what ways are they different?  How did the differences within your team prove to be a strength for your team?  How did differences within the team prove to be a hindrance?  How could the group learn and benefit from individual differences?

Individual Differences

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These initiatives can give you a reference point for talking to the group when challenges arise during Rover design and construction. They can also be a good team pickup when frustrations arise during the design and construction process. If you have read through the steps to follow when leading an initiative, you are ready to get started. Choose from the following tasks. They are ordered according to difficulty. Most of these initiati ves work better with groups of six. If you have student mentors or other team assistants, it is a acceptable to have them participate with the 5 th and 6th graders, however, please remind them to hold back from dominating the process and being too quick to offer the solution. As a final note, remember that spectators can become over-involved in the process. Ask onlookers to assist you in observing the process, and then invite them to comment during the debrief if they have something extra to contribute beyond your discussion.

Team Initiatives
#1 : COLORS
Adapted from the Putnam Northern Westchester BOCES Outdoor Education Program’s Challenge Course

 Teamwork Skills:

listening, verbal communication

Have each team member think of a color but not say it aloud. Once every student has a color they are thinking about (but have not stated aloud), ask all of them to shout out their color after you count to three. After the chaos, ask a few team members to tell you what color someone else said. Why are most students not able to repeat what color another student stated aloud? What could the group do to make sure everyone knows everyone’s color? Does an effective team all speak at the same time? Can you understand everyone in the group when they al l speak at the same time? Why not?

#2 : BIRTHDAY LINE-UP
Adapted from the Putnam Northern Westchester BOCES Outdoor Education Program’s Challenge Course

 Teamwork Skills: non-verbal communication, cooperation, patience, taking on roles
This initiative addresses a different but critical form of communication. Explain to your team that this is a nonverbal activity (no talking ). The group is to form a single line according to their birthdays. For example, the students with January birthdays will be at the beginning of the line, earliest January birthdays first, followed in order by later dates/months. People with the same birthday share the same place in line. The students must communicate nonverbally; no lip-reading, squeaking, or other noises are a llowed. When the line is complete, have each student state his/her birthday one at a time.
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After the activity is complete, ask each team member to give you one adjective to describe what the experience was like for him or her. The usual answers will incl ude hard, difficult, and frustrating. Then ask them to tell you, other than the fact that they couldn’t talk, why it was so hard, difficult, or frustrating, to complete the activity. Usually someone will state “because the other person didn’t understand what I was trying to say!” This is exactly the response you are seeking. 70% of all communication results in communication breakdown. Ask the team to suggest some strategies they can use to prevent communication breakdown (e.g. asking questions, repeat what you heard the other person say, have the person say it a second time in a different way, etc.) If you wish to try variations of this activity, you can blindfold team members, or not allow them to use their hands during the activity. You can also have them line up in alphabetical order instead of birthday order, using their middle names to create the order.

#3 : PULSE
Adapted from the Putnam Northern Westchester BOCES Outdoor Education Program’s Challenge Course

 Teamwork Skills: non-verbal communication, cooperation,
patience, decision-making Materials: a timer or a watch with a second hand This is a wonderful activity to facilitate bringing a nonfunctional group back together. In this challenge, the group tries to pass a pulse as fast as possible around the circle. Have the students form a circle holding hands. Pick one student to start the pulse, and on the count of three, have them squeeze the hand of the person on their right or left. The student receiving the hand squeeze should pass the squeeze, or “pulse,” on to the next student in the circle, continuing this from student to student. Warn the students not to “pulse” until they receive it, and not to crush each other’s hands. Try and see how fast the group can move the pulse around the circle. Ask the group what they did to move the pulse faster. How did they know when they received the pulse? When to give a pulse? Did the pulse ever slow down? Were they ever unsure if they received a pulse? Why? Variations: * After a couple of rounds, start the pulse in both directions so that it will have to pass itself somewhere in the circle * Have the group close their eyes during the activity * Have the group cross their hands and see if their time changes

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#4 : ROPE KNOTS
Adapted from the Putnam Northern Westchester BOCES Outdoor Education Program’s Challenge Course

 Teamwork Skills: verbal communication, listening,
cooperation, patience, decision-making, taking on roles Materials: 10 foot piece of rope with one knot per person Set the rope on the ground in a straight line. Have the students line up along the rope. They may be on either side of the rope, but must face in the same direction. They should be spaced out evenly along the rope from beginning to end, and not grouped together. Have the students bend down and pick up the rope using either their right or left hand without touching any of the knots. OOPS! You forgot to mention that you put crazy glue on the rope and now they are stuck! Their challenge is to untie all of the knots without sliding or taking their “glued” hand off the rope. They may use their other hand in the process. After the group has solved the problem, ask the group if they began by planning and working as a whole team or as smaller groups. Often, the group will unconsciously break into three groups, the two ends and the middle. What is the best way for a group to make a decision? Remind them that they will need the minds of everyone in the group to accomplish the task of building their rover.

#5 : ASTRO-KNOT

 Teamwork Skills: verbal communication, listening, cooperation, patience, decisionmaking, taking on roles This is a wonderful challenge as it takes a relatively short period of time. Have the students get in a circle and extend their right hand into the middle of the circle. Then have them grasp hands with a person that is not to their immediate right or left. Next, have the students extend their left arms and grasp hands with a different individual (not someone to their immediate left or right AND not a person with which they are already holding hands). The goal of this challenge is for the students to untangle themselves and to make a complete circle. They should end up facing the middle of the circle and have all the kinks worked out so that they create a complete circle of individuals holding hands. They are not to break hands during the process. Warning: This puzzle is not always solvable. The important thing is that the students put forth the effort towards completing the challenge as much as possible. If you see that they have exhausted their options, you can have them break and start again. You will want to give them more opportunities to try if they don’t solve it right away. This will reflect the process of trial and error, and will be a good reference for working through trial and error processes encountered when building their Rover. A good idea with this challenge is to have a key word that when stated, the students freeze. You can then use this word if someone is getting pulled on, or when you need to stop them in order to discuss group dynamics issues.
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#6 : LIFT-OFF

 Teamwork Skills: verbal communication, listening, cooperation, patience, taking on
roles In order to propel the team into the outer limits of space, they will need to achieve lift-off. Test runs can occur between two group members, but the final goal is to launch all of the “crewmembers” into space via the group lift-off. In order to practice this, have students pair off with someone who is relatively close to their size. Have the students sit back to back, with their legs out in front (knees bent with feet on the floor). They will also need to link by locking arms at the elbow. Once the students are in this position, they will need to move from this position to a standing position using good communication skills and cooperation (they need to remain back to back and linked during the process). If they can stand up, they have achieved lift-off. After the students have practiced in pairs, have them try for group lift-off. Have the students get into the same sitting position they were in when they attempted this with only one other person. However, now they need to lock elbows with the two people on either side of them. This may mean that not everyone will have the same flat surface of someone else’s back to push off of – this is okay. Instead, they must achieve a balance of force between all members of the group so that they can push themselves up into lift-off. Have them try this activity in differing group sizes, and then discuss what size was easiest, hardest, and why. This is an excellent way to discuss group dynamics.

#7 : PROBE LEVITATION

 Teamwork Skills: verbal communication, listening, cooperation, patience, taking on
roles Materials: A tent pole
(Do not substitute another type of pole for the tent pole. It is important to use a lightweight pole in this exercise – a heavier pole will not function properly for the goal of this exercise)

Astronauts are not only physically fit and healthy, but they are also capable of performing tasks that require control and a gentle touch. This challenge tests the teams’ ability to put mind over matter, and to put the powers of concentration and teamwork to the test. The Scenario: The team is transporting a delicate instrument to the space ship. They have done a wonderful job thus far, but the most difficult part of transporting this particular piece of equipment is setting it down. They must work as a team to gently place the equipment into a secure container on the floor (the container is imaginary unless you have something that will work as a container). The Directions: Use a tent pole as the instrument that the students must set down. This is important for posing the challenge. Tent poles are very light, so they work well for this. Have the students split into two lines that are facing one another and hold only their index fingers pointing straight out. Students should line their fingers up in an alternating pattern (like a zipper). Lay the rod on top of their fingers and let them begin the challenge of trying to set the rod down. This sounds very easy, but it is not. The more people involved, the harder the process, so feel free to have mentors and others involved in this activity.

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#8 : SPACE WALK

 Teamwork

Skills: verbal communication, listening, cooperation, patience, time management, decision-making, taking on roles

Materials: Four pieces of corrugated cardboard measuring 1’ x 1’ (Special gravity walking space plates), two blindfolds, and a clear space on the ground of about 10 feet by 10 feet. Astronauts face challenges during their time in space that we cannot even imagine here on Earth. Simple travel, such as walking, becomes an interesting experience. For example, Mars has only 1/3 the force of gravity of that of the Earth, so walking on Mars is much different than on Earth. Some planets have even less gravitational pull. The Scenario: NASA has developed special gravity walking plates to assist astronauts in walking on planets where there is a low gravitational pull. Unfortunately, the plates must have human contact to be activated, and the people using them cannot let go of the plates while using them, or they become deactivated. Once deactivated, a plate cannot be reactivated. This is a design flaw that is currently being worked on. The team has been asked to test the gravity walking plates for an emergency mission to Mars, which has a low gravitational force field. An additional task has been added in order to test your crews’ teamwork ability. If you have 6 team members, two of your team members will be blindfolded. If you have only 4-5 team members, only one member will be blindfolded. The Directions: To test the plates, the entire team must use the plates to walk on the surface of Mars for a total distance of 10 feet. Place markers on the ground so that the students can see the space they need to cross. Choose the member(s) that will be blindfolded. Now they are ready to put the plates to work. Remember, they cannot let go of the plates at any time or the plates will not work. They can be holding a plate, standing on one, or just touching one in order to maintain this human contact and keep the plate active. However, note they cannot step anywhere on the ground off of the plates at any time, or they will be subjected to Mars’ true gravitational force, and thus fail the mission. More than one student can be standing on / touching / holding a plate at the same time. During the crossing process, if the students fail to keep contact with a plate, even for a second, confiscate the deactivated plate. The goal is to get all of team members across the area, and to hold onto as many plates as they can. Below is a drawing to help you visualize the process. Discuss the teamwork involved to complete this activity.

X O O O X X = Blindfolded Student O
O = Student

10 ft across

Students need to cross to here on the plates – they can pass plates from person to person, and have more than one student on the same plate at the same time

Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition * 16

Student Version

Building a Working Team
Before you begin with the activities in this book, ask your teacher to show you how to build a working team.
(your teacher has this activity in the Teacher’s Edition of the Student Activity Book )

One of the biggest challenges that you will face in designing and constructing your Mars Rover is working together as a team. It is really fun to be a part of a team, but it takes a lot of work to be part of a strong team. Different people have different ideas about how to accomplish the same goal. This is normal. There are so many different ways to build a rover or to make a poster and to do it well. Developing your ideas together is definitely going to be a challenge, but the 4 C’s will help guide you along the way. You are guaranteed to have loads of fun in the Mars Rover Competition if you can master the 4 C’s.



Can you figure out the 4 C’s?



Here is one to get you started. Ask your teacher for the 4 C’s after you have thought of all the ones that you can. Coope ration

?

?

_________ _________ _________

Here’s a Challenge

?

?

?

You can probably think of more words than just four. First, see how many “C” words that you can think of that are important for good teamwork. Write them in the space below. Now think of any other non-“C” words that might help you to reach your goal of being a good team and write them below. Finally, after you have all written all the words that you can think of, sign your names to the bottom of the page. This is an agreement to try to fol low these ideas when you are working on your Rover. You can cut this out and glue it into your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook as a reminder. Remember to leave the first page of your notebook blank, however - this is where your timeline will go!

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NS.5-8.5 Science and Tec hnology NS.5-8.7 History and Natur e of Science

The Spaghetti Incident
Adapted from a lesson entitled “Lesson Plan 2: Developing Successful Teamwork Skills” at the LessonPlansPage.com - www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceSS Mars2DevTeamwork Skills56.htm

Introduction & Purpose
This activity will demonstrate how well your students work together as a team, especially in terms of communication. The students will work as a team to build as tall a tower as possible with only the materials listed below, without speaking to each other. This exercise will demonstrate to your students that good communication is essential in order to function together as a team successfully. They should also realize that they could work more efficiently if team members each take on a separate role (although these roles certainly do not need to be permanent). This activity can be repeated several times, so students have the opportunity to improve upon their tower height and their teamwork skills.

Objective:

Students will work as a team, but without speaking, to build the tallest possible tower out of a limited supply of common materials. Students will discuss the importance of communication within a team and analyze their strengths and weaknesses as a team.

Materials Needed:
12 pieces of dry spaghetti noodles (have a few extra in case some break) 6 gumdrops Small bag of miniature marshmallows A meter stick A pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
Complete directions for this activity are included in the student copy of the Activity Book. Before allowing your team to begin tower construction, have them read over the directions. Do not allow them to discuss any aspects of how they will build the tower. Remember that the students cannot talk while building the spaghetti / gumdrop / marshmallow tower. Warn them that each time someone breaks the no -talking rule, you will confiscate one of their gumdrops. Set a time limit for tower construction – most often, ten minutes is sufficient. Once everyone understands the rules, let them begin to build. Make sure to start timing the event once the students start to build. Once time is up, have the students measure the height of their tower and record it in their Lab Notebook. Now lead the team in a group discussion about how they went about building their tower. Ask questions such as, “What was most difficult about building the tower?”, “What impact did not being able to speak have on your success?”, “Did all team members participate equally?” and “Did everyone do the same sort of thing?” Try to direct the group discussion toward recognizing non-verbal communication skills, and assignment of
Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition * 18

members to specific tasks, or “roles.” Have the students write some ideas about how they built their tower, especially in terms of teamwork skills, in their Idaho TECH Lab Notebook. After the students have recorded their ideas, lead another discussion about how they could have worked as a team more effectively. “What could your team have done differently?” and “How do you think these different ideas would have effected the height of the tower?” Have them write some ideas regarding these questions in their Idaho TECH Lab Notebook as well.

Hints / Suggestions:

You can allow students to break up the spaghetti, gumdrops, or marshmallows to enable the team to have more building pieces. Remember, there is NO TALKING during the ENTIRE building section of the activity -- if this rule is not followed, take away one entire gumdrop each time a student speaks.

This activity can be repeated a few times during the year. If you complete this activity again, make sure to have the students review their notes about how they built their tower the time before, and what they thought they could do better after they built it. Challenge them to work together even more efficiently than the last time, and to break their previous tower height record.

Student Version

The Spaghetti Incident
Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition * 19

Adapted from a lesson entitled “Lesson Plan 2: Developing Successful Teamwork Skills” at the LessonPlansPage.com located at www.lessonplanspage.com/Scienc eSSMars2DevTeamwork Sk ills56.htm

Why should your team do this activity?
No matter how good each individual on your team might be at building a Rover, working together as a team will greatly improve your success at the Design Competition. It takes a long time to learn how to work well together as a team, so the more practice you get, the better your team will be! This activity will help your team practice working together.

The Necessities:
A timer or watch with a second hand 12 pieces of dry spaghetti noodles (plus a few extras in case some break) 6 gumdrops Small bag of miniature marshmallows Meterstick A pen or pencil Your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
(1) Your team will try to build the tallest tower possible with only the materials listed above in ten minutes. Your team can use as many marshmallows as you wish, but only 12 pieces of spaghetti and 6 gumdrops. Here are the rules: each team member of your team has to participate and you cannot talk to each other at all. If you talk, your teacher will take away one of your gumdrops, so watch out! (2) Build away! Make sure someone keeps track of time if the teacher is not doing this for your team. (3) Once ten minutes is up, measure how tall your tower is, and record this height in your Lab Notebook. Also, write a few notes in your Notebook about how your team went about constructing your tower. Think about how you could have worked together as a team better. What would you do differently next time? (4) Clean up your tower and eat the gumdrops!

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NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry NS.5-8.7 Histor y and Natur e of Science

Copy Cat
Adapted from the Putnam Northern Westchester BOCES Outdoor Education Program’s Challenge Course

Introduction & Purpose
This activity focuses on the role of communication in working as a team. We all know how difficult it is to communicate clear and concise directions to another person. The person who is listening to the directions often needs to ask questions to clarify a point. Other times, long after you have completed giving the directions, you think of a forgotten detail or may discover a better way to explain a component of the directions. This activity will provide your team practice in giving clear, concise directions, listening carefully, and asking directive questions while receiving directions.

Objective:

Students will instruct each other on how to arrange a variety of paper cut-out shapes into an original design. Students will also practice listening and asking questions about the given instructions.

Materials Needed:
1 set of Copy Cat Shapes for each team member (6 sets are included in the student workbook) A few pairs of scissors, ideally one pair for each student Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
The students do not have information about this activity in their booklet, other than the Copy Cat Shapes and an example of a design, so you will need to provide directions for this exercise. First, have the students cut the shapes out. Make sure they understand that each student should keep his/her shapes separate from other students’ shapes (each student should have a complete set of shapes – do not mix sets!). Have the students pair off and sit back to back with a table/desk in front of each of them. Have each pair decide who will be the “Builder” and who will be the “Explainer” for the first part of the round. Each student will have a chance to play both roles. You may want to set a time limit for each puzzle (there will be a total of four) -- five minutes per puzzle construction has been found to be sufficient for this activity. Once the pairs begin Round 1 of this exercise, walk around and listen to the directions being given, and use what you hear as examples of clear communication and poor communication.

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Round 1: One-Way Communication Have the “Explainer” arrange their set of shapes into a single design of some sort, using every shape in their design. The design must be built so that each piece is touching another piece, but none of the pieces should be overlapping (refer to the example provided in the Student Activity Book). The “Explainer” must then explain to the “Builder” how to build the design with their set of shapes without looking at each other (No peeking! ). The “Builder” must construct what they hear described without speaking or asking questions. Once the allotted time has passed (e.g., five minutes), the partners can compare designs to see how close the “Builder” came to replicating the “Explainer’s” design. For the second part of the round, have the members of each pair switch roles while still remaining back to back. Have the “Explainer” arrange the shapes into a new design, then have the “Explainer” explain how to build the design to the “Builder.” After the allotted time has passed, again allow the partners to compare designs. Debriefing Once round one is completed, you will want to start a discussion with your students about clear and concise communication. How can one person assure that what they are saying makes sense to the other person? Other questions to ask include “Did you have good success in building what the Explainers described? Why or why not?,” “What was difficult in the process?,” and “How could it have been easier?” Most often, students will state that not being able to talk or ask questions was the most difficult component of the process, and that asking questions would have made it much easier. Round 2: Two-Way Communication In round two, have each pair from round one change roles again, still sitting back to back. Together, each pair must try to improve their results from round one. Have the “Explainer” build a new design to explain to the “Builder.” This time, however, the “Builder” is allowed to speak and ask questions (but there is still no peeking allowed!). Once the allotted time has passed (five minutes), partners should compare results. Then, have the partners switch roles for a last time, and complete the exercise again, comparing their results after time has expired. Debriefing After round two, bring the group back together and ask them if they had better success using two-way communication. Were they able to complete the design? Why or why not? Did two-way communication provide better accuracy between designs, but slow down the process? Most often, once questions and answers enter the exercise, the students are not able to complete the design entirely, but what they do complete contains higher accuracy than the one-way communication design process. What makes a good Explainer? Answers might include slow, specific, and clear instructions. What makes a good Builder? Answers might include good listening skills, asking good questions, and patience. These are all qualities that are necessary to work together towards the end result of producing a Mars Rover. Have the students record their thoughts and answers in their Lab Notebook.
Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition * 22

? ? ?

Now, if you challenge……

would

like

a

real

Round 3: Team Communication For the third round, select (or have the team select) one student to be the “Exp lainer,” and have the rest of the team act as the “Builders.” Arrange the “Explainer” and “Builders” as stated in previous rounds, with the “Builders” using only ONE complete set of shapes. Depending on how much time you have available and what your team needs to practice the most, you can either start with one-way communication (builders cannot speak or ask questions) or skip to two-way communication (builders may speak and ask questions). Have the “Explainer” create a design, and then follow the proced ures outlined in round one and two to complete round three. A suggested time limit for this round is ten minutes. Once the allotted time has passed, let the team compare the designs. If you wish, you may allow all team members to act as the “Explainer,” or complete the round only once or twice. Debriefing After round three, ask the group what they learned after completing all of the rounds. Was it more difficult to have several builders (Round 3), or more difficult to have only one builder (Rounds 1 and 2)? Why or why not? How did the building group deal with having several ideas at one time? Did anyone in the building group fall into a leadership role? Did builders take turns being leaders, or did only one person play that role? How well did the b uilding group communicate with each other? Listen to each other? Did it take longer to build this design than it did with only one builder? Why or why not? Was the design constructed by the building group more accurate than the design made by a single builder? Why or why not? Often, it is found that differences in individuals create problems in teams, especially in respect to communication. Have the team recognize that effective communication is essential to the teamwork process if they want to succeed in the Mars Rover Challenge. Have them record their thoughts and ideas in their Lab Notebook.

Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition * 23

Student Version

Copy Cat
Adapted from the Putnam Northern Westchester BOCES Outdoor Education Program’s Challenge Course

Why should your team do this activity?
This activity is another great way to improve your team’s communication skills. Not only will you have to work together while designing and constructing your Rover, but you will also have to work together during the Design Competitions. Many times, teams lose their ability to communicate well while under pressure (like during the Competition). By completing this activity, each member of your team will have a chance to practice and improve his or her skills for giving specific directions, listening, and asking questions. These skills will undoubtedly help your work together as a unit, both before the Design Competition and during the Competition.

The Necessities:
A few pairs of scissors One set of Copy Cat Shapes for each team member (see page 25) Pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
Your teacher will explain to you how to complete this activity. Have Fun!

Example Design

Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition * 24

One Set - Copy Cat Shapes

Student Version

Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition * 25

NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry NS.5-8.7 Histor y and Natur e of Science

Parts of the Whole: Developing a Sense of Team Skills
The brainteasers are in the Student Workbook. If you do not want them to cut the puzzle pieces out of the book, you may want to make a copy for them to use.

Introduction & Purpose
The teambuilding activities up to this point have been a wonderful way to help build team spirit and to have students practice and discuss behaviors that are conducive to working together. The activities may also bring certain individual strengths to the surface. An example of this would be a student who automatically assumes the role of the guide in each initiative during the “Building a Working Team” exercise. The following activities are designed to bring these strengths and weaknesses to light even more, and to have students think about the roles they enjoy being responsible for in a group. There are a series of brainteasers that students will work through as a group to assist with bringing these strengths, weaknesses and roles to the forefront.

Objective:

To expose students to the multiple skill sets beneficial to working as a cooperative team unit. Students will assume specific roles that are essential when problem solving in a group setting, and will rotate through the roles using various practical brainteaser problems as the foundation for working together in their specific roles.

Materials Needed:
12 wooden matches or sticks the length of wooden matches A pair of scissors 6 pencils (not sharpened) 8 pennies Pen/pencil for writing, scratch paper Role question sheet (included in Student Activity Book) Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
Assist the group with choosing a beginning role for each team member. Also devise a system for alternating roles as the group moves through the various puzzles (the students may wish to devise the plan, but make sure you are aware of it). If they are struggling to solve a puzzle, you may want to give them a slight nudge in the right direction. If they are totally stumped, have them move on to another puzzle and come back to the puzzle that they are stuck on later. When they revisit this puzzle, have them assume the same roles, or assume different roles if they feel they need to in order to solve the puzzle on the second attempt. After the group completes a puzzle, have the students answer the questions on the role question sheet for the role they just completed. After each student has had the opportunity to participate in all four roles, have the students discuss their answers as a group. What role(s) worked best for each student? How did student strengths and weaknesses become involved when the students were required to take on specific roles?

Idaho TECH 2008 * Teacher Edition *

Role Question Sheet

Name:

Answer the questions about each role immediately after you have completed that role. After everyone has completed all of the roles, discuss your answers as a group. (6 copies of this ans wer sheet are loc ated
in the Student Activity Book )

Guide
1. Can you name some important qualities of the person responsible for leading the group?

2. Did you like being the guide?

Organizer
1. Why do you think it is important to have someone writing down the ideas that were discussed?

2. What are some important qualities of a recorder / organizer?

Brainstormer
1. Did you find it easy to come up with ideas?

2. What was the most difficult thing about being the brainstormer?

Builder
1. Was it easy to follow the other team members’ instructions?

2. Did you like being the builder? Why or why not?

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *27

Answers to the Puzzles

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *28

Student Version

Parts of the Whole: Developing a Sense of Team Skills
Why should your team do this activity?
Working as a team and being aware of the different roles that individuals play on a team is one of the most important parts of solving a problem as a group. Sometimes it seems much easier to take control and to work out the problem without the help of others, but working as a team can be very rewarding. There are many ideas that team members have that you may not be able to discover on your own. As people work together as a team, they begin to discover that some of the team members are good at more than one role (what that person is supposed to do for the team), while others seem much stronger at one role over another. Discovering which role each member of the team will be best at is an important step in helping the team to work well together.

The Necessities:
12 wooden matches or sticks the length of wooden matches A pair of scissors 6 pencils (not sharpened) 8 pennies Pen/pencil for writing, scratch paper Role Question Sheet (see page 27) Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:

As a team, try the brain-teasers on the next three pages. For each puzzle, have individual team members select a different role each time until everyone has had a chance to participate in every role at least once. Your team can decide how to change roles each time, as long as you do it in a fair fashion. After you complete each puzzle, each team member should answer the questions (located before the puzzles in your Activity Book) for their role. There is a question sheet included for each team member. After each team member has had a chance to be in each role at least once, discuss your answers as a group. Write overall comments of the group in your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook.



Remember….it can feel frustrating to be in a role that does not fit with your skills or personality, but it is important that you try each role in order to discover what each member of your team, including yourself, will be good at.



Go to the next page to find out about your roles!

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *29

Student Version

Role Descriptions
Guide: The guide leads the group in solving the problem.
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Read the problem to the whole group Listen to all the members of the group Ask questions about their suggestions Make the decision about what needs to be done to solve the problem, using the team’s input (the guide can have a group vote to decide on the solution or can make the final call of what solution will be attempted first)

Organizer: The organizer is responsible for organizing all of the ideas and
solutions that come about in the problem solving process. ♦ Keep notes of ideas or suggestions in the Lab Notebook ♦ Keep notes of the process in the Lab Notebook: What did the group try first? Second? What is working? What isn’t working?

Brainstormers (1-2 people) : The brainstormers are the idea people.
♦ Think of suggestions for solving the problem ♦ Ask others in the group to contribute their ideas when the “brainstormers” have run out of ideas



Don’t worry if you are stumped. Remember that you have a whole group of minds. Do not be afraid to ask the other group members what they think. Usually all people in a group are responsible for giving ideas.



Builder (1-2 people): The designers / builders will be the hands-on people.
♦ Listen carefully to team members and try to recreate what they are communicating to you ♦ Move the parts of the puzzle to solve it



The individuals who are in the designer / builder role should be the only people who are touching the puzzle pieces.



Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *30

Student Version

PUZZLE # 1:

THREE SQUARES

Set up instructions: Take twelve matches and arrange them into a grid shown below. The Challenge: Move only three matches so that you get exactly three perfect squares. You can pick matches up off the table.

PUZZLE # 2:

CORRECT EQUATION

Set up instructions: Arrange the matches into the equation that is shown below. The Challenge: Move three matches to new positions to get a correct equation. This puzzle can be solved in two different ways. (Note: In Roman Numerals this says 7=1. However, one of the answers to this equation will be in all numbers, while the other answer will be in Roman Numerals.)

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *31

Student Version

PUZZLE # 3: THE “M” PUZZLE
Set up instructions: Cut out the pieces below in order to complete this puzzle. The Challenge: The objective is to make the shapes into a symmetric letter “M” for Mars. You are allowed to rotate the pieces as you wish and even turn them over, but they must not overlap each other in the final configuration.

PUZZLE # 4:

THE SIX PENCILS

Set up instructions: Gather 6 pencils. It is as easy as that. Challenge: It is possible to place six pencils on the table in such a way that every pencil touches two other pencils, as shown below. Your challenge is to figure out a way to place the pencils so that each pencil touches all five of the other pencils.

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *32

Student Version

PUZZLE # 5:

FOUR STACKS

Set up instructions: Place eight pennies in a row as shown below. Challenge: The objective is to make four stacks of 2 coins each with only four moves. Every move consists of jumping a coin over two coins (either coins in a stack or over a single coin) in one direction and ending up on a coin after the jump (note that spaces don’t count as a coin).

PUZZLE # 6:

ADD IT UP

Set up instructions: Cut out the numbers below. The Challenge: Place the numbers in the same formation grid that they were arranged in before you cut them out. Then, rearrange the numbers so that all the rows in every direction (vertical, horizontal and diagonal) add up to 15.

1 4 7

2 5 8

3 6 9

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *33

NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry NS.5-8.5 Science and Tec hnology NS.5-8.7 Histor y and Natur e of Science

3-2-1 Pop! - An Effervescent Race
Adapted from NASA ’s “Rock ets: A Teacher’s Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Tec hnology”

Introduction & Purpose
Many Idaho TECH teams in the past have lost points during the Preliminary Design Competition in the Lab Notebook / Budget event, which is 20% of the overall composite score. The only event worth more in competition is the Rover Presentation & Display (25% of the overall composite score). A complete description of the requirements and scoring for each event will be included in the Competition Manual that will arrive with the Lego  kits in late January. Before kits arrive, it is important that the students have a working knowledge of how to keep this Lab Notebook, and how to approach this project using the Engineering Design Process. This activity is designed to introduce your team to the Engineering Design Process and the elements of a good lab notebook in order to improve their science skills and performance at the Preliminary Design Competition. You can also use this activity to reinforce the idea of assigning roles to team members. The following is a description of the Engineering Design Process for the Idaho TECH program.

Objective:

Students will research the effects of surface area and temperature on the efficiency of rocket fuels. Students will follow the Engineering Design Process while constructing a series of rocket designs, and will record the steps of the Engineering Design Process in their Idaho TECH Lab Notebook.

Materials Needed:
Timer or a watch with a second hand 4 Alka-Seltzer or other effervescent tablets Tweezers 2 beakers Warm and cold water Thermometer 35mm film canisters with internal sealing lids (usually the clear canisters) - these can typically be obtained from a film developing shop, which recycles these containers Construction paper Tape Scissors Paper towels Pens or pencils Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *34

Engineering Design Process:
Idaho TECH teams are responsible for observing the Engineering Design Process during the creation of their Rover. This process must be reflected in the Display and Presentation created by each team and in the required Lab Notebook maintained by each team, which will be evaluated at the Preliminary Design Competition. The six steps of the Engineering Design Process are detailed in the student instructions for this activity.

Procedure:
The Student Activity Book contains all the directions for this activity. Your role will be to provide guidance, supervision, and act as a resource for the students. The students will compare the reaction rates of effervescent antacid tablets under varying conditions of surface area and temperature in a rocket design.

A Word About Safety:
Be VERY CAREFUL with these rockets. Depending on how much water and antacid is placed into the canister, these rockets can take off with impressive acceleration. Make sure your students observe the following procedures during this activity:  To stand several feet back from the rocket before take off  To alert everyone in the room about the launch before allowing the rocket to take off  To NOT use more than ONE whole antacid tablet per canister In the first part of this activity, the students will investigate the effects of surface area and temperature on rocket fuels (i.e., the water and antacid tablets). In the second part of the activity, the students will use the information gathered to ascertain the efficiency of homemade rockets. Their homemade rocket’s base will be made of a film canister with a construction paper nose and fins attached. To make the rocket lift off, a small amount of water (maybe 1/3 full) and part of an antacid tablet (no more than one whole tablet) is placed in the canister, and the lid is quickly snapped into place. The pressure created by the carbon dioxide released from the tablet will make the canister lift off in a matter of seconds (depending on how much water, tablet, temperature, etc.). The students have specific directions in their Activity Book for how they should design their rockets following the Engineering Design Process. Be sure the students take good notes about each step in their Lab Notebook. This is the process they will need to fo llow when designing their Rover, and the notes taken in this activity reflect how notes should be taken in their Lab Notebook when designing their Mars Rover. If they need ideas during brainstorming, help them get started, but do not give them too many ideas. They should have a few ideas from conducting the research on how surface area and temperature affect the rocket “fuel.” Other ideas include:  How does the amount of water placed in the canister affect how high the rocket flies?  How does the amount of the antacid tablet used affect how high the rocket flies? (Remember – do NOT use more than ONE per canister!)  How does the length or empty weight of the rocket affect how high it flies?  How do the number, shape, and orientation of fins affect how the rocket flies?

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *35

Debriefing Once your students have completed their design, be sure they present their final product in their Lab Notebook to you. You might want to give them some suggestions about how they can improve their Lab Notebook for the future (i.e., Rover Engineering Design Process). Be sure to give them lots of positive feedback and support! If your team is willing, have them give a verbal presentation to you or the class as well (this is a component of the Preliminary Design Competition). Presenting their rocket design is great practice for the real thing! Also, lead the team in a discussion about the Engineering Design Process a nd the Lab Notebook in general. Start by asking if they have any questions about either topic. Then have them consider how much time it took to complete each step in the Design Process. Which steps took the longest? The same steps will probably take the most time when building the Rover as well, so they should remember this when planning for their Rover Engineering Design Process. Which steps were the most and least difficult? Does every team member agree, or did some people find one step difficult, w hile other people found that step easy? This is another consideration for the team’s future Rover construction. Did everyone do all steps? Why or why not? Did some team members naturally fall into certain roles? If so, how does the rest of the team feel about this? Continue to lead the discussion until you think you have touched upon everything that could be helpful for the students to think about in terms of their Rover Engineering Design Process and Lab Notebook. This activity should serve as a ver y useful learning experience for your team, and great preparation for the Presentation and Lab Notebook components of Idaho TECH.

Idaho TECH 2008* Teacher Edition *36

Student Version

3-2-1 Pop! – An Effervescent Race
Adapted from NASA ’s “Rock ets: A Teacher’s Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics , and Technology”

Why should your team do this activity?
A large part of the Mars Rover Competition, and science in general, is keeping a good lab notebook. A good lab notebook is a daily, detailed account of the design process that many scientists use i n their work. If a scientist does not keep a good lab notebook, and one day makes a grand discovery, it is quite possible that the scientist will not fully understand exactly what happened. If the scientist kept really detailed, frequent records during his or her work, then a great discovery is more likely to be well understood. Your Engineering Team will want to keep good records of your Design Process too, because then you will be able to learn which designs worked and which did not, etc.

Engineering Design Process
What exactly is the Design Process, you ask? Well, the Design Process consists of the following steps: identify the problems, set the goals, brainstorm design ideas, select and construct a design, test and revise the model, and finally, present the final product. Let’s go into a little detail about these steps: (1) Identify the problems You team will need to develop general statements or questions that will spell out what you need to do, and what you have to do it with. For example, a questio n could be “How can we design a rocket from the given materials that can fly really high?” (2) Set the goals After you have a general idea about what your team needs to do, you will then need to break the general idea up into more specific tasks, or goals. Goals should be as specific as possible, and should address the general problems initially identified. For example, one goal could be “Our rocket will be able to fly as high as the ceiling.” (3) Brainstorm design ideas The key to brainstorming is to remember that there are no bad ideas! Each idea, no matter how off-the-wall it seems, should be recorded during the brainstorming session. Try to be creative -- the more ideas generated, the more likely it is that a successful design will result! Ask your teacher for a jump start if you need help to get going. (4) Select and construct a design After the brainstorming phase, the team will need to decide which ideas it likes best, and then construct prototypes (original design) that turn these ideas into actual creations! (5) Test and revise the model After initial prototypes have been constructed, your team will need to thoroughly test them in order to see both their strengths and weaknesses. If something doesn’t work the way you thought it would, you may want to look at that problem more closely, and set goals to tackle it. For example, you could ask items such as “How high does it fly?” and “Does it fly in a straight line?”, and if it does not – you can look at ways of changing your design so it will. Make sure to keep using those brainstorming skills!

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(6) Present the final product! When your team believes it has a final product ready to go, it is time to present this product to the rest of the class and your teacher! Make sure your team includes all of the details of design and construction in your Notebook so that anyone else will be able to build the exact same rocket. You may want to draw a picture of your rocket, or even complete a verbal presentation about your rocket and how you designed it! Okay…..so now we know about the process of doing great engineering work, so now what? This activity will walk you through the steps of the Design Process and the components of a good lab notebook, while you test how several factors affect the flight of a rocket. But before you start making rockets, you will need to read some background information about an excellent scientist named Sir Issac Newton (he probably had a great lab notebook too!): In a book published in 1687, Sir Issac Newton stated three important principles that govern the motion of all objects. These principles are now known as Newton's Laws of Motion. Newton's Laws state:  Law 1: Objects at rest will stay at rest and objects in motion will stay in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force  Law 2: Force is equal to mass multiplied by acceleration (F=ma)  Law 3: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction These principles are demonstrated when a rocket lifts off. To begin with, a rocket at rest is able to lift off because it is acted upon by an unbalanced force (First Law). This force is produced by the thrust of the engines. The rocket then travels upward with a force that is equal and opposite to the downward force of the engines (Third Law). The amount of force is directly proportional to the mass of fuel expelled from the rocket and how fast it accelerates (Second Law). Now it is time to conduct some research about your rocket’s “fuel.” Your rocket’s base will be made of a film canister with a construction paper nose and fins attached. To make your rocket lift off, you will put some water and part of an antacid tablet in the canister, and then quickly put the lid on. Then just set it on a table and watch it go (make sure to stand back so you don’t get hit by the flying rocket)! So exactly what is your “fuel?” The reaction that occurs between the water and antacid tablet acts as the rocket propellant, so the water and antacid tablet are your “fuel.” Take a minute to read the following background information about rocket propellants: As rocket propellants burn faster, the mass of the expelled gases increases. Also, the speed of the exhaust gases increases as they accelerate out of the rocket nozzle. Newton's Second Law of Motion states that the force or action of a rocket engine is equal to the mass expelled multiplied by its acceleration. Therefore, increasing the efficiency of rocket fuels also increases the performance of the rocket. One method for increasing the efficiency of rocket fuels involves surface area. Expanding the burning surface increases the burning rate. This increases the amount of gas and acceleration of the gas as it leaves the rocket engine. In a liquid propellant rocket, liquid propellants spray into a combustion chamber to maximize their surface area. Smaller droplets react more quickly than do larger ones, increasing the acceleration of the escaping gases. How can you alter the surface area of your water/antacid tablet “fuel?”

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Another method for increasing the efficiency of rocket fuels involves temperature. In liquid propellant rocket engines, super cold fuel, such as liquid hydrogen, is preheated before being combined with liquid oxygen. This increases the reaction rate and thereby increases the rocket's thrust. How do you think this applies to your rocket’s “fuel?” Now your team is ready to follow the directions below for Propellant Research. The results of this experiment will help you design your rockets. Once you are satisfied with your Propellant Research results, continue with the directions for the Design Process. Have fun, and make sure to keep a great Lab Notebook!

The Necessities:
A timer or watch with a second hand 4 Alka-Seltzer or other effervescent tablets Tweezers 2 beakers Warm and cold water Thermometer 35mm film canisters with internal sealing lids (usually the clear canisters) - these can typically be obtained from a film developing shop, which recycles these containers Construction paper Tape Scissors Paper towels Pens or pencils Your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions for Propellant Research:
(1) Using construction paper, tape, and scissors, design a rocket by wrapping the paper around the outside of a film canister. The lidded end of the canister should provide the base for the rocket (it should face down). Try to create rockets of varying lengths and make sure to include a cone-shaped nose and fins on each rocket. (2) Turn the rocket upside down and fill the canister 1/3 full of water. (3) Drop in half an antacid tablet and quickly snap the lid on tight. (4) Quickly stand the rocket on its base (lid down) on the floor or tabletop and stand back! Your rocket should launch in a matter of seconds! (5) Your team should then conduct further launches to help you answer the following questions:

 How does the amount of water placed in the canister affect how high the
rocket will fly?

 How does the temperature of the rocket affect how high it will fly?  How does the amount and surface area of the antacid tablet used affect
how high the rocket will fly?

 How does the length or empty weight of the rocket affect how high it will fly?

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Directions for Design Process:
(1) At the top of a page in your Lab Notebook, write the date. On the next line, write the names of the team members present. On the following line, write “3-2-1 Pop! – An Effervescent Race Activity.” Now, you are ready to get started with the first step in the Design Process - identifying the problems. Your questions should be general to begin with, and as you test and revise your designs, they will probably become more specific. A good question to start with might be “How can we design a rocket out of the given materials that can fly really high?” Write your questions in your Notebook, under the heading “Step 1: Identify the Problems.” (2) The second step in the Design Process is setting the goals, so you will need to make another heading called “Step 2: Set the Goals” in your Lab Notebook. Under this heading, make a goal for each problem identified. Try to be as specific as possible. For example, a goal for the question in number one above could be “Our rocket will be able to fly as high as the ceiling.” (3) The third step in the Process is brainstorming design ideas. What do you think you can do in the design of your rocket that would make it fly really high? Make a list of your ideas in your Lab Notebook under a heading called “Step 3: Brainstorm Design Ideas.” You will need to brainstorm design ideas for each goal you create. If you’re having trouble thinki ng of ideas, ask your teacher to help you get started. (4) Now for the fun part!! The next step is to select and construct a design. Pick one of the designs you listed in your Notebook. Choose one member of your team to construct and test the design -- don’t worry, everyone will get a turn! You will also need to select one team member who will take notes in the Lab Notebook about the chosen design. (5) Using construction paper, tape and scissors, construct a rocket by wrapping the paper around the outside of a film canister. The lidded end of the canister should provide the base (bottom) of the rocket. Don’t forget to include a coneshaped nose and some fins on your rocket. Remember to follow the design idea that you chose from your list in the Lab Notebook! (6) The team member who is taking notes should write down exactly how the rocket is being constructed. Write these under a heading called “Step 4: Select and Construct a Design.” How long is the nose? What do the fins look like? Maybe drawing a picture would help. Remember to write neatly, so that anyone else on your team can understand exactly how to build another rocket identical to the one being built. (7) Once the rocket has been built, it is time for the really fun part! Make another heading in your Lab Notebook called “Step 5: Test and Revise the Model.” The rocket builder will test the rocket in Step 8, and the note-taker will take careful notes about how the rocket performs. How high does it fly? Does it fly in a straight line? Make sure to take good notes about the rocket launch!

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(8) Now it is time to launch your rocket! Remember to have the note-taker take careful notes on this next part, too. How much of each ingredient is used? Does it fly straight? Remember to follow your design idea. The team member who built the rocket can now turn the rocket upside down, place some water and a piece of (or whole) antacid tablet into the film canister, and quickly snap the lid on tight (do NOT use more than one antacid tablet in your launch!). Then, quickly stand the rocket on its base (the lid side should be sitting on the floor or on a table) and make sure the whole team stands back to watch the launch! (9) Wow – you launched! Did it go as you had planned? I bet you wish you could change a few things so it will be even better, right? That means it is time to revise your model. This process of testing and revising will probably take place many times before you reach your final goal. Think about your design and how it can be improved in order to reach your goal. Make another list in your notebook of the new ideas that you brainstorm under a heading called “ Model #2.” Continue repeating the process (take turns building and testing your rockets and taking notes in your Lab Notebook so it is fair to everyone on your team) until you have reached your final goal. Your team might encounter new problems needing to be addressed. If you want, you can try to design a rocket that addresses those problems as well. (10) Once the team feels that you have designed a rocket or rockets that accomplish your goals, it is time to present your final product! Make a heading in your Lab Notebook called “Step 6: Present the Final Product.” Under this heading, draw (as neatly as you can) a diagram of your final rocket design. Include ALL of the details so that anyone who might pick up your Notebook can build the exact same rocket. You might even want to include a picture of your team with your creation! Be sure to share this part of your Notebook with your teacher so he/she can see how you followed the Engineering Design Process in order to create your final design. You might want to even practice giving a verbal presentation about your rocket to your teacher, since your team will also have to present about your Rover at the Idaho TECH Preliminary Design Competition!

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NS.5-8.5 Science and Tec hnology NS.5-8.7 Histor y and Natur e of Science

Earthling Exploration of Mars
Adapted from Thursday’s Classroom Activity “Red Planet Time Line” – located on the web at www.thursdaysclassroom.com/20jul01/teachtimeline.html

Introduction & Purpose
This activity will not only introduce your students to the historical exploration of Mars, but it will also teach them how to make timelines and set goals! Creation of a timeline is a required activity for each team in Idaho TECH because it is important for teams to think about what designing and constructing a Rover for competition entails early on in the process. Often, teams wait until the last minute to start testing designs, or underestimate the amount of time it takes to complete one of the tasks of the program. If the team understands early on the level of involvement necessary for the Idaho TECH program, perhaps these and similar situations can be avoided, thus allowing the team the best opportunity to achieve success.

Objective:

Students will read an article about the past exploration of Mars and construct a timeline with information from the article. Students will then develop goals and construct a timeline for the design, construction, and presentation of their Rover.

Materials Needed:
“The Earthli ngs Are Coming” story (in the Student Activity Book) Idaho TECH Lab Notebook A ruler, pencils, and some scratch paper Optional: poster-sized paper or posterboard and art supplies (like paints, markers, construction paper, etc.)

Procedure:
There are detailed instructions for this activity in the Student Activity Book. Your role during this activity is that of a facilitator. First, the students will read an article about the exploration of Mars included in their Activity Book. A timeline that outlines the events described in the article will then be created. During this part of the activity, be sure your students understand the suggested structure of the timeline. Encourage them to think ahead about how they will organize the information on the page, and what information they will use from the story. For example, they should not include long descriptions for every event, but short, specific titles. The next part of the activity will most likely be more difficult for your students. They will have to think ahead through the next few months, and brainstorm all the things they will have to do to prepare for the Rover Design Competition. Goals for each of these target areas then need to be created, and a timeline for accomplishing these goals constructed in the Lab Notebook. We suggest that the team include the following items at the minimum on their timeline:

   

Inventory Lego kits (by February 10th) Practice gearing designs (for mobility, speed, climbing, etc.) Practice steering designs (for mobility, speed, etc.) Practice rock collection designs

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      

Brainstorm ideas for final design, based on practice designs Select final design Build final design Test & revise final design as necessary Prepare poster & verbal presentation Attend local Preliminary Design Competition Kit return

In order for the team to establish a reasonable timeline for the items they identify, it will be necessary to have them refer back to the “3-2-1 Pop! – An Effervescent Race” activity for information about the engineering design process. Additionally, you will need to advise them about the following information. This information was gathered from a survey of former Idaho TECH teacher sponsors in order to help teams determine the level of involvement necessary for success in the Idaho TECH program. General Logistics of Idaho TECH:

 Most Idaho TECH teams meet after school at a regularly scheduled meeting time    
at the school On average, most teams meet for 2-4 hours at a minimum each week, and 1-2 times overall each week The total preparation time for students in the Idaho TECH program on average is 50-60 hours. Many teams increase the hours they meet each week to 5-6 during the two weeks prior to competition Teacher sponsors, on average, spend 10-20 hours preparing activities and participating in personal learning about concepts of the program in order to assist the team in the Idaho TECH program Most teams approach the tasks of the program by assigning tasks to certain team members, or by having the team focus on one task at a time

Lastly, explain to the team that if they do not meet a goal by the original date on the timeline, this is not a sign that the team is going to fail. Sometimes things take longer than expected, and this is okay. Goals can be flexible. The point of this exercise is not to overwhelm the team, but to help the team begin to create an overall picture of the Idaho TECH program. We also recommend that the team create a poster of their timeline so it can be hung where the team will meet as a frequent reminder of their goals and of what is still to come. Let them be creative, and most of all, HAVE FUN!

January
Inventory Lego Kits

February
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Student Version

Earthling Exploration of Mars
Adapted from Thursday’s Classroom activity “Red Planet Time Line” located at www.thursdaysclassroom.com/20jul01/teachtimeline.html

Why should your team do this activity?
Your Engineering Team will be taking on a challenging task in the next few months: designing and constructing a Rover that will be put through a series of demanding tests at the Design Competition. This is a big challenge, but don’t feel overwhelmed! If your team divides this large task into many smaller tasks, you can easily focus on one small task at a time. Once one is complete, you can move on and tackle your next task. Before you know it, you will have an awesome Rover built! Quite an accomplishment!! In this activity, your team will learn about the explora tion of Mars. Then, the directions will help your team create a timeline that summarizes the Mars exploration you just learned about. A timeline is an organized way to list events according to when they happened or when they will happen. By looking at this timeline, you can quickly and easily see past events and current progress. Then you can use your new timeline-making skills to make your own timeline for designing and building your Rover. This timeline will help you focus on smaller tasks during the next few months, so that by the time the Design Competitions roll around, your Rover will be ready to go! Remember, a timeline is one of the requirements for your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook, so we highly encourage you to complete this activity!

The Necessities:
“The Earthlings Are Coming” story (see below) A ruler, a pencil, and some scratch paper Your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook Optional: poster-sized paper or posterboard, and art supplies (paints, markers, construction paper, etc.)

Directions:
As a group, read the story called “The Earthlings Are Coming,” which starts on page 30. You can either read it out loud, taking turns, or if your teacher wants to make a copy for each member of your team, you can read it individually. When everyone has finished reading the story, follow Steps 1-10 below as a group to make A Red Planet Timeline for your team’s Lab Notebook. (1) First, your team needs to choose roles before you begin to make a timeline. Choose one team member, the Guide, to read the following steps aloud to your team (start reading now ). Choose another team member to be the Organizer, who will write the timeline in your Lab Notebook. The remaining team members will be the Timekeepers, and will be in charge of the information that will go on your timeline. (2) Organizer: Open your Lab Notebook to a blank piece of paper. Using a ruler and pencil, draw a 12-inch diagonal line on the paper. Write “A Red Planet Timeline” across the top of the paper.

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(3) Organizer: Place a dot on the line you just drew at each inch mark on the ruler, starting with the 0-inch mark. When complete, you should have 13 dots. (4) Organizer: Below the first dot, write the year “1890.” Below the second dot, write the year “1900.” Below the third dot, write “1910.” Keep following this pattern until you have a year (in multiples of ten) written below each dot. Your last dot should be labeled “2010.” (5) Timekeepers: Get out your copy (or copies) of the story about the history of Mars exploration. Skim through and circle all the dates you can find. Also circle the dates that you can figure out (for example, where it may say, “seven months later…”). Slowly read these dates to your Organizer. (6) Organizer: On scratch paper, make a list of the dates as your Timekeepers read them to you. Each date will have an event to go along with it on the timeline. Think about how you will fit this information on your timeline. You will have to keep your comments short since you do not have a lot of room. Will you write horizontally or vertically? Will you write near the line or write above and below the line and draw arrows to the date? The Timekeepers can tell you how much information goes along with each date. Brainstorm ideas with all of your team members. Plan this out before you start writing. Your timeline will have to be neat for others to read it, so you may want to practice on your scratch paper first. (7) Organizer: Write “1892” on the time line where it belongs (on the timeline, it should be between 1890 and 1900 – closer to the 1890 mark). Timekeepers: What should the Organizer write there? How about “Lowell sees canals on Mars?” (8) Organizer: Write “1907” on the time line where it belongs (between 1900 and 1910, right?). Timekeepers: What should the Organizer write there? Remember to keep it short so you do not run out of room! (9) Organizer & Timekeepers: Continue working together within your roles to write all of the dates and events that were listed in the story on your timeline. Remember to be neat and brief! (10) Guide: When the timeline is complete, slowly re-read the timeline to make sure it makes sense. Check the dates to see if they are correct and if they are in the right place on the timeline. Finished? Great! Now your whole team can make some drawings to decorate your timeline. Great work!

Now…..your team is ready to make a timeline for the Idaho TECH : Mars Rover Challenge!
(1) First, your team needs to choose roles again, or if you want, you can stay in the same roles as before. You will need a Guide, who will read the following steps aloud to your team (start reading now ), an Organizer, who will write the timeline in your Lab Notebook, and several Timekeepers, who will be in charge of the Student Version information that will go on your timeline.

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(2) Organizer: Open your Lab Notebook to the first page, and using the ruler and your pencil, draw a 12-inch diagonal line on the paper just like before. Write “The Mars Rover Challenge 2008” across the top of the paper. (3) Organizer: Place a dot on your timeline at each inch mark on the ruler, starting with the 0-inch mark. When complete, you should have 13 dots. (4) Organizer: Below the first dot, write the month “January.” You should receive your Lego kits by late January. Below the fourth dot, write “February.” Below the seventh dot, write “March.” Keep following this pattern until you have a month written below every third dot. Your last dot should be labeled “May.” This means that you will have three inches to write down all the information for one month. In other words, every inch represents about 10 days on your timeline. (5) Timekeepers: Your job will be to lead your team during the next part in making your timeline. Your team needs to brainstorm about all of the things that you can think of that you need to do to have your Rove r ready for the Design Competition. Get out some scratch paper and write down all of the ideas that your team thinks of. For example, one of the first things your team needs to do is inventory your Lego kits! Other ideas include designing your Rover and making your Display for your Presentation. Write down all of your ideas. If you need help thinking of ideas, ask your teacher to help you get started. (6) Organizer: Next, your team needs to choose the 12-15 most important things from your list. Read the whole list to your team, and ask your team to help you decide which are the most important. Once you have chosen the most important things, which will be your “targets,” you and your team will need to decide in what order you should complete these targets. Of course, some will overlap, and some will take a long time to finish. Just try to put your targets in a general order from start to finish. Once you have all agreed upon what order you will do your targets, make a list starting with your first target and ending with your last. (7) Timekeepers: Now your team needs to set a date for when each target will be complete. For example, perhaps your team will decide that you want to inventory your Lego kits by January 27th (the deadline is actually February 16th). Write the dates you choose next to each target on your list. (8) Organizer: Now think about your list of targets. How you will fit this information on your timeline? Will you write horizontally or vertically? Will you write near the line or write above and below the line and draw arrows to the date? Brainstorm ideas with all of your team members. Plan this out before you start writing. Your timeline will have to be neat for others to read it, so you may want to practice on scratch paper first! (9) Organizer & Timekeepers: Work together to place all of the dates and targets that are on the target list on your timeline. For example, if you want to inventory your Lego kits by January 27, write “January 27” about halfway between the third and fourth dots on the timeline. Remember, each inch represents about 10 days. Write “Inventory Lego kits” near January 27. Remember to be neat and brief!

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(10) Guide: When the Timekeepers and Organizer are done with the timeline, slowly re-read the timeline to make sure it makes sense. Check the dates to see if they are correct and in the right place on the timeline. Finished? Great! Now your team has a game plan for the Idaho TECH: Mars Rover Challenge! You know what you want to start with, and you know when you want to get that target done by! You can always refer to your timeline to see what you should be doing next. You just finished one of the requirements of your Notebook as well – Great Work!! (11) Finally, decorate your timeline in your Lab Notebook. You may want to use the timeline in your Lab Notebook to make a bigger poster of this timeline to hang in your classroom or wherever your team usually meets so you can look at it often. Then it will only be a glance away!

1970

1960

2 April 1969 -- Mars 1969B

27 March 1969 -- Mars 1969A

27 March 1969 -- Mariner 7

25 February 1969 -- Mariner 6

18 July 1965 -- Zond 3

30 November 1964 -- Zond 2

28 November 1964 -- Mariner 4

5 November 1964 -- Mariner 3

4 November 1962 -- Sputnik 24

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1 November 1962 -- Mars 1

24 October 1962 -- Sputnik 22

14 October 1960 -- Marsnik 2

10 October 1960 -- Marsnik 1

Student Version

The Earthlings Are Coming!
Do aliens chew gum? Are there other beings out there in the dark sky? And, as Bullwinkle would ask, "Are they friendly?" Many movies and books tell stories of bad aliens from other worlds taking over our planet. Those scary stories make you wonder: could it happen? Mars is a hot spot when it comes to thinking about possible creatures from other planets. Since Mars is a neighbor to the Earth, scientists have been able to see it through telescopes more clearly than other planets. It is also an interesting and mysterious planet. Stories about invaders from Mars (like H.G. Wells' "War of the Worlds") are popular. Always looking for the truth, scientists have been studying Mars since Galileo invented the telescope in 1609. Why Mars? Well, it is close and you can see it through a telescope. There have also been more exciting rumors spread about Mars than about other planets. These rumors started over one hundred years ago. An Italian scientist, Giovanni Schiaparelli, thought that he saw lines on the surface of Mars. That was 1877 -- and when the story was translated into English, someone translated a word wrong and said that the scientist had seen canals on Mars. At that time, we were building lots of big canals on our planet, too. Many people decided that creatures on Mars were designing and building canals of their own. What were Martians doing with these canals? Another scientist, Percival Lowell, was very interested in Martian canals. In 1892, Lowell began a long series of observatio ns of Mars. With his giant telescope in Arizona, he looked at Mars night after night. Watching Mars while most people sleep is not easy. Because we have so much water in our air, the view of Mars from Earth sometimes shimmers -- just like looking at something on the bottom of the pool. He would look through his telescope for hours and sometimes be rewarded with a clear view. Lowell excitedly announced to the world that there were indeed canals on Mars. Martians were probably using the canals to send water from the polar caps to the warmer areas around the equator of Mars, he said. He believed that Mars was a little like the Arizona mountains -- dry and cool, with thin but breathable air. Many people agreed with Lowell. In 1907, Alfred Wallace argued that Mars was too cold and dry for water. Wallace said that canals on Mars "would be the work of madmen rather than intelligent beings." Still, the idea that Martians were building canals was more popular. Actually, there are no creatures building canals on Mars. We know that Lowell was wrong because scientists have continued to look for the Martians! Because it is so hard to get a good look at Mars from our planet, we Earthlings have sent spaceships to Mars for a closer look. In the 1960's, the Soviet Union, also known as Russia, sent 8 missions to Mars. Each mission had a problem and failed, but curious and determined scientists kept trying to find out more about Mars by sending more spaceships. In 1964, the United States tried to send a ship past Mars to take pictures, but the solar panels did not open; that little spacecraft is now in orbit around the Sun! In 1965, a spaceship from the United States named Mariner 4 arrived at Mars! Mariner 4 was the first Earthling spaceship to reach Mars and send back pictures. Mariner 4 did not land on Mars, it flew close to the planet to get a good look (that's called a "flyby!"). Mariner sent 22 close-up pictures of the cratered red surface. These pictures did not show any dirt moving machinery for Martian ca nal building! Mariner 4 also told us that there was hardly any air pressure on Mars (air pressure is the weight of all the gases in the air pressing down on you). One really interesting part about the Mariner mission is that after the ship had left
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Student Version

Earth, the scientists on Earth sent messages to the ship to change the program. Back then, changing the program directions in flight was a big, new idea. Four years later, two other Mariner missions arrived at Mars. These ships also did not land, but took close pictures and measurements of Mars. Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 each took more than 200 pictures of Mars, measured the temperature of the surface, examined the atmosphere of Mars to see what was in it, and measured the air pressure. The Mariners found that there was carbon dioxide ice (like dry ice), water ice clouds, carbon monoxide, some hydrogen, and a little oxygen. There was no nitrogen or ozone. This was a lot of new information about the Red Planet, but scientists needed even more before they could send a ship to land on Mars. In 1971, Mariner 9 made it to Mars (Mariner 8 unfortunately fell into the Atlantic Ocean), ready to orbit for 349 days. Mariner 9 sent more than 7,000 pictures back to Earth. This spacecraft took pictures of 80 percent of the planet. The pictures showed that Mars had many interesting places to explore: there were old riverbeds, craters, canyons, volcanoes and plains. The weather was also diverse, with dust storms, weather fronts, ice clouds, and even morning fogs. None of these pictures showed canals or Martians. Scientists interested in life on Mars began to think microbiotic life on the Red Planet was more likely than little green men! Microbiotic life means living creatures that are so tiny you need a microscope to see them. For example, there are many microbes living right now in your mouth! Scientists began to study Earth microbes that could live in places as cold and dry as Mars. Some scientists have gone to Antarctica to study the microbes there. Another scientist, Carl Sagan, imitated the conditions of Mars in "Mars Jars" and threw in some Earth microbes to see if they could live. Some of them did! Even though there were no big Martians in the pictures from the Mariner spacecraft, scientists were very curious to see if there were any teeny-tiny Martian creatures living there. The cameras on Mariner 9 taught us lots -- enough that scientists were able to design missions to land on Mars. The first mission to land on Mars was sent out by the United States in 1975. This was the Viking mission. This mission had two spacecraft: Viking 1 and Viking 2. Each of the spacecraft contained one ship to orbit the planet and another ship to land on the surface. The Viking 1 orbiter took more pictures to help find a good landing site. The Viking 1 lander separated and landed at Chryse Planitia in July 1976. Later in 1976, the Viking 2 lander touched down at Utopia Planitia. The landers took color pictures of the planet and did experiments to look for microbiotic life in the soil. The experiments were inconclusive because Mars dirt is so different from Earth dirt. But most scientists agree that the landers did not find signs of life. Scientists kept studying the pictures and facts sent back by the Viking landers. They needed more information! But what was the best way to get it? After many years, NASA developed the Pathfinder mission. Pathfinder was designed to show that a low cost mission could land on and explore the surface of Mars. Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996. Seven months later, it reached Mars. The experimental landing was thrilling. As Pathfinder entered the atmosphere, a parachute opened to slow the ship down to about 70 meters per second. The heat shield came out and then about 10 seconds before landing, four air bags inflated! Finally, three rockets fired to slow the fall. The lander dropped to the ground and bounced about 16 times before stopping. The lander then went

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Student Version

to work. It opened up its solar panels and started to measure the atmosphere and take pictures. Inside the lander was a tiny remote-control jeep called Sojourner designed to explore the surface of Mars. The scientists sent the signal for this little rover to roll out and nothing happened! The rover was stuck! How could they get it out? After working on the problem for two days, the rover finally rolled out and started to explore the surface. The rover sent information back to the lander, which relayed the data to Earth. The rover and the lander continued to send information back for 5 months. On November 7, 1997, the mission was declared over. Just as that mission ended, Mars Global Surveyor was launched to the Red Planet. T he name 'Global Surveyor' describes the job of this spacecraft. It flies all around Mars taking many pictures and measurements. It has been taking pictures since 1997. Mars Global Surveyor recently took some pictures that really surprised scientists. The pictures did not show Martian-made canals, but they did show something almost as surprising. There are gullies on Mars! Gullies are ditches caused by flowing water. How could Mars have gullies if there is no water to be found on the surface of the Red Planet? This mystery is exciting! And if there is water, could there be tiny microbes living in there, as on Earth? Scientists are eager to find out. In 1999, NASA sent two more spacecraft to Mars, but both of them crashed. Scientists figured out what happened, and in April 2001 they were ready to try again. NASA launched another orbiter, called 2001 Mars Odyssey. 2001 Mars Odyssey is carrying instruments to study what Mars is made of and what its radiation environment is like, and is still in orbit around the Red Planet. At present, NASA is also participating in an international mission called Mars Express. In 2003, a spacecraft was sent to orbit Mars. The orbiter is exploring the planet’s atmosphere and is looking for water below the planet’s surface. NASA also sent two small rovers to Mars in the year 2003, which landed on different parts of the planet. Each of these little rovers has been able to travel further in a single day than the Sojourner rover could during its whole lifetime! The rovers, called Spirit and Opportunity, landed on Mars almost the same way that Pathfinder did. They are still exploring the planet, looking for water and signs of life. Water is important because life (as we know it) depends on water. People who travel to Mars will need water as well. There are several other current Mars missions, such as the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter which launched in the summer of 2005. This orbiter is taking the best-ever pictures of the surface of Mars. Ideally, NASA would like to send a spaceship to Mars every 26 months. That's how often Earth and Mars are close together. If our missions go well, one day human astronauts will land on Mars! Then, will we be able to look at Mars through telescopes and finally see canals? Will people who explore Mars be called Martians? Are there little microscopic bugs living on Mars? It will take years of hard work and good thinking to answer these questions. Until then, keep your eyes on the Red Planet!

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NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry

Idaho TECH WWW Activity
Introduction & Purpose
This activity is intended to familiarize the team with the Idaho TECH web site. Often, a member of the team, an advisor, parent, or even a teacher will have questions about the Mars Rover Challenge. The Idaho TECH web site is an excellent resource for everyone involved, and will likely provide the answers to ma ny of your questions. We highly recommend that your entire group, not just the Engineering Team, become familiar with this web site, so please take time to explore it! A great place to begin is with the Program History page. Many of the links will clarify the rules and scoring of the Design Competitions, which you will undoubtedly find useful as competition draws near. Additionally, there are some great ideas for teachers and a list of online resources located on the site. Don’t forget the Commonly Asked Questions as well! Don’t delay – visit the Idaho TECH web site (http://isgc.uidaho.edu/idahotech) today!

Objective:

Students will explore the Idaho TECH web site in search of the answers to ten questions and a tricky description. Students will also review the Commonly Asked Questions located on the web site.

Materials Needed:
Computer with Netscape Navigator or Explorer (any Internet browser will work) Pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
The Student Activity Book contains all of the information necessary for the students to perform this activity. You will need to provide assistance as necessary if the students encounter difficulties. This activity guides the students to the Idaho TECH web site, located at http://isgc.uidaho.edu/idahotech, and has the team respond to ten questions using the information on the site. Encourage your team to answer the questions in their Lab Notebook. There is a hint for where to find the answer to each question in the Students’ Activity Book, and the answers to the questions are provided below. Finally, the students should provide a response to the Tricky Description called for in their Lab Notebook. Answers to Questions (1) Tony Leavitt – he is an educational specialist from NASA Ames. (2) The “Rock * Rovers” team was the Grand Champions of the South Idaho PDC. (3) The ”Sagle Spudnik's ” received the Most Creative Rover Award in the North Idaho PDC. (4) Only the Engineering Team is allowed to design and construct the Rover. (5) A team can spend up to $50 on additional Lego® parts.

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(6) A team is allowed to use no more than three Lego ® motors OR three battery boxes (NOT three motors AND three battery boxes). (7) Click on “Rover Scoring” in the list of links at the bottom of the main site. The scoring for each component of a Preliminary Design Competition is outlined there. (8) Each Rover is scored in the following seven areas: Speed Test, Rock Collection Test, Hill Climb Test, “Blind Driving” Test, Rover Weight, Display & Presentation, and Lab Notebook & Budget. (9) The team’s spokesperson should convince the panel of judges that his or her team's vehicle is the best-constructed, most thoughtfully designed Rover available for the purported mission to Mars. (10) The awards presented at the Preliminary Design Competition include: Grand Champion, Second Place, Third Place, Fourth Place (if 45 + teams at PDC), Fastest Rover, Most Rocks Collected, Best Climbing Rover, Best “Blind Driving” Teamwork, Lightest Weighing Rover, Most Creative Rover, Best Rover Display, Best Rover Presentation, Best Lab Notebook, Best Team Name, Most Team Spirit, and the Rookie Team Award. Answer to Tricky Description: Using any or all of the Supplied Elements and Other Non-Lego Allowable Elements, design and construct a Rover which will be able to navigate Martian terrain, be as lightweight as possible, and be able to collect rock samples. Each Engineering Team must also maintain a Lab Notebook that includes notes on the Design Process, a timeline, pie charts, and three budgets. Finally, we encourage you and the team to read the “Commonly Asked Questions” page. It is likely that the team will soon have some of the same questions – use this page as a

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resource for the upcoming months!

Student Version

Idaho TECH WWW Activity
Why should your team do this activity?
The Idaho TECH web site contains all of the information your team needs to take on the Mars Rover Challenge. By knowing how to use the site, your team will be able to find answers to your questions anytime during the day (and believe me, you are going to have lots of questions!). Work through this activity as a team, and then spend some time on your own to check out the site so you know how to use it!

The Necessities:
One computer with Netscape Navigator or Explorer (or any Internet browser) Pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:

Gather the materials listed above and open a browser on your computer. Type the following address (http://isgc.uidaho.edu/idahotech) in the location field at the top of the screen. Navigate through the web site by following the instructions within the activity and try to answer all of the questions. Now...go ahead and start! This is what you are going to see after the web page loads...

Question #1 : What was the name of the NASA special guest that was at last year’s
South Idaho Competition in Buhl and what makes this person a special visitor? After you find the answer to this question (it is on this first page!), scroll down the page to find the links to the rest of the site.

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Student Version

The Program History link, which provides a little information about Idaho TECH, will be right at the top of the link list (this information is for your teacher to read). Using the information linked to the subject headings, try to answer all of the questions below.

Question #2 :

What team was the Grand Champion of the South Idaho PDC?

Question #3 : What team received the Most Creative Rover Award at the
North Idaho PDC?

Question #4 : Question #5 :

Who is allowed to help your engineering team design and construct your team ’s Rover? What is the maximum amount of money your team may spend on additional Lego parts? How many Lego motors and battery boxes is your team allowed to use? Where can you find information about ho w your team ’s Rover is scored at the Preliminary Design Competition? In what seven areas is your team’s Rover scored? What information should be included in your team’s display and presentation?

Question #6 : Question #7 : Question #8 : Question #9 :

Question #10 : What a wards are presented at the Preliminary Design Competition?

 Tricky

Description 

Briefly describe what your Engineering Team needs to do in the Mars Rover Challenge.
PSST!!! If you were not able to answer all of the questions, there are some hints on the next page!!!

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Commonly Asked Questions

Student Version

Click on the Commonly Asked Questions link. Your team may not have any of these questions now, but your team may in the near future. We suggest that your team review the questions and then refer to the answers as you work on your Rover. You have completed this activity…We hope that you all are confident with using the Idaho TECH web site. Good luck!

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Questions???
Contact the Idaho Space Grant idahoTECH@uidaho.edu (208) 885-6030

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Hints to Questions: 1. Official web site page 2. Click on South Idaho PDC Winners link under the 2007 Results link 3. Click on Nort h Idaho PDC Winners link under the 2007 Results link 4. Click on Rules & Regulations and go to Engineering Team 5. Click on Rules & Regulations and go to Rover & Display Construction 6. Click on Rules & Regulations and go to Rover & Display Construction 7. Click on Rover Scoring 8. Click on Rover Scoring 9. Click on Rover Scoring and go to Display and Presentation 10. Click on Awards Tricky Description: Click on The Challenge

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NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry NS.5-8.7 Histor y and Natur e of Science

Pepsi on Pluto – Weighing In & Growing Old
Introduction & Purpose
This activity will introduce your students to how gravity and age varies on the different planets due to differences in planetary mass, size, and orbit. Most students are surprised at how their own weight and age would differ on each planet, which makes this a fun activity. This activity is also relevant to Rover construction because the Martian gravitational field is different than that of the Earth, so the performance of a Rover tested on the Earth’s surface will perform differently on Mars. The Rover’s ability to collect and/or sample rocks on the Martian surface may be affected by this difference in gravity.

Objective:

Students will form a hypothesis about the weights of the planets in our solar system. Students will also calculate their own weights and ages on each of the planets. They will use their weight information to revise their initial hypothesis. Finally, students will check their weight and age calculations on the Internet.

Materials Needed:
8 empty Pepsi cans and one unopened Pepsi can 824 pennies Planetary Data table (in Student Activity Book) Multiplication Factors table (in Student Activity Book) Calculator Computer with Netscape Navigator or Explorer (any Internet browser will work) Pens or pencils Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
To set up this activity, fill empty Pepsi cans with the number of pennies indicated in the following list:  Mercury - 38  Venus - 101  Earth - (use an unopened can of Pepsi)  Mars - 38  Jupiter - 293  Saturn - 119  Uranus - 102  Neptune - 133  Pluto - none Randomly label each can with a number, and record which number represents which planet. Do not share this information with your students. Have the team compare the weights of the different cans by picking them up one by one. Then have the students form a hypothesis in their Lab Notebook about the proper order of

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the cans according to the order of the planets in our solar system based upon how much each can weighs. Have the team line up the cans in the order they hypothesized. Next, have the students review the background information that demonstrates how mass and size determine the gravitational pull of a planet. Be sure they understand the relationship between gravity and weight. Also, review how the length of a planet’s orbit affects the length of that planet’s year. Be sure they understand the relationship between the length of a planet’s orbit and an individual’s age. Have the students use their calculators and the multiplication factor table included in the Student Activity Book to calculate their weights and ages on the various planets. Now that the team has thought about their weights on the different planets, they should be able to revise their hypothesis about the Pepsi cans with this new knowledge. Let them change the order of the cans if they wish. Once they are satisfied with the order, reveal to them which planet is represented by each Pepsi can. Finally, have the students check their answers for their weight on each planet by using the following web site: To check weight:: http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/ If time allows, encourage the students to explore these web sites further. Make sure the team records its thoughts and ideas in their Lab Notebook!

Debriefing Lead the team in a discussion about why being aware of your weight and age on another planet may be important. Have them reconsider some of the questions posed at the beginning of this activity in their Activity Book -- How will gravitational fields different than that of Earth affect the Rover’s mobility? How will the difference in gravity affect the Rover’s ability to sample Martian rocks? What other aspects of a Mars Rover mission might be affected by differences in weight? How could differences in age affect a mission to Mars in which astronauts spend time on the surface? What about if humans ever colonize Mars? Encourage the team to use their imaginations, and to record their thoughts and ideas in their Idaho TECH Lab Notebook.

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Student Version

Pepsi on Pluto – Weighing In & Growing Old
Why should your team do this activity?
This activity will help you understand the differences in gravitational fields among the planets of our Solar System. Scientists must take into consideration the effects of gravity while designing spacecraft such as a rove r destined for Mars. How will gravitational fields different than that of the Earth affect the rover’s mobility? How will the difference in gravity affect the rover’s ability to sample Martian rocks? Additionally, you will learn about how the length o f the year, or a single revolution of a planet around the Sun, varies for different planets. Scientists must consider the length of planets’ orbits while planning missions.

Background Information:
An object or person’s weight on a planet is based on the strength of that planet’s gravitational force pulling on it. The amount of matter that makes up the planet and the planet’s size (diameter) determines how much gravitational force it has. As future astronauts venture to the other bodies in our Solar System, they will experience different “pulls” of gravity. This change in the pull of gravity will result in a change in an astronaut’s weight. For instance, an astronaut who weighs 180 pounds on the Earth will weigh only about 29 pounds on the Moon. On Mars, the same astronaut will weigh approximately 68 pounds. Your age is determined by the length of an Earth year (the time it takes for Earth to complete one revolution around the sun). Your age on another planet would be determined in a similar manner. Therefore, if you were on a planet that required less time to travel around the Sun, a year would be shorter relative to Earth. If you were on a planet that required a greater amount of time for a single revolution around the Sun, a year would be longer.

The Necessities:
Pepsi cans filled with different amounts of pennies (your teacher will prepare these for you) Planetary Data table (on page 60) Multiplication Factors table (on page 60) Computer with Netscape Navigator or Explorer (or any Internet browser) Pen or pencil and paper Calculator Your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
Your teacher will guide you through this activity – directions for the activity are in

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your teacher’s edition of the Student Activity Book.

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Student Version

Planetary Data Table
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Diameter 3,025 miles 7,502 miles 7,909 miles 4,212 miles 88,784 miles 74,400 miles 32,116 miles 30,690 miles 2,170 miles 2,155 miles Length of One Revolution (Earth Time) 88 days 224.7 days 365 days 687 days 11.86 years 29.48 years 84.01 years 164.1 years 247.7 years n/a

Multiplication Factors Table
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Sun Moon Weight Factor 0.38 X my weight 0.91 1.00 0.38 2.53 1.07 0.92 1.18 0.03 27.8 0.16 My Weight on Planet: = = = = = = = = = = = Age Factor 4.200 X my age 1.600 1.000 0.530 0.080 0.030 0.010 0.006 0.004 n/a n/a My Age on Planet: = = = = = = = = = n/a n/a

You may want to record everyone’s answers in your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook!

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NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry NS.5-8.7 Histor y and Natur e of Science

Hangin’ Out on Mars!?!
Some questions are adapted from an activity from the American Museum of Natural Histo ry, entitled “Martian (and Other Extraterrestrial) Math” located at www. amnh.org/rose/mars/mathact.html

Introduction & Purpose
An excellent way to introduce your students to Mars is through comparison. Since the students are most likely familiar with some of the basic characteristics of the Earth and know what it’s like to be on the Earth’s surface, your students can learn a lot about Mars by comparing its characteristics to those on Earth. Your students should then be able to begin to imagine what it is like to be on the surface of Mars. Their ideas about the Martian surface may be useful as they begin to design and construct their Rover, so have them write down their ideas in their Lab Notebook. This activity will also exercise the students’ mathemati cal abilities by prompting and guiding them to convert various units of measure into others. Your primary role during this activity will involve assisting with mathematical conversions and encouraging creativity while brainstorming.

Objective:

Students will work as a group to answer a series of questions about basic Martian characteristics by performing mathematical conversions. Students will compare these characteristics to those of Earth, and imagine what it is like to be on the surface of Mars. Finally, students will brainstorm ideas as to how these characteristics of the Martian surface may impact their Rover design.

Materials Needed:
Pen or pencil Calculator Scratch paper Road atlas Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
The Student Activity Book contains all the information necessary for the students to perform this activity. The students will perform mathematical conversions and answer twelve questions about Mars and the Earth. Provide assistance as necessary, and check that your students are correctly calculating the conversions (the answers are included below). If the students are having trouble with the conversions, gather them as a group and walk them through the first couple of conversions, thinking out loud. They should be able to pick up how to perform the conversions from your modeling. You may need to encourage creativity on questions 12 and 13. Have them write down their ideas in their Lab Notebook, especially the answers to questions 12 and 13! Answers to Questions (1) The letters indicate what standard unit of measure the number was measured with

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(2) Measurement Average Distance from the Sun Equator Diameter Polar Diameter Mass Convert both Earth & Mars data to: Earth = 92,750,692 miles Mars = 141,320,717 miles Earth = 7909 miles Mars = 4324 miles Earth = 7885 miles Mars = 4181 miles Earth = 1.31 x 1025 pounds Mars = 1.4 x 1024 pounds Earth = 58 degrees C Earth = 136 degrees F Mars = 20 degrees C Mars = 68 degrees F Earth = -89 degrees C Earth = -128 degrees F Mars = -140 degrees C Mars = -220 degrees F How many hours for Earth? 24 hours For Mars? 24.5 hours How many years for Earth? 1 year For Mars? 1.88 years

Maximum Surface Temperature

Minimum Surface Temperature

Rotational Period (in next table) Orbital Period

(3) Scientists use the metric system because it is based on units in sets of ten, which makes converting between units simple (4) 1.5 AU - the orbit of Mars is one and a half times larger than the orbit of Earth (5) 40 AU - Pluto’s orbit is 40 times larger than the orbit of Earth (6) 3 hours - the answer is in hours because the speed was in kilometers per hour (7) 2 hours (8) About 22,000 days or 60 years -- of course, no airplane can fly through empty space….but rockets do, and they are also much faster! (9) 647 seconds, or about 11 minutes -- so you are not able to have a quick “conversation” between Mission Control and the Pathfinder! (10) Student responses will vary (11) Student responses will vary (12) Student responses will vary (13) Student responses will vary

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Student Version

Hangin’ out on Mars!?!
Why should you complete this activity?
How much do you know about Mars? How similar and/or different is it in comparison to the Earth? Scientists believe that people will live on Mars by the year 2036. Using what scientists know about Mars, what do you think Mars is like? Hopefully, this activity will help you create an image of Mars using the data that scientists have collected in order to understand the physical properties of Mars.

The Necessities:
Calculator Scratch paper Road atlas Pen or pencil Your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions: Check out the data tables that list the physical properties of both Earth
and Mars. Work together to answer the questions that are located after the data tables. Have fun!

Physical Properties:
Measurement Average Distance from the Sun Equator Diameter Earth 149,597,890 km Mars 227,936,640 km Convert both Earth & Mars data to: Earth =__________miles Mars =__________miles Earth =__________miles 12,756 km 6,974 km Mars =__________miles Earth =__________miles Polar Diameter 12,718 km 5.97 x 1027 g 6,744 km 6.4 x 1026 g Mars =__________miles Earth =_________pounds Mars =_________pounds Earth =______degrees C Earth =______degrees F Mars =_______degrees C Mars =_______degrees F Earth =______degrees C Earth =______degrees F Mars =_______degrees C Mars =_______degrees F

Mass

Maximum Surface Temperature

331 K

293 K

Minimum Surface Temperature

184 K

133 K

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Student Version

Other Physical Properties to Note:
Measurement Rotational Period
(planet spins on its axis)

Earth 1.0 day 365.26 days 5.52 g/cm3 11.2 km/sec
2

Mars 1.02 days 686.98 days 3.94 g/cm3 5.02 km/sec
2

Convert both Earth & Mars data to: How many hours for Earth?___ For Mars?___ How many years for Earth?___ For Mars?___ Earth = 0.197 lbs/in3 Mars = 0.141 lbs/in3 Earth = 6.94 miles/sec2 Mars = 3.11 miles/sec2 Earth = 0.0061 miles/sec2 Mars = 0.0023 miles/sec2

Orbital Period
(planet revolves around sun)

Density Escape Velocity at Equator
(speed at which you can “escape” from a planet’s atmosphere)

Gravity
(how fast ob jects fall to ground when dropped)

980 cm/sec2

371 cm/sec2

Atmospheric Components:
Element/Compound Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor Earth 78% 21% less than 1% less than 1% Mars 3% 0.1% 95% 0.03%

Conversion Factors:
Metric Unit 1 kilometer (km) 1 gram (g) 1 centimeter (cm) 1 Kelvin (K) 1 Kelvin (K) 1 day (d) 1 year (yr) Conversion 0.62 miles (m) 0.035 ounces (oz) -- How many ounces in a pound (lbs)? 0.394 inches (in) Celsius (C) -- subtract 273 from Kelvin Fahrenheit (F) – Convert to C, then multiply by 9/5 and add 32 24 hours (hr) – how many seconds (sec) in an hour? 365 days (d)

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Student Version

Questions:

Remember there are not always correct answers to questions. Please use the information in the data tables and your imagination to create logical and creative responses to the questions. Place the responses in your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook. Remember -- scientists do not always have answers; rather, they carefully examine the data (or information) and develop ideas based on that information. (1) What do the letters mean that are listed after the numbers in each column? (The letters
are called metric units)

(2) Using the information in the Physical Properties and Conversion Factors tables, convert each number from Metric units to English units. For example: 10 kilometers = 6.2 miles. This means that for every 1 kilometer, there are 0.62 miles in that kilometer. Therefore, you must multiply the number of kilometers by 0.62 to convert the kilometers to miles. Here is the math: 1 km x 0.62 miles = 0.62 miles 10 km x 0.62 mi les = 6.2 miles

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one another)

(3) Why do you think scientists use the Metric system? Is this system easier to use than inches, feet, and miles? (Look at a ruler and observe how millimeters and centimeters relate to

(4) Astronomers use the radius of the Earth’s orbit (149,597,890 kilometers) as a handy “yardstick” to measure other distances in the solar system. They call it 1 Astronomical Unit (abbreviated 1 AU). On the average, Mars is 227,936,640 kilometers from the Sun. How many Astronomical units is that?
HINT: Divide 227,936,640 kilometers by 149,597,890 kilometers.

(5) Pluto is the farthest known planet. Its average distance from the Sun is about 5,920,000,000 kilometers. How many Astronomical Units is that?
HINT: Divide 5,920,000,000 kilometers by 149,597,890 kilometers. The first number may be too big for your calculator. No problem! Just think of it as 5,920 million kilometers, and divide by 149 million kilometers. That’s the same as dividing 5,920 by 149.

(6) If you plan to travel 240 kilometers at an average speed of 80 kilometers per hour, how long will your trip last? Use the fact that the time anything travels is equal to the distance it travels divided by the speed.
HINT: Divide distance (240 kilometers) by speed (80 kilometers per hour)

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Student Version

(7) On Mars, the Sojourner Rover only went about 24.4 meters per hour (Why so slow? To keep out of trouble, and because Sojourner only has about 60 watts of solar power). How long would it take the rover to move 48.8 meters?
HINT: Divide distance (48.8 meters) by speed (24.4 meters per hour).

(8) Now, let’s go a little faster! Pathfinder traveled just over 499,000,000 kilometers along its curved orbit to get to Mars. How long would it take to fly that far at the average speed of a passenger jet, about 960 kilometers per hour?
HINT: Divide distance (499,000,000 kilometers) by speed (960 kilometers per hour). This will give you how long it will take in hours. Divide the length of time in hours by 24 hours per day to get the number of days it will take. Then divide the number of days it will take by 365 days per year to get the number of years it will take. Now you have your final answer!

(9) Now let’s try the fastest speed in the universe! When Pathfinder landed on Mars, it was 194,000,000 kilometers from Earth. The spacecraft communicated using radio waves, which travel at the speed of light – 300,000 kilometers per second. How long did it take Pathfinder’s first message from Mars to reach the Earth?
HINT: Divide the distance to Mars (194,000,000 kilometers) by the speed of light (300,000 kilometers per second). Divide your answer by 60 seconds per minute to get your answer in minutes.

(10) What do the numbers reveal about the differences between Earth and Mars? – Earth and Mars have different values for gravity. Do you think you would be able to stand on the Martian surface? How many times can you travel to Disneyland to cover the same distance around Mars?
HINT: Use an atlas to measure the distance from your school to Disneyland, then compare it to the equator diameter of Mars.

(11) Using the tables on the previous pages, how do the physical properties of Earth compare with those of Mars? (12) Pretend your Engineering Team is traveling to Mars. What do you think it will be like according to the information listed above? What will you bring? What would you wear? Could you breathe on Mars? What other information would you like to know before you left for the trip? (13) Your Engineering Team will be designing a Mars Ro ver for the Idaho TECH: Mars Rover Challenge. If you were really going to send your Rover to Mars, what types of things would you have to consider while designing and building your team’s Rover? How could you test the Rover on Earth before it is sent to Mars?

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Remember to write down the answers and your ideas in your team’s Idaho TECH Lab Notebook!

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Mars in Reverse
Adapted from the Athena Mars Exploration Rovers web site located at athena.cornell.edu/k ids/home_03.html

Introduction & Purpose
This brief demonstration is a good way to get your students thinking about how people discovered how celestial bodies in the solar system move. One of the larger clues was the retrograde motion of Mars, as viewed from Earth. As Earth passes Mars in its orbit, Mars appears to stop, briefly back up, and then move in the original direction again. This retrograde motion is only possible because the planets move in elliptical orbits around the Sun, instead of in circular orbits as originally anticipated.

Objective:

Students will demonstrate the retrograde motion of Mars that is apparent when its orbit is viewed from Earth.

Materials Needed:
Students in pairs One student in each pair is to be on wheels (bicycle, skates, skateboard, etc.) A helmet for the student on wheels A place with a clear, long straightaway with few pedestrians and no cars! (a park, playground, gym, etc.) Pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
The students have a little background information in their Activity Book regarding this activity, as well as an explanation of how the demonstration relates to the retrograde motion of Mars. Every student should get a chance to be on wheels, because it is from this perspective that you can see the retrograde motion. Also, to demonstrate student understanding of the connection to the orbit of Mars, have each pair explain the phenomenon to you after the activity is complete, and comment in their Lab Notebook. To complete the activity, each pair will establish a start point, end point, and a stationary midpoint along the long straightaway. Both students in each pair will begin at the starting point at the same time. Have the student on foot begin to walk forward in a straight line first, and then have the student on wheels (make sure they wear a helmet!) begin moving forward a little more slowly than the other, having both students focus on the middle point as they progress forward (this is why it is important that the path be clear and free of pedestrians and cars). As both students approach the middle point, the student on wheels should speed up and pass their partner, still watching the middle point as long as it is safe. The student on wheels should see their partner go in retrograde motion. Specifically, the student on foot should appear to stop, back up slightly, and then continue forward -- similar to that of Martian orbit as seen from Earth.

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Student Version

Mars in Reverse
Adapted from the Athena Mars Exploration Rovers web site located at athena.cornell.edu/k ids/home_03.html

Why should your team do this activity?
Early astronomers believed that as Mars moved through its orbit, it would stop, go in reverse, and then go forward again. Today, that sounds like a crazy way for a planet to move, but that’s still the way it looks from Earth despite the fact that we now know Mars travels in an elliptical orbit around the Sun without backing up. Why does Mars appear to go backwards? Try this simple activity, and you’ll soon find out!

The Necessities:
Your Idaho TECH Engineering Team split into groups of two (pairs) A bike, pair of inline skates, or skateboard A helmet for the person riding the bike, inline skates, or skateboard Your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
(1) Go to your school’s playground or a park and find a long, clear straightaway with few pedestrians. (2) Have one person in each pair put on inline skates, or get your bike or skateboard ready. The other person in each pair will remain on foot. (3) Pick a starting point and ending point on the straightaway, and then find a stationary object in the middle of the straightaway to focus on. (4) Both members of each pair should begin at the starting point, and the person on foot should then begin walking forward at a steady pace towards the ending point. While walking, this person should focus on the middle point. After the person on foot has walked a bit (but NOT past the middle point) the person on wheels should begin moving forward, slightly slower than the person walking, while focusing on the middle point. (5) The person on wheels should keep their eyes on the middle focus point, and then speed up and pass their walking partner. What do you think they will see?

What did you see?
Your walking partner never stopped moving forward, but from your point of view, he or she appeared to back up! The same thing happens when Earth moves faster and passes Mars on its way around the Sun – Mars only appears to go in reverse. This type of apparent motion is called retrograde motion. The odd retrograde motion of Mars helped to clue some astronomers into the flaws inherent in some early models of the Solar System – why would this one planet go backwards for such a short period when the others move steadily in one direction? Mars going in reverse may have put astronomy in fast-forward!

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Crater Creation
Adapted from “E xploring Space & Cyberspace: Live From Mars” Resource Book and NASA’s “Mars Activities: Teacher Resources and Classroom Activities – Mud Splat Craters” located at mars.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/pdfs/MSIP-MarsActivities.pdf

Introduction & Purpose
This activity explores the formation of impact craters on a planet’s surface. By understanding the processes involved in cratering, and how several variables such as mass, velocity, size of projectile, angle of approach, and surface material at impact affect the features of craters, scientists have been able to learn much about the history and surface of the Earth and other planets. In the five experiments of this activity, students will vary each of the variables listed above to determine how they affect crater features.

The fifth part of this experiment involves mud, making it potentially messy. Secure a good location in order to perform the fifth component, such as outside or somewhere you can lay out plastic sheeting. Use old shirts to keep students’ clothes as clean as possible, or request the students dress in clothing that can get dirty.

Note:

Objective:

Students will determine through experimentation how five variables affect the features of an impact crater.

Materials Needed:
Flour Cocoa Fairly clean dirt 3 balls the same size (approx. 1" across) but of differing weights / masses 3 marbles / balls of different sizes Large tub or pan (plastic dishpans or double layer foil roasting pans work best) Plastic sheeting (to keep the floor clean if you’re inside) Aprons or old front button shirts (to protect clothes) Water pitcher filled with water (to create mud) Large spoons to mix the mud Sturdy plastic spoons Baby wipes or paper towels to clean mud off skin Broom and dustpan Ruler and meter stick Pens or pencils Crater Creation Answer Sheet (in Student Activity Book) Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

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Procedure:
The Student Activity book contains detailed directions for the students to use, which have been reproduced below so you may plan accordingly. (1) Have the team read through the background material and look at the illustrations provided in their Activity Book. Fill the large tub or pan with flour approximately 3” deep, sprinkling a little cocoa on the surface to help make changes more visible. (2) Have the team collaborate to form a hypothesis about each cratering test prior to conducting the tests described in steps #3 and #5 (this activity contains a total of 5 cratering tests). (3) Closely supervise (to prevent messes) while the students conduct the four cratering tests described below. We suggest that you assign or have the team members choose roles for the experiments, and have the members rotate to different roles so each member can obtain experience in each role. One team member can record measurements and observations, one member can drop the balls / marbles / mud into the tub, one or two members can describe the resulting crater to the recorder, and the final one or two members can measure the crater diameters. The team has a list of questions in their Student Activity Book for use in recording observations and measurements in their Lab Notebook. When making observations, have them refer to the illustrations included in their Activity Book, and encourage the use of the feature terminology (i.e., rim, ejecta blanket, ray pattern, wall, floor, central peak). Have the students smooth out the flour and sprinkle additional cocoa on the surface before each crater attempt. Experiment #1: How mass affects impact craters  Using the 3 balls that are the same size but differing masses, drop the first ball into the flour from a height of 2 meters. Record the diameter of the crater created.  Repeat the process with the remaining 2 balls. Be sure that each ball is dropped from the same height above the box. Experiment #2: How velocity affects impact craters  Using the largest marble, drop it into the flour from a height of 10cm. Record the diameter of the crater created.  Repeat the process with the same marble dropped from 1 meter above the box and 2 meters above the box.  From a height of 2 meters above the box, throw the marble into the box and record the diameter of the crater created. Experiment #3: How size of projectiles affects impact craters  Using the 3 different sized marbles, drop the smallest marble into the flour from a height of 2 meters. Record the diameter of the crater created.  Repeat the process with the remaining 2 marbles. Be sure that each marble is dropped from the same height above the box.

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Experiment #4: How angle of approach affects impact craters  Using the largest marble, throw it into the flour with a moderate amount of force. Record the shape and diameter of the crater created.  Using the same marble and the same amount of throwing force, repeat the process while varying the angle of the marble's approach. Be sure that the height from which the marble is thrown remains constant. (4) The next experiment involves making craters in mud, so it is encouraged to do this part of the activity outside or in an area where the floor can be covered with plastic sheeting. Have the students wear aprons or old shirts over their clothes to keep them clean. We recommend that you closely supervise your students during this experiment –do not allow them to fling mud at each other! (5) Have the students empty the tub or pan of flour and then mix the dirt with some water in the tub or pan to create mud. Use only a little water so the mud will not become soupy. Then have the students complete the fifth experiment. Experiment #5: How the type of surface material at impact affects impact craters  Scoop a spoonful of mud out of the pan.  Carefully fling the mud back into the box.  Record the diameter of the crater created. Repeat this several times.  How do these craters compare to the craters you created in the flour? (6) When the students have completed all five experiments, have the students compare their results with their original hypotheses and form a statement for each test that explains their results (i.e., the larger the mass of a meteorite, the larger the diameter of the crater formed). You may wish to help them get started on forming these explanations by giving them an example for the first experiment. Encourage the team to write their explanations in the Lab Notebook. Note: The results of this activity are often surprising to students. Most expect the craters to have an oblong shape on extremely wide angles of impact. In fact, all craters seen on the Moon or on Earth are basically circular. This is because on impact a n explosion occurs, and the forces associated with the explosion are always spherically symmetrical. The explosion is caused by the fact that the ground does not stop a large meteorite instantly upon its moment of impact. As it descends below the surface, frictional heating increases the temperature of a meteorite much more than the frictional heating of the atmosphere had done previously. Heating is so rapid that an explosion can occur. Imagine trying to change quickly all of the energy of a room-sized meteorite traveling at 30,000 mph into heat!

Further Explorations:
(1) Have students go on-line and check out Malin Space Science Systems’ page on Martian Craters (www.msss.com/http/ps/crater.html). There are great pictures of different kinds of craters on this web site! (2) Have students download images of craters from different planets. Ask them to explain how these craters may have formed, pointing out examples of new and older craters. (3) Have the students research the theory about the giant impact which many people believe led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

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Student Version

Crater Creation
Adapted from “E xploring Space & Cyberspace: Live From Mars” Resource Book and NASA’s “Mars Activities: Teacher Resources and Classroom Activities – Mud Splat Craters” located at mars.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/pdfs/MSIP-MarsActivities.pdf

Why should your team do this activity?
What does a crater look like? What happens to a planet’s surface during an impact? What are the features created during an impact? How do mass, velocity, size o f the projectile, angle of approach, and type of surface material at impact affect how the crater looks? This activity will help you find out the answers to these questions and more.

Background Information
Almost all objects in the Solar System that have solid surfaces (including planets, satellites, and asteroids) have craters. While a few are of volcanic origin, most are the result of impacts from space. Much of the cratering we see dates back to a "period of bombardment;” in the early days of the Solar System, the gravitational pull of larger bodies attracted smaller objects causing the small objects to crash into these bodies. This process has been important in the evolution of the planets. Cratering caused early melting of the planets' crusts and excavated fresh sub-surface material. Impacts from space continue, but at a slower rate. A recent example is the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in July 1994. Impacts are caused when meteoroids strike a planet or other object in space. A meteoroid is a particle of rock traveling through space. Size can range from microscopic to several meters across. The average size of the meteors we see at night (shooting stars) are probably no larger than a grain of sand. Speeds of meteoroids can exceed 50,000 miles per hour. When we do see a streak of light in the night sky, which we call a meteor, it is caused by a meteoroid entering the Earth's atmosphere and vaporizing in a flash of light. The heat of friction between the meteoroid and the Earth's atmosphere produces the light. When a meteoroid actually strikes the Earth, it is known as a meteorite. On impact, large meteorites leave craters and may bury themselves deep in the ground. The Earth, our Moon, and the planet Mars all bear the scars of impacts from space, but the Moon and Mars have many more craters than Earth. This is partly because water covers almost three-fourths of our planet, and partly because geologic processes like crustal movements and wind and weather have eroded most of the Earth's craters over time. There is no atmosphere or plate tectonics on the Moon, where many craters are visible. Many lunar craters still have steep walls and are very rugged in appearance--evidence of the lack of weathering. Mars occupies a middle ground between the Earth and the Moon in terms of craters. Widespread cratering is visible, but more craters are seen in Mars' southern hemisphere than in the north. Since the bombardment was presumably uniform across the planet, the relative lack of craters in the north correlates well with the evidence of geological activity we can see in the region (faulting, uplifting, volcanism and flooding). Also, Martian craters show the effects of weathering. They are shallower, have lower rims, and look much less rugged than most lunar craters.

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Student Version

It is time to make some craters!

The following activity will allow your team to explore how numerous variables influence crater formation: the size of the meteoroid, the speed of the meteoroid, the mass of the meteoroid, and the angle of impact.

Make sure to look at the parts of a crater in this picture – it will be important later in the activity!

The Necessities:
Flour and Cocoa Fairly clean dirt 3 balls the same size (approx. 1" across ) but of differing weights / masses 3 marbles/balls of different sizes Large tub or pan (plastic dishpans or double layer foil roasting pans work best) Plastic sheeting (to keep the floor clean if you’re inside) Aprons or old front button shirts (to protect clothes) Water pitcher filled with water (to create mud) Large spoons to mix the mud and sturdy plastic spoons Ruler and meter stick Baby wipes or paper towels to clean mud off skin Broom and dustpan Crater Creation Answer Sheet (on page 46) Pens, Pencils and Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
(1) Fill the large tub or pan with flour approximately 3” deep, sprinkling a little cocoa on the surface to help make the changes more visible. (2) Form a hypothesis about each cratering test prior to conducting the tests described in Step #3 and Step #5 (there are a total of 5 tests).

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Student Version

(3) With your teacher or parent’s help, conduct the four cratering tests described below. Choose one team member to record measurements and observations. C hoose another team member to drop the balls / marbles / mud into the tub. One to two team members can describe the resulting crater to the recorder. Finally, one to two team members can measure the crater diameters. You may want to switch roles between each experiment. After each crater test, smooth out the flour and sprinkle additional cocoa on the surface before you conduct another test. Experiment #1: How mass affects impact craters  Using the 3 balls that have the same size but differing masses, drop the first ball into the flour from a height of 2 meters. Record the diameter of the crater created.  Repeat the process with the remaining 2 balls. Be sure that each ball is dropped from the same height above the box. Experiment #2: How velocity affects impact craters  Using the largest marble, drop it into the flour from a height of 10cm. Record the diameter of the crater created.  Repeat the process with the same marble dropped from 1 meter above the box and 2 meters above the box.  From a height of 2 meters above the box, throw the marble into the box and record the diameter of the crater created. Experiment #3: How size of projectiles affects impact craters  Using the 3 different sized marbles, drop the smallest marble into the flour from a height of 2 meters. Record the diameter of the crater created.  Repeat the process with the remaining 2 marbles. Be sure that each marble is dropped from the same height above the box. Experiment #4: How angle of approach affects impact craters  Using the largest marble, throw it into the flour with a moderate amount of force. Record the shape and diameter of the crater created.  Using the same marble and the same amount of throwing force, repeat the process while varying the angle of the marble's approach. Be sure that the height from which the marble is thrown remains constant. (4) Now you will try making craters in a different medium - mud! Be sure you do this part of the activity outside or in an area where the floor can be covered with plastic sheeting. Also, wear aprons or old shirts over your clothes to keep them clean! (5) Empty your tub or pan of flour. Mix the dirt with some water in the tub or pan to create mud. Be careful not to add too much water – you don’t want the mud to be soupy! Then conduct the fifth experiment below. Experiment #5: How the type of surface material affects impact craters  Scoop a spoonful of mud out of the pan.  Carefully fling the mud back into the box.  Record the diameter of the crater created. Repeat this several times.  How do these craters compare to the craters you created in the flour? (6) When you are done with all five tests, compare your results with your five original hypotheses. Form a statement for each test that explains your results, and record this information in your Lab Notebook. Ask your teacher for help with this if you get stuck.

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Student Version

Crater Creations Answer Sheet
Experiment # 1: How Mass Affects Impact Craters
How do you determine an object’s mass? State your hypothesis (What do you think will happen?):

Record the following: Mass of Ball 1: Mass of Ball 2: Mass of Ball 3:

Diameter of Crater 1: Diameter of Crater 2: Diameter of Crater 3:

Experiment # 2: How Velocity Affects Impact Craters
What does velocity mean? State your hypothesis: Record the following: Diameter of crater 1 when ball is dropped from 10 cm: Diameter of crater 2 when ball is dropped from 1 meter: Diameter of crater 3 when ball is dropped from 2 meters: Diameter of crater 4 when ball is thrown from 2 meters:

Experiment # 3: How Size of Projectiles Affects Impact Craters
State your hypothesis: Diameter of crater created by smallest ball: Diameter of crater created by medium sized ball: Diameter of crater created by largest ball:

Experiment # 4: How Angle Affects Impact Craters
State your hypothesis:

Diameter of crater when ball is thrown from above: Diameter of crater when ball is thrown from ____angle: Diameter of crater when ball is thrown from ____angle:

Experiment # 5: How the type of surface material affects impact craters:
State your hypothesis:

Diameter of crater(s) when mud is flung with spoon: General Observations about craters in mud versus craters in dry sand/dirt:

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Martianscape
Adapted from the Athena Mars Exploration Rovers web site at athena.cornell.edu/k ids/home_02.html

Introduction & Purpose
Scientists now believe there was once water on Mars. Several images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission have shown channels in the planet’s surface that appear to have been formed by water erosion. This activity will demonstrate to your team how scientists can interpret landforms in order to draw conclusions about a planet’s geological history.

Objective:

Students will compare the different types of channels that can form on a planet’s surface due to water erosion.

Materials Needed:
Aluminum cookie sheet Pitcher of water Plaster of Paris Sand Paper cups Pencil or pen Popsicle stick Idaho TECH Lab Notebook Optional: water-based paints and paintbrushes

Procedure:
Complete directions for this activity are included in the Student Activity Book. Part of this activity involves predicting how different types of precipitation (amounts or patterns) cause different kinds of erosion. The students will have to think of a few aspects of rain that they can vary. If they have trouble, help get them started (ideas can include varying the angle of the tray, quantity, height, size of raindrops, etc.). Be sure the students make predictions and write them down in their Lab Notebook before starting the rainfall simulation. Have the students try a few different types of precipitation when creating their landscape (label different types on the cookie sheet), so they will be able to compare the landforms created. Compare the effects while the plaster is wet, and again when the plaster dries (it may take a day or two to completely dry). If the students would like, you can have them paint their Martianscape when dry to approximate the surface of Mars. Debriefing First, have the students compare and contrast the channels formed by the Popsicle stick and the “rain.” How are they similar? How are they different? Why do they think they are different? Have your students compare the different kinds of erosion caused by the different types of precipitation. Can they distinguish between them? Often, by looking at certain kinds of erosion, scientists can identify the type of precipitation that caused them. Can your students make any generalizations about different types of precipitation that could help predict what kind of erosion they create? If the team has completed the “Crater Creation” activity, have the students compare and contrast the landforms created by impact craters and water erosion. How are they different? If they were standing on the surface of Mars looking at two landforms, one caused by an impact crater and the other by water erosion, could they distinguish between which processes created which landform?

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Student Version

Martianscape
Adapted from the Athena Mars Exploration Rovers web site at athena.cornell.edu/k ids/home_02.html

Why should your team do this activity?
There was once water on Mars – that much is certain. How do scientists know that? They have seen channels on the Martian surface that are believed to have been created when water was in abundance sometime in Mars’ past. Here’s a way to create your own Martian channels and discover how after the water is gone, the effects of erosion (the slow wearing away of soil) are long-lasting.

The Necessities:
Aluminum cookie sheet Plaster of Paris Paper cups Popsicle sticks Pitcher filled with water Sand Pencil or pen Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
(1) Fill the aluminum cookie sheet with plaster and use a Popsicle stick to smooth it. (2) Poke several holes in the bottom of a paper cup (have your teacher help you). (3) In the next step, you will put water in the cup to simulate rainfall and watch how the water washes the plaster away. But first, your team should make some predictions. Think of a few different types of rainfall you can do with your paper cups. Will more plaster be washed away with bigger “raindrops” (you might want to poke different types of holes in several paper cups)? Will more plaster be washed away if it “rains” at different angles to the surface (by tilting the tray)? Write these predictions down in your Lab Notebook. (4) While positioning the tray at an angle, pour water from the pitcher into the cup, allowing it to “rain” down on your Martian landscape. Experiment with the different types of precipitation that you made predictions about. Mark the cookie sheet near where you “rained” a certain type of raindrop so you do not forget later. (5) In the corner, make a small channel with your Popsicle stick. (6) Sprinkle sand over the surface when you’re done and allow the plaster to dry for a few days. Compare and observe the different channels. Make notes in your Lab Notebook about the different structures formed by the “rain.” (7) For a final touch, paint your Martianscape!

What did you find?
The channels you created with water look smoother and rounder than the one you made with the stick. These same types of observations clue scientists in on how the channels on Mars were formed. Close and thorough examination of all evidence and samples from Mars can determine many more details of Mars’ past, completing the picture of t he planet’s geological history.

Further Explorations:

Try making ridges and valleys in the plaster before it dries and then “rain” on them. How do the ridges and valleys affect the patterns of erosion caused by the rain? Is the erosion similar to erosion observed before? Are “river” channels created?

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The Winds of Change
Adapted from the Athena Mars Exploration Rovers web site at athena.cornell.edu/k ids/home_07.html

Introduction & Purpose
The Martian surface frequently experiences high winds and massive dust storms that can envelop a large portion of the planet. This unique climate affects how human observers on Earth perceive the planet. This activity will show your students how wind can alter perceptions from a distance, and how wind forms a variety of surface features.

Objective:

Students will demonstrate how the wind on Mars affects how the Martian surface appears from a distance.

Materials Needed:
Red, brown, or orange modeling clay A tray or cookie sheet Sugar Pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
Complete directions for this activity are included in the Student Activity Book. Have the students make some predictions about what will happen when they blow across their landscape before they attempt the activity. Have them write their thoughts down in their Lab Notebook. Also, have them try a few different “types” of wind by altering the wind angle, wind speed, amount of time spent blowing, and the amount of sugar blown across the landscape. Encourage the students to be creative and to have fun, but be careful that they do NOT blow sugar in each other’s faces! Debriefing Once your students have spent ample time experimenting with blowing the sugar, lead them in a debriefing session. How does the force of wind create changes in the Martian surface and atmosphere? How has this impacted human perception of the Martian surface? Lead them to the answer that sand in the atmosphere and/or moving sand on the surface can obscure (or reveal) geographical features on the planet. What do the patterns that are formed on the surface look like, once the sand has settled? How can wind affect the exploration of Mars? Think about how large dust storms on Mars may affect landing site choices, mapping of the surface, navigating a rover on the surface, etc. Encourage the students to think about other activities they completed that involve how the topography of Mars is formed and altered (e.g., Crater Creation or Martianscape). How does the force of wind cause topographical features to be formed? How are these features similar to and different from impact craters and channels caused by water erosion? How are the creative forces (i.e., meteorites, moving water, and wind) similar and different? How can knowledge of these processes and their results help scientists understand more about Mars and its history?

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Student Version

The Winds of Change
Adapted from the Athena Mars Exploration Rovers web site located at athena.cornell.edu/k ids/home_07.html

Why should your team do this activity?
The Martian surface can be very windy and often experiences huge dust storms. These Martian winds and dust storms alter how Mars appears to observers here on Earth. This experiment will show you how the weather affects the way Mars appears, and how wind and weather can change the surface of the planet.

The Necessities:
Red, brown, or orange modeling clay A tray or cookie sheet Sugar Pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
(1) Use a spoon to spread a thin layer of modeling clay over the surface of the tray, making bumps to represent the surface of Mars. (2) Evenly sprinkle some sugar over the clay. (3) In the next step, you will blow across the landscape. What do you think will happen? How much sugar will move? What will it look like while it’s in the air, and after it has settled? Write down some of your ideas in your Lab Notebook. (4) Experiment with blowing across your Martian landscape and watching the affect of the moving sugar and the patterns that are formed when the sugar is allowed to settle.

What did you find?
The winds on Mars are fast and furious enough to keep the dusty sand forever suspended in the air – turning the sky a pinkish-peach color. All that wind not only moves the sand and soil from place to place, but also reveals and hides features on the surface of the planet that astronomers try to spot. How do you think Martian winds might affect the exploration of Mars?

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Geography & Mission Planning
Adapted from “The Exploration of Mars: NASA Educational Brief ”

Introduction & Purpose
The purpose of this activity is to get the team thinking about mission planning and selecting landing sites. Many factors must be considered when planning a mission to another plane t, and these decisions are often difficult but very critical because space missions are so expensive. Spacecraft must avoid hazards in order to land safely and continue the mission, and must also land in the vicinity of planetary features of interest. During this activity, your students will make some decisions about landing on a planet with which they are familiar: Earth.

Objective:

Students will find particular latitude and longitude coordinates on a world map. Students will choose landing sites on Earth based on potential hazards and potential findings.

Materials Needed:
Large world map with latitude and longitude markings Pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook Optional: an atlas

Procedure:
There is a list of questions regarding mission planning and choosing a landing site in the Student Activity Book. Students are directed to answer the questions as a team, using their map (and atlas, if available). Please encourage them to be creative, but also practical as well. Have the team record the activity in their Lab Notebook. If the team has also completed one or more of the activities entitled “Crater Creation,” “Martianscape,” or “The Winds of Change,” guide them in connecting concepts from those activities with this activity. How might the features explored in these three activities -craters, channels created by water erosion, and features affected by wind -- be related to choosing a landing site? Would scientists want to avoid or explore these features? Or both? Have students explain their thoughts, and record them in their Lab Notebook. Remember, there is not necessarily a correct answer to any of these questions. If the students enjoy this activity or enjoy being creative, have them continue to explore the topic of landing missions by encouraging them to compose creative writing stories from the perspective of a Martian who has landed on Earth at one of the landing sites they have selected.

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Student Version

Geography & Mission Planning
Adapted from “The Exploration of Mars: NASA Educational Brief ”

Why should your team do this activity?
If you were planning a mission that would land a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, where would you choose to land? Why? What kinds of factors would be most important to you in making this decision? NASA scientists must consider these same questions every time they send a mission to Mars. This activity will help your team understand how missions are planned and landing sites chosen.

Background Information:
Although a number of U.S. spacecraft flew past Mars in the 1960's and in the early 1970's, it was not until 1975 that the United States launched two orbiters / landers to explore the red planet in greater detail. Arriving at Mars in the summer of 1976, Viking 1 and Viking 2 began sending back a wide variety of data to scientists, including information about Martian weather, soil, and terrain. The chart below includes the Martian latitudes and longitudes of locations that were considered as possible landing sites for the Viking spacecraft. The actual landing sites chosen are also indicated. Latitude 22 N 20 N 44 N 46 N 46 N 7S 5S Longitude 48 W (Viking 1 landed near here) 108 E 10 W 110 W 150 E (Viking 2 landed near here) 43 W 5W

The Necessities:
Large world map with latitude and longitude markings Idaho TECH Lab Notebook Pen or pencil Optional: an atlas

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Student Version

Directions:
Using your world map and your brainpower (and atlas if you have one available), work together as a team to answer the following questions: (1) If MASA (Martian Aeronautics and Space Administration) sent spacecraft to land on Earth at each of the same latitudes and longitudes as NASA considered for Mars, where would each spacecraft land?

(2) What hazards would be encountered at each landing site? What would happen to the spacecraft? Would it detect water? Life? Human life?

(3) If you were working for MASA, which two sites would you select for a landing on Earth? Why? For each site you select, identify the ha zards that your spacecraft lander would have to survive.

(4) What would you expect to find at each landing site that you selected?

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Mars Mosaic
Introduction & Purpose
When a satellite is sent to orbit Mars, one of its missions involves taking thousands of pictures of the planet’s surface. When NASA receives the pictures back, the pictures are used to create an image mosaic – a larger image, or picture, made from combining several smaller images. This activity will help your students take two-dimensional mosaics and use them to create a three-dimensional globe of Mars, allowing them to understand distance transfer from a two-dimensional wall map and/or image to a three-dimensional object.

Objective:

Students will discover how a two-dimensional map/image translates into a three-dimensional object, and how distances are appropriately measured in each venue. Students will be engaged in viewing and interpreting satellite imagery in order to create a three-dimensional globe of Mars.

Materials Needed:
Wall map of the Earth Globe of Earth Mars mosaic (see pages 84-85) 5” Styrofoam© ball Yardstick Glue Scissors String (at a minimum, string should be the width of the wall map) Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
The Student Activity Book contains the directions for this activity. As students are working through the wall map/globe component of this activity, step back and allow students to make errors – for example, students may likely measure across the entire wall map to determine the distance between Seattle and Tokyo, or Honolulu and Paris (depending on your wall map layout), not realizing that they should measure to the edge of the map, and then from the edge to the location due to the “flattening” of the globe. Students most likely wi ll realize this error when they measure the distance between the same locations on the globe. After the students complete the measurements, discuss why students ranked distances the way they did, leading into a discussion on how two-dimensional images representing three dimensional objects, such as spheres (or planets), can be deceiving. Encourage the students to determine how the wall map would turn back into a globe. Has the map been distorted at all, or would this be an easy task (depends on your map, but most likely, the map has been distorted in order to “fit” into a two-dimensional format)? Discuss the benefits of using a two-dimensional image versus a three-dimensional globe (for example - ease of use, able to view the entire surface of a planet at the same time, etc.). As the student team is constructing the Mars globe, make note to have them cut out all of the trapezoid-like pieces separately, but to cut out the square strip as one piece. The globe will fit together better if the slight space in-between each square image remains. Use

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the circle “poles” to “best fit” the trapezoid pieces – in other words, the trapezoid pieces will need to be slightly overlapped on each side in order to fit the pole correctly. Once they are positioned to fit each pole, the square images will wrap around the center of the globe with slight overlap. Overlap is okay and very expected when trying to “merge” several mosaics. After the team creates their globe, speak with them about why the images did not fit together “perfectly.” Point out that Mars is not a perfect sphere like the Styrofoam© ball they used to create the globe, and that the images are mosaics – a combination of pictures that make a “best fit” and are designed to tell a “story” about a particular area, rather than provide every single detail as a regular photograph would do. NASA often works in a “best fit” mode in regards to imagery, hence the high use of image mosaics. Mosaics are used to help NASA mission teams learn more about an area for landing purposes, exploration, etc. It is quite common that mosaics contain several overlapping components, “not perfect” seams, and appear slightly “pieced” together. It is important that the student teams note that while mosaics are not perfect, they are very valuable in planning, and can be quite useful and convenient. Being able to understand how “piecing” together several satellite images into one master image is important, and will assist the team in discovering terrain they may have to traverse in Idaho TECH (the manual will contain several “satellite” images that when used to create a mosaic, will form a picture of possible competition courses).

Answers:
Locations Boise, Idaho, USA and Orlando, Florida, USA Paris, France, and Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Tokyo, Japan and Seattle, Washington, USA Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Seattle, Washington, USA Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Moscow, Russia ___2___ Boise, Idaho, USA and Orlando, Florida, USA ___5___ Paris, France, and Honolulu, Hawaii, USA ___4___ Tokyo, Japan and Seattle, Washington, USA ___1___ Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Seattle, Washington, USA ___3___ Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Moscow, Russia Depends on type and size of map used Ft / Inches Est. Mileage 2182 miles 7432 miles 4778 miles 1434 miles 4345 miles

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Student Version

Mars Mosaic
Why Should Your Team Do This Activity?
When a satellite is sent to orbit Mars, o ne of its missions involves taking thousands of pictures of the planet’s surface. Instead of keeping the pictures separate, scientists at NASA will put the pictures together like puzzle pieces to create what we call a mosaic – a larger image, or picture, made from combining several smaller images . This allows the scientists to view a larger area of the surface using one picture mosaic, rather than by flipping through hundreds of smaller images. The only problem in creating a mosaic is that the pictures they take and put together are flat, or two-dimensional, and we know that Mars is round, or three-dimensional! In order to find the best landing spots for the Rovers and better describe the landscape, scientists need to be able to construct a three-dimensional “globe” using the two-dimensional mosaics they create. This is exactly what you will be doing today! In this activity, you will learn how scientists at NASA take two-dimensional mosaics and use them to create a globe of Mars. You will also be comparing distances across a flat wall map to help you see how flat maps and globes show the same places in slightly different ways. When you are done, your team will have your very own Mars globe!

The Necessities:
Wall map of the Earth Globe of Earth Mars mosaic (see pages 67-68) 5” Styrofoam© ball Yardstick Glue Scissors String (at a minimum, string should be the width of the wall map) Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
(1) Using your wall map of Earth and the piece of string, estimate the distances between the following places by comparing how much string it takes to get from one place to the other and then measuring that distance using your yard stick. Use the map’s mileage legend to estimate the mileage between locations in order to complete the table below. Locations Boise, Idaho, USA and Orlando, Florida, USA Paris, France, and Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Tokyo, Japan and Seattle, Washington, USA Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Seattle, Washington, USA Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Moscow, Russia Ft / Inches Est. Mileage

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Student Version

(2) Now, rank the distances from 1-5, with 1 being the shortest distance, and 5 being the longest distance. _______ Boise, Idaho, USA and Orlando, Florida, USA _______ Paris, France, and Honolulu, Hawaii, USA _______ Tokyo, Japan and Seattle, Washington, USA _______ Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Seattle, Washington, USA _______ Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Moscow, Russia (3) Now, using your globe of the Earth, estimate the distances between the same places and rank them again based on your measurements from the globe. Enter mileage in the table below if your globe has a mileage legend for you to use. Locations Boise, Idaho, USA and Orlando, Florida, USA Paris, France, and Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Tokyo, Japan and Seattle, Washington, USA Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Seattle, Washington, USA Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Moscow, Russia _______ Boise, Idaho, USA and Orlando, Florida, USA _______ Paris, France, and Honolulu, Hawaii, USA _______ Tokyo, Japan and Seattle, Washington, USA _______ Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Seattle, Washington, USA _______ Anchorage, Alaska, USA and Moscow, Russia Inches Est. Mileage

What Did You Find?
Did you rank the locations in the same way when you used the wall map and then the globe? If you take the two ends of your wall map and bring them together to form a cylinder, does it look like globe? Why or why not? Do Anchorage and Moscow look closer together, further apart or the same on the wall map or the globe? How are these two ways of representing the same places different?

On to Mars!
Using the picture mosaic of Mars taken by NASA satellites below, cut out the mosaic pieces, and glue the pieces to your Styrofoam© ball to make a three-dimensional Mars globe “mosaic” of your own. As you do this, think about why the pieces are shaped the way they are. Why can’t NASA scientists create their own globe by gluing a large, continuous image around the ball? Do the images line up perfectly, or do they overlap some? Why do you think that is?

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Student Version

To better understand what types of pictures NASA combines to create mosaics, your team should complete the “What on Earth Mars?” activity that starts on page 97. Once images are taken, scientists also look for mountains and valleys using radar in order to determine more about the landscape – much like your team can do in the “Mapping Unknown Surfaces” activity on page 93. If you want to create another Mars globe, your team can use a slightly different NASA image located at photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia02992. The image below was obtained from

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Student Version

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NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry NS.5-8.7 Histor y and Natur e of Science

Strange New Planet
Adapted from NASA ’s “Mars Activities: Teacher Resources and Classroom Activiti es – Strange New Planet” at mars.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/pdfs/MSIP-MarsActivities.pdf

Introduction & Purpose
This activity will help your students further understand the processes involved in planetary exploration by demonstrating how planetary features are discovered through the use of remote sensing techniques.

Objective:

Students will be engaged in making multi-sensory observations, gathering data, and simulating spacecraft missions.

Materials Needed:
A “Planet,” which can be created from any one or more of the following materials:  Plastic balls  Modeling clay and/or Playdoh©  Inflated balloons  Styrofoam© balls  Round fruit – such as a cantaloupe, pumpkin, orange, grapes, etc. Vinegar, perfume, or other scents Small stickers, sequins, candy, marbles, or other small, interesting items Cotton balls Toothpicks Objects that can be pierced with a toothpick to make a moon Glue (if needed) Towel (to drape over planet) Pins or tacks A “Viewer” per student, such as empty paper towel or toilet paper rolls A 5” x 5” blue cellophane square per student One rubber band per student Masking tape to mark the observation distances Student data collection questions (in the Student Activity Book) Pens or pencils Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
Selecting a planet – Create a planet in the absence of the students. Choose an object such as a plastic ball or fruit (cantaloupe, etc.) that allows for multi-sensory observations. Decorate the object with stickers, scents, etc. to make the object interesting to observe. Some of the materials should be placed discretely so they are not obvious upon brief or distant inspection. Some suggestions for features are:  Create clouds by using cotton and glue  Carve channels in the ball (if possible)  Attach a grape using a toothpick (to make moons or orbiting satellites)  Affix small stickers or embed other objects into the planet  Apply scent sparingly to a small area

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Set-up - Place the planet on a desk in the back of the room, and cover the planet before allowing the students into the classroom. Brief the students on their task: To explore a strange new planet. Explain that their exploration will occur in a series of phases, just like space exploration. There will be four phases: (1) pre-launch reconnaissance; (2) a fly-by mission; (3) an orbiter mission; and (4) a lander mission. Have the students construct viewers by using empty paper towel or toilet paper rolls, or by rolling loose-leaf paper into a tube. These viewers should be used at all times when observing the planet. Sometimes, the students will be limited as to how close or for how long they can make observations. Explain that this is how the various phases of space exploration will be simulated. Also, make sure students have their student data collection questions, which are located in the Student Activity Book – one set for each phase of the exploration. Encourage use of all senses during observation, except taste unless specifically called for.

Space Exploration Phases
Pre-launch Reconnaissance The first phase simulates Earth-bound observations. Arrange students against the side of the room, far away from where the planet sits (it should still be covered at this time). This area where the students are standing will be referred to as Mission Control. A blue cellophane sheet should be placed on the end of the viewers, taped or held in place by a rubber band. The cellophane helps simulate how objects appear when viewed through Earth’s atmosphere. Once the students have fitted their viewers with the cellophane paper, remove the towel and expose the planet. Have the students observe the planet for one minute. Replace the towel after time expires. Let the team then discuss and record their observations of the planet in their Lab Notebook. At this point, most of the observations will be visual and will include color, shape, texture, and position. The team should also compose questions to be explored in the future fly-by, orbiter, and lander missions. Mission 1: The Fly-by (Mariner 4 in 1965, Mariner 6 & 7 in 1969) Have the students remove the cellophane from their viewers. Now the team will have one chance to quickly walk past one side of the planet and observe it through their viewers (the other side should remain draped under the towel). A distance of five feet from the planet must be maintained during this “fly-by.” Once the fly-by is complete, replace the towel over the entire planet, and have the team reconvene at Mission Control. Have the team record their observations in their Lab Notebook and discuss what they will look for on their next mission (inform the students that the next mission will be an orbiter mission). Mission 2: The Orbiter (Mariner 9 in 1971-72, Vik ing 1 & 2 Orbiters in 1976-80, Mars Global Surveyor in
1996-present, 2001 Mars Odyssey in 2001-present, Mars Express Orbiter in 2003-present)

During this mission, the team has a total of two minutes to orbit (circle) the planet, one person at a time, at a distance of two feet. You might want to help them determine how long each member has to orbit, so everyone has the same amount of time for observation. While orbiting, have the students observe distinguishing features through their viewer and record this data back at Mission Control. The team will need to develop a plan for their landing mission using this data and previously collected information. The plans should include the landing site and features to be examined once on the planet. Have the students record these plans in their Lab Notebook.

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Mission 3: The Lander (Vik ing 1 & 2 Landers in 1976-82, Mars Pathfinder in 1997, 2003 Mars
Exploration Rovers in 2003-present )

On this mission, the team will approach their landing site and mark it with a pin or tack, or masking tape if the planet will pop by using a pin. Team members will then take turns observing the landing site with their viewers. The team has a total of five minutes to make these observations. Again, you may want to help them determine how long each member has to view the landing site. Field of view is kept constant by the team members aligning their viewers so the pin is on the inside and top of their viewers. Within this field of view, students should enact their mission plan. After five minutes, have the team return to Mission Control to discuss and record their findings in their Lab Notebook.

Debriefing Now that the team has simulated planetary exploration through several different missions, have them think about which phases were more conducive to making different kinds of observations. Which planetary features were easiest to observe at each phase? Which features were more difficult to observe? Did different team members notice different features than other members? Was it necessary to complete a ll phases of the mission before being able to accurately describe the planet? Is further exploration necessary? What would they like to explore on this planet with a rover mission? What kinds of tests would they like to perform on the surface? How did they formulate their plans for exploration? How did they choose their landing site? What factors did they consider? Was it difficult to come to consensus while making such decisions? Tie this activity to any activities the team has already completed that addresses topography, mission planning, or landing site choice.

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Student Version

Strange New Planet
Adapted from NASA ’s “Mars Activities: Teacher Resources and Classroom Activities – Strange New Planet” located at mars.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/pdfs/MSIP-MarsActivities.pdf

Why should your team do this activity?
Your team should now be somewhat familiar with Mars, the planet your Rover will be designed to navigate and explore. Why do we send rovers to planets in the first place? Well, different kinds of spacecraft are able to make different kinds of observations . Think about how different the information gathered by looking at a planet from Earth is from the information that a rover might collect. The information that a rover can gather about rock materials on the surface of Mars is much more specific than what an astronomer can collect simply by looking through a telescope. Yet the astronomer’s information is necessary to successfully land and operate a rover on the surface of another planet , right?. As you will see, each kind of mission has its advantages and drawbacks. During this activity, your team will explore a strange new planet, one that your teacher has made especially for you. You will explore this planet just like NASA explores Mars. As you make observations, you will make decisions about what your team would like to explore further. Your observations will continually refine the goals of your exploration. During the last phase of exploration, you will land on the surface and carry out your investigations. Happy exploring!

The Necessities:
A planet (your teacher will provide this) Planetary viewers, one for each team member (your teacher will help you with this) One 5 inch by 5 inch blue piece of cellophane paper and rubber band per member Pen or pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
Your teacher will guide your team through this activity. Be sure you read through each mission before you perform it. Respond to the questions in your Lab Notebook. Pre-Launch Reconnaissance – Earth-bound observations (1) Estimate your distance from the planet in meters. (2) Using your viewers (with blue cellophane attached to simulate Earth’s atmosphere), observe the planet for one minute. What types of things does your team observe? Record any observations (shape of planet, color, size, etc.) in your Notebook. (3) As a team, write questions to be explored in future missions to the planet. What else do you wish to know and how will you find out that information (special features of the planet, life of any kind, etc.)?

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Student Version

Mission 1: The Fly-By (Mariner 4 in 1965, Mariner 6 & 7 in 1969) Using your viewers with the cellophane removed, your team will quickly walk past one side of the planet. A distance of five feet needs to be maintained from the planet. Your team will then meet back at Mission Control. (1) Record your observations of the planet. What did you see that was the same as your Earth observations? What did you see that was different? Can you hypothesize (make a science guess) as to why there were any differences? (2) List the team ideas of what you want to observe on your orbiting mission. Mission 2: The Orbiter (Mariner 9 in 1971-72, Vik ing 1 & 2 Orbiters in 1976-80, Mars Global Surveyor in
1996-present, 2001 Mars Odyssey in 2001 -present, Mars Express in 2003-present)

Using your viewers, your team will take a total of two minutes to orbit (circle) the planet at a distance of two feet. Divide the two minutes by the number of team members to get the time each person has to orbit the planet. After your orbit, return to Mission Control. (1) Record your observations of the planet. What did you see that was the same as in your reconnaissance or fly-by missions? What did you see that was different? Can you hypothesize as to why there were any differences? (2) As a team, develop a plan for your landing expedition onto the planet’s surface.

   

Where will you go and why? How did your team decide where to land? What are the risks or benefits of landing there? What specifically do you want to explore at this site? What type of special equipment or instruments would you need in order to accomplish your exploration goals? (Remember, anything you bring has to be small and light enough to bring on a spacecraft!)

Mission 3: The Lander (Vik ing 1 & 2 Landers in 1976-82, Mars Pathfinder Rover [“S ojourner”] in 1997,
2003 Mars Exploration Rovers [“Spirit” & “Opportunit y”] in 2003 -present)

Your team will approach your landing site and mark it with a pin, tack or masking tape. Each team member will take a turn observing the landing site through the viewer. Field of view (the area that you can see through your viewer) is kept constant by aligning the viewer so the pin is located inside and at the top of the viewer. Your team has a total of five minutes to view the landing site, so make sure everyone has time to view the site. After each member views the landing site, return to Mission Control. (1) Now that you have landed, what do you think you can accomplish at this site? (2) How long (in days) will it take you to get the job accomplished? (3) Was your mission successful? Why or why not? (4) What were the greatest challenges of this mission (personally and as a team)? What would you change for the next mission?

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Mapping Unknown Surfaces
Adapted from an activity entitled “Mapping Unk nown Surfaces” from the Americ an Museum of Nat ural History web site at www. amnh. org/ rose/mars/mapping.html

Introduction & Purpose
Most people do not often think about how scientists arrive at data about other planets. Much of this information is gathered indirectly. One example is the creation of threedimensional maps. Scientists use radar and photographs to compile three-dimensional maps of far away planets using techniques similar to those used in this activity. This activity should get your students thinking about how difficult it is to take meaningful measurements of other planets, and just how amazing it is that we know so much about other planets without ever having been there ourselves.

Objective:

Students will simulate radar data collection to determine if a safe landing site exists on a landscape. They will also use this data to create a topographical map of the landscape.

Materials Needed:
Shoebox or similar cardboard box with a lid Modeling clay, Playdoh©, stucco, or rocks Awl or similar long, narrow, sharp pointed tool - be careful! Data sheet (in Student Activity Book) A few wooden skewers Pencil Marker Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Procedure:
This activity requires the following preparation: Create a landscape box - Create an uneven landscape in a box, including craters, mountains, and valleys, using modeling clay, Playdoh©, or similar materials. Leave at least one 4 centimeter by 4 centimeter square area relatively flat within the box, with less than a one centimeter change in elevation, which will serve as a landing site for spacecraft (you can leave more than one if you wish). Use an awl or similar tool to punch holes in the box lid approximately 2 cm apart in a grid-like pattern (use the data sheet in the Student Activity Book as a guide). Finally, label the grid -- letters across the top, and numbers down the side. Make data collection instruments - On the wooden skewers, measure out and draw centimeter markings with a marker so the students can use them as measurement tools.

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After this preparation is complete, have the students refer to the directions in the Student Activity Book to complete the activity. Each student will take several measurements through each hole with a skewer, and then record each measurement on their data sheet next to the corresponding dot. Have the students record their data consistently - for example, always above the dot, always to the right of the dot, etc. for data accuracy. The students will have to try to determine if there is a safe landing site for a spacecraft using their collected data. Have the students hypothesize where a safe landing site may be from the initial measurements taken. Finally, have the students connect an area of dots that contain equal measurements on the data sheet to make a topographical map (see example below). This may be a difficult concept for them to grasp, so be sure to provide plenty of explanation before the students begin to make the map. It may help to draw an example on the board, explaining your thought process as you make the topographic map, to help your students understand the concept. Once the students have created their topographic map, have them review their hypothesis, changing it if necessary. Then allow them to open the box and look at the real landscape. Are all of the features of the landscape represented on the map? Which ones did they miss? Why? How accurate is the radar method they used? How could they improve the accuracy? One idea is to take measurements closer together by using a finer-scale grid. Is the selected landing site in the box really a safe place for a spacecraft to land? Why or why not? Have the team record their observations, ideas and thoughts in their Lab Notebook.

Potential landing site

Potential landing site

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Student Version

Mapping Unknown Surfaces
Adapted from “Mapping Unk nown Surfaces ” from the American Mus eum of Natural History web site located at www.amnh.org/rose/mars/mapping.html

Why should your team do this activity?
We always want to know what the surface of a planet is like. Sometimes we can’t see it, like in the case of Venus. On Venus, a thick cloud layer covers the surface of the planet. Sometimes on Mars, massive dust storms can obscure the surface in the same way. Other times, we can see the surface and take a picture of it. But these images are twodimensional. We have no definite information on depth. To find out the high and low points of a planet’s surface, scientists use radar to map the landscape. A spacecraft orbiting the planet beams radar down to the surface and then measures how long it takes for the reflection to come back. A shorter time means a higher surface; a longer time means a lower surface. In this way, we can create a three-dimensional picture of the landscape. In this activity, you will be given a hidden landscape. You will take “radar” measurements to create a three-dimensional map of a planet’s surface. Using this data, you will then determine if there is a safe landi ng site for a spacecraft and construct a topographical map.

The Necessities:
Hidden Landscape (your teacher will provide the landscape) Thin wooden skewers with centimeter markings (your teacher will provide these) Data sheet (see page 58) Pencil Idaho TECH Lab Notebook

Directions:
(1) Insert a skewer straight down into a hole until it will not go down any further. (2) Read the measurement for how far down the skewer went. (3) Write each measurement on the data sheet near the dot that corresponds to the hole you measured. Be consistent about where you write your data – always below the dot, or always to the right of the dot, etc. Let each member of the team take several measurements. (4) After you take measurements for all the holes, examine your data. Is there a square area that is 2 holes by 2 holes where all the measurements are the same or differ by no more than 1 centimeter? Would this be a safe landing spot for a spacecraft? (5) Now draw lines connecting equal measurements to create a topographic map of your surface (have your teacher show you an example). (6) Remove the top of the landscape box. Are all of the features of the landscape represented on your map? Which did you miss? Why? Record your thoughts in your Lab Notebook.

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Student Version

Data Sheet

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NS.5-8.1 Science as Inquiry NS.5-8.7 Histor y and Natur e of Science

What on Earth Mars?
Adapted from Hawai’i Space Grant’s “Mars Landform Identification” activity at www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/MarsQuizTe. html

Introduction & Purpose
This is an excellent culminating activity for students who have completed the activities involving how the surface features of Mars were created (primarily meteorites, water, or wind). If your students have not yet completed the “Crater Creation,” “Martianscape,” or “The Winds of Change” activities, it is recommended that they do so before attempting this activity. They will gain knowledge and experience about Martian landforms in those activities that is crucial to their success in this activity. This activity uses ten photographs, most of which were taken by Viking Orbiter cameras, to demonstrate nine different features on the surface of Mars -- impact craters, volcanoes / volcanic craters, river valleys, river beds, dry lake beds, polygonal ground, lava flows, sand dunes, and fractures. Each of these features is defined and described in the Student Activity Book. The students will examine these photographs, and then identify landforms, interpret what they see, and answer questions about each photograph.

Objective:

Students will use their knowledge about Martian landforms to interpret several photographs of Mars.

Materials Needed:
10 photographs of Mars (in Student Activity Book) Pens and/or pencils Scratch paper Idaho TECH Lab Notebook Optional: colored pencils, markers, or other coloring implements

Procedure:
Have the team read through the background information located in the Student Activity Book. Understanding the definitions of the boldface terms is crucial to completing this activity. To verify that the students fully comprehend the terms, have them take turns explaining what each landform looks like and how it is created. You may want to take time to review the “Crater Creation,” “Martianscape,” or “The Winds of Change” activities to remind the team of features about which they have already learned. Once the team is comfortable with the terminology, have them examine the ten images in the Student Activity Book. They should respond to the questions next to each image and record their answers in their Lab Notebook. The table located before the images should also be completed by filling in various landforms, as they are identified.

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A Quick Note…….
 Remember -- NASA does not know everything about Mars, so do not let the team
become frustrated – instead, encourage creativity!  If the team wishes, they can code the landforms by coloring each feature a different color. For example, the team could color all impact craters orange and all volcanoes / volcanic craters blue. Image Answers Below is the completed version of the chart the students will complete for this activity:
Image #1 Image #2 Image #3 Image #4 Image #5 Image #6 Image #7 Image #8 Image #9 Image #10

Number of different features Impact craters Volcanoes / volcanic craters River valley River bed Dry lake bed Polygonal ground Lava flows Sand dunes Fractures

2 X X

2 X

2 X

3 X X

2 X

3 X

2 X

3 X

2 X

3 X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

For reference and debriefing purposes, the images and questions the students are asked to respond to in this activity are included below. Please note that the students’ images are larger, clearer, and include a scale.

Image 1 – Mars Hemisphere
This photograph shows Mars from 2,500 km above the surface. It is a mosaic of 102 images taken by the Viking I spacecraft in 1976. This view shows some large impact craters and volcanoes. Each volcano is 25 km tall and about 350 km in diameter. Valles Marineris, a huge 4,800 km canyon, can be seen across the middle.

Volcanoes Impact Craters

Student Questions: (1) What do you think the feature across the middle of this picture of Mars is? How do you think it was formed? (2) What do you think the circles on the left side are? Why?

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Image 2 -

(34.79N, 309.14W) Impact Craters Craters, formed when meteors strike a surface, cover much of Mars. These craters are located in the heavily cratered uplands about 5,500 km east of Ares Vallis (the Ares Valley). When one impact happens near another, the resulting craters overlap. The squiggles in the bottom of the two upper craters are dune fields; wind is a significant factor in this area. The craters have two ejecta patterns-lobed (to the left) and striated (below). Lobed patterns suggest that water-rich material, such as mud, flowed upon impact. Striated patterns are caused when an impact propels material across the surface at high speeds.

Sand Dunes Student Questions:

(1) In what order were these circular features formed? How can you tell? (2) What do you think formed these circular features – wind, water, or a meteorite? Why do you think so?
Image 3

Image 3 - (27.4°S, 44.2°W)
Student Questions: (1) What do you think created the feature across the middle of this picture? Have you ever seen anything like it on Earth? (2) Does anything in this picture look interesting to investigate on a rover mission? Do you see any places where a spacecraft could land to deploy a rover? (3) Do you think a rover could navigate from the top of the picture to the bottom?

Image 4 -

(2.0°N, 124.0°W)
Image 4

Student Questions: (1) Describe some characteristics of what you think made this circular feature – was it large or small? At what kind of angle did it form these features? Write down any ideas you have in your Lab Notebook. (2) What can you tell about the nature of the surface at this site from the linear patterns formed in the surface? From the circular feature?

Image 5 -

(31.5°N, 245.0°W)
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Image 5

Student Questions: (1) How do these circular features look different than those that you have examined in Images 2 and 4? What does this difference tell you about the surface in this area? (2) Do the geometric patterns in the lower half of the picture support your ideas about the surface from the previous question? Why or why not?

Image 6 -

(7.5°N, 101.7°W)
Image 6

Student Questions: (1) What do you think created the features in the lower half of this picture? Why? (2) How big are these features? tell? How can you

Image 7

Image 7 -

(13.0°S, 183.0°W)

Student Questions: (1) What do you think formed the streaky lines that run diagonally across the middle of this picture – water, wind, or meteorites? Why do you think so? (2) What do you think created the circular features? (3) Which were formed first, the streaky lines or the circular features? Why do you think so? Image 8 - (7.3°N, 30.5°W)
Image 8
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Student Questions: (1) Does this look like an interesting place to investigate with a rover? What would you like to explore? Why? (2) Would this be a good place to land a spacecraft to deploy a rover? Why or why not? (3) Would this be a safe place to navigate a rover? Why or why not?

Image 9 -

(22.0°S, 140.0°W)
Image 9

Student Questions: (1) How many different sizes of impact craters do you see in this picture? (2) What could have made these craters be so different in size?

Image 10 - (27.0°N, 58.0°W)
This image shows a rich diversity of geological processes. There are fractured ridged plains (top center), craters as big as 100 km, lobed ejecta blankets, an enormous channel, and wide streaks (going in the opposite direction of the former water flow). Student Questions: Fractures (1) How many different kinds of landforms do you see
in this picture (this was left blank in your table on purpose!)?

(2) How do you think each of these landforms was
created? Why? Impact Craters

(3) In what order were these landforms created?
What clues in the picture led you to this decision?

Riverbed

(4) What are the streaks in the middle and bottom
center parts of the picture? What do these streaks tell you about the history of the Martian surface?

Debriefing Compare student charts with the answer chart and discuss any discrepancies. Were some landforms easier to identify than others were? Did shadows (sun angle) help make some
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features easier to see? Which landforms would you like to explore the most? Which areas look like they would be the safest landing sites? Why? If the team completed the “Crater Creation” activity prior to this one, challenge the students to identify and name the parts of an impact crater (e.g., ejecta blanket, rim, wall, etc.) in each photo. Also, take the time to review the questions about each photo. Student answers to the questions will vary. Instead of judging their responses as right or wrong, look for sound, supporting evidence for their conclusions. Remember that even NASA does not know everything, so your students’ responses may be better than what NASA has! Reward the students for solid justifications and creativity. If they are interested in what NASA thinks about these areas, have them do the “Further Explorations” section of this activity. Finally, as a group, review the team’s responses to the last set of questions that link this exercise with the Mars Rover Challenge (included below). Encourage them to brainstorm and think ahead to their Rover design. Have students write their responses in their Lab Notebook: (1) Your Idaho TECH Engineering Team will be designing and constructing a model Mars Rover. What types of terrain must your Rover be able to navigate over and through if it were to travel on Mars? What do you think Mars’ surface is like to touch, to walk on, and to drive on? Refer to the Rules & Regulations link on the Idaho TECH web page (http://isgc.uidaho.edu/idahotech) to determine what your Rover must be able to do at the Preliminary Design Competition. Do you have any questions about the Competition yet? Feel free to email any questions!

(2) (3)

Further Explorations:
Use the latitude & longitude coordinates on each photo to locate the areas on a map or globe of Mars. Then conduct some research online about each of these areas on Mars. What does NASA think about these landforms?

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Student Version

What on Earth Mars?
Why should your team do this activity?
Photographs taken from orbit give us a closer look at the surface of Mars. Much of our knowledge about Mars was obtained by looking at and interpreting pictures, just like your team will do in this activity. If your team has completed the activities “Crater Creation,” “Martianscape,” or “The Winds of Change,” you probably already know about some of the features that scientists use to interpret pictures of Mars. In this activity, your Engineering Team will learn a little more about such features before looking at pictures. Then your team will work together to examine pictures of Mars, discuss the features in each image, and hypothesize about what may have caused each feature.

The Necessities :
10 Martian photographs (on following pages) Data Table (on page 105) Pen or pencil Scratch paper Idaho TECH Lab Notebook Optional: colored pencils or markers

Background Information:
Your team will need to know the following terms:

 impact crater - a roughly circular hole created when something hits the surface. The     
floor of the crater is below the surrounding landscape. You may see a raised rim or deposits of debris ringing the crater. volcano - a mountain formed by lava and/or erupted materials. A volcanic crater is a depression at the summit of a volcano. In contrast to craters made by impact, volcanic craters are above the surrounding plain. river valley - a winding channel carved by water; may have multiple branches that make a pattern resembling a branching tree. river bed - a type of river valley with a wider, flatter floor; may contain streamlined islands. dry lake bed - an irregularly shaped depression. polygonal ground - a surface pattern (wedges of polygonal shapes) generally attributed to the alternate freezing and thawing of soil layers containing water or ice. The size of the polygons is believed to be directly related to the thickness of the soil layer (i.e., thicker soils produce larger polygons). The implication for Mars: presence of liquid water at some time in the past. lava flow - a place where magma broke out from underground onto the surface. sand dune - a hill or ridge of wind-deposited sand. fracture - a straight groove or line on the surface where rock has been broken. wind streak - a dark streak; they have been interpreted as deposits of salt and coarse-grained particles from craters, but it seems the most widely accepted idea is that they are wind erosion features. This means the dark streaks are erosional zones - surfaces that have had fine-grained particles stripped away. The difference in brightness is probably due to a difference in the particles themselves. Generally,
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   

Student Version

fine-grained materials are lighter-colored because they are weathered more rapidly than the larger particles. Alternatively, dark streaks are probably dark-colored, siltand clay-sized particles deflated from the adjacent crater floor. Deflation is defined as the sorting out, lifting, and removal of loose, dry, fine-grained material by wind action. The orientation of the streaks indicates the direction of the wind at the time they formed. So differences in orientation may be due to local topographic influences on wind direction or to changes in wind patterns.

Directions :
First, make sure your team has read through the background information. Understanding the boldface terms is crucial to completing this activity, so if you have any questions at all, ask your teacher for help. Remember that the Internet is a good source of information too. Look through the ten images on the following pages. These images were taken during the Viking Orbiter missions to Mars (except Image 10). Try to answer the questions next to each image. Remember that even NASA does not know everything about Mars, so be creative! Your ideas may be even better than what NASA has! Record your answers in your Idaho TECH Lab Notebook. Also, record which features you see in each photograph in the table below (the first image is already done for you!):



If your team wants to, color code the pictures by coloring each feature a different color. For example, color all impact craters orange and all volcanoes/volcanic craters blue.
Image #1 Image #2 Image #3 Image #4 Image #5 Image #6 Image #7 Image #8 Image #9 Image #10

# of different features in photo Impact craters Volcanoes/ volcanic craters River valley River bed Dry lake bed Polygonal ground Lava flows Sand dunes Fractures

2 X X

2

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

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More Fun on the Web
Introduction & Purpose
This page is a list of web site resources specifically designed for teache r use. Refer to the Student Activity Book for additional web site resources that will link your Idaho TECH team(s) to more activities and research opportunities!

Activities and Information About Mars & Space Exploration:
NASA Quest: NASA Quest is a rich resource for educators, kids and space enthusiasts who are interested in meeting and learning about NASA people and the national space program. quest.arc.nasa.gov/index.html NASA Explores: This NASA web site provides weekly lesson plans for grades K-4, 5-8, and 9-12. Topics will be selected from current NASA Aerospace Technology and Human Exploration of Space topics. www.nasaexplores.com Science@NASA: Newsletter of science stories and i nvolvement projects that bring the cutting edge to adults interested in science. science.nasa.gov/news/subscribe.asp?checked=sngsw NASA’s Mars Exploration Program: NASA’s official Mars exploration site. Use this site as a reference or click on the “Mars for Educators” link for workshops, classroom resources, and education programs about Mars. mars.jpl.nasa.gov Amazing Space: This site uses the Hubble Telescope’s discoveries to inspire and educate about the wonders of the universe. Includes online space explorations for the classroom, teaching tools such as readings and graphic organizers, etc. amazing-space.stsci.edu Live From Earth and Mars: This site includes information about Pacific Northwest weather, online workshop materials, project ideas, and activities for a mission to Mars. Click on the “Teaching Tools” link for interactive educational modules, which are the heart of "Live from Earth and Mars.” www-k12.atmos.Washington.edu/k12/index.html Idaho NASA Educator Resource Center: An online catalog of videos, computer software, slides, and other supplemental resources available to K-12 teachers involving geography,meteorology, astronomy, etc. http://isgc.uidaho.edu/nasaerc

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Student Version

More Fun on the Web
The following web sites are resources for more activities and fun with space exploration – Enjoy!

Program Information:
Idaho TECH: The official Idaho TECH web site http://isgc.uidaho.edu/idahotech NASA ISGC: The official web site for the NASA Idaho
Space Grant Consortium

http://isgc.uidaho.edu NASA Homepage: The official web site of the National
Aeonautics and Space Administration

http://www.nasa.gov/

Information & Activities Related to Mars:
Mars Map-A-Planet: Allows you to get an image map of any area on Mars . http://pdsmaps.wr.usgs.gov/PDS/public/explorer/html/marseasy.htm Mars Exploration Program: Learn about all the different missions that NASA currently
has at Mars, or planned for future Mars exploration.

mars.jpl.nasa.gov NASA Quest – Mars Team Online: Extensive information about the Mars Pathfinder
& Mars Global Surveyor missions.

quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/ Mars Exploration - Just for Kids: Information about Mars missions, the science and
technology of exploring Mars, and a Fun Zone for kids with lots of great activities.

mars.jpl.nasa.gov/kids/index.html 2001 Mars Odyssey Fun Zone!: Click on Odyssey Home on the left side of the blue
bar at the top of the page on this web site to find cool stuff about the Odyssey mission.

mars.jpl.nasa.gov/odyssey/funzone.html
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Imagine Mars: Interact with scientists, engineers, artists, architects, and community
leaders to learn about Mars.

Student Version

imaginemars.jpl.nasa.gov/index4.html 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers: Learn about the
progress of Spirit and Opportunity, the Rovers currently on Mars, and see awesome photos and facts!

marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.html

Information About Astronauts:
So You Want to be an Astronaut?:
Learn about the benefits and challenges of being an astronaut.

liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/astronauts/wannabe.html

Cool Sites About Space:
Spaceday: On this site you’ll find descriptions of the Space Day Design Challenges and
what to expect if you participate in the competition. You’ll also find cool games to play.

www.spaceday.org The Nine 8 Planets: A multimedia tour of the Solar System by Bill Arnett. www.nineplanets.org The Space Place: Information and cool interactive activities related to space science.
There are even pages to do and make “spacey things!”

spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/ NASA Kids: A site with activities, games, projects, and more! www.nasakids.com Mars Map-A-Planet: Allows you to get an image map of any area on Mars. http://pdsmaps.wr.usgs.gov/maps.html

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Student Version

StarChild – A Learning Center for Young Astronomers : Visit this site to learn
more about the Solar System, the Universe, or other Space Stuff!

starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/StarChild.html Astronomy Picture of the Day: Check out a new astronomy picture every day! antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html Window to the Universe Kids’ Space: Fun activities and games for kids. www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/kids_space/kids_space.html Welcome to the Planets: A complete collection of information about and images of the
bodies of our Solar System.

pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/ The NASA Science Files: Join the Tree House Detectives as they solve problems
using their math, science, and technology skills!

scifiles.larc.nasa.gov/kids/inside_treehouse.html Astro-Venture: Astro-Ferrett will help you build your own planet! quest.arc.nasa.gov/projects/astrobiology/astroventure/avhome.html

See your team at competition! Have fun creating and designing your Rover!

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