Alphabet Soup –Carl Borleis The “alphabet soup” term is defined in red. An example of an appropriate accommodation or area of awareness a teacher should have about a person with this disability is listed in blue for easy reference. FAPE (Free and Appropriate Public Education): Part of legislative act requiring public schools to provide free and appropriate education – students can not be denied access to education due to disability. A School District can not deny a severely handicapped individual because of the added cost represented by the admission of said student. ED (Emotional Disability or Emotional Disturbance): A disability regarding a student’s emotional state/behavior – ODD would be an example. Providing clear, consistent, and well-enforced rules would be a specific way to deal with ODD. LD (Learning Disability): A wide ranging disability signified by a student’s inability to learn at a set/average pace of other students. Many factors may be part of this disability: lack of proper schema, differently-connected neurotransmitters, etc… Provide the student with additional time to work and present the material to them in smaller chunks. OHI (Other Health Impaired): This is a “catch-all category for Impairments that may not be covered in other categories. May include severe allergies, physical/mental ailments, etc. …Treat all people with dignity and respect their needs for accommodation – whatever that may be. MR (Mental Retardation): This is a collection of several disabilities effecting the cognitive development of an individual. Downs Syndrome would be an example. People with MR are not usually unable to learn, but may take additional time and smaller chunks of information to be able to process. The amount of additional/repetitive practice may need to be increased. IEP (Individualized Education Plan): An education plan that is specific to an individual student with any range/number of disability listing various accommodations that will be given to the student to aid/assist in that student’s education. A possible accommodation for a person with a LD in reading may be to have tests read to the person and/or answers recorded by a Para or other member of the education community. LRE (Least Restrictive Environment): This provides for an environment for a student that is the least restrictive to that individual’s education. In many cases, this means inclusion in a regular classroom environment, but in other situations it can be removal from a classroom if that is best for the student (perhaps in the case of a severe ADD student in order to minimize distractions). TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury): This would indicate some injury to the brain (usually after childbirth) that is not genetic in nature. The injury could have been sustained during a car accident, but the resulting injury has impaired the brain functions and accommodations are needed to assist in the student’s education. Daily activities may include either/both physical therapy or/and cognitive/psychomotor exercises. (i.e. Student may need material provided in predominately auditory formats if damage has occurred to visual areas of the brain.) VI (Visual Impairment): This is an indication of some disability in the visual aspect of a person where their visual functionality is less than 20/20. Acute nearsightedness would be an example. Providing enlarged print, enlarged images, magnification ability, and/or oral descriptions of events could be some possible accommodations. HI (Hearing Impairment): This is an indication of some disability in the auditory aspect of a person where their auditory functionality is compromised. A person that needs a hearing aid would be an example. Provide visual enhancements. Depending on severity of the impairment, amplification devices may be used to allow student to hear auditory material. ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act): This is a legislative act that provides for universal accommodations to be made to public buildings (or buildings providing access to the public) that allow access to individuals with a broad scope of disabilities (physical, visual, auditory, etc.). An example would be wheel chair ramps in lieu of (or adjacent to) an outdoor staircase. Students may need a different sized desk/table in order to accommodate a wheel chair. IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act): This is a legislative act that is more inclusive than 504 providing descriptions for 13 different areas of Disabilities and requirements for accommodations to be made for individuals who may have one/more of the listed disabilities. These students will generally have IEP’s (Individual Education Plan). Make sure to follow the specific details of the plan. These are legal documents. It is required that a school district follow these plans. IDEA-97 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997): This is an updated version of the original IDEA act. It gives more details about disabilities, expected accommodations, and funding for person’s with disabilities. Same as IDEA above. EHA (Education for the Handicapped Act): Public Law 94-142, was passed by Congress in 1975. It established that schools receiving federal money should provide (with parental input) a learning environment and educational experience to disabled students that is similar to what non-disabled students receive. A student with a handicap should not be kept in a room by themselves, but should be provided with inclusion opportunities within a regular classroom. Additional help may be needed to a student in a different resource room, but inclusion should occur as frequently as possible. IFSP (Individual Family Service Plan): It is similar in scope to an IEP, but set up for children under that age of 3. Comes from Part C of IDEA This is not a specific disability, and is not part of a regular K-12 environment, but aspects of this plan may be included in an IEP for school-aged students. ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): This is a disability/disorder that is broad in scope, but describes an individual that has a difficult and repeated inability to stay focused on a task, and is also overly active. While many children often fit this description, a child with this disability will be heightened in their display of these activities. Provide clear directions in a printed format for the student to be able to refer to. Provide shorter/smaller chunks of material to work on, allow frequent breaks, and/or exercise time to increase concentration abilities. ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder): This is the same as ADHD without the hyperactivity. This person will have a much calmer demeanor, but will still have an excessively hard time staying on task. Students with this disorder often need similar accommodations to ADHD, but usually without the high need for activity. Some activity may still help with concentration. FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome): This is a disease among people who’s birth mother likely used/abused alcohol during the person’s pregnancy. The syndrome can effect coordination, emotional and cognitive learning, and even facial features. Place students near front of room, provide student with pre-printed notes, and allow short breaks as needed. FAE (Fetal Alcohol Effect): This is a similar disease to FAS, but is not as easily recognizable. It typically does not manifest itself with facial features, or cognitive disorders similar to FAS, but still have issues with emotional development. It may go undiagnosed causing the child/student/family not to be able to receive appropriate accommodations/assistance in dealing with the problem. Reward positive behavior with praise immediately. Others: DCD (Developmental Cognitive Delay): Low-functioning intellect based on IQ scores. Provide the student with additional time to work and present the material to them in smaller chunks. ASL (American Sign Language): This is a method of communication for individuals with severe hearing impairment. It uses visual signs created by the use of hands/fingers to communicate with others. Learn it… use it. DHH (Deaf/Hard of Hearing): This is a classification of severe hearing impairment for individuals who can not hear at all, or can not hear well enough to distinguish voices/syllables. Use of visual clues will be essential for educational success. See note for ASL. ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders): This is a wide spectrum of disorders which include social and tactile/sensory aspects of development. People with autism MAY be fixated on a process/event with disregard to others around them. They may have difficulty expressing themselves verbally, or they may not be able to deal with certain stimuli (bright lights or specific noises). It is estimated that 1 in 150 Americans have autism. Provide correct/adequate stimuli. Some students may need to avoid bright lights or sudden sounds, while others may need to touch/rub something in order to stay focused on their work. PI (Physically Impaired): People who are physically impaired have the loss of one or more body parts. This can range from the loss of a finger, to not having the use of arms and/or legs. Muscular Dystrophy would be an example of a physical impairment. Accommodations could range from connecting an apparatus to a pencil that allows them to grip it, to use of a mouth operated mouse/keypad. SID (Sensory Integration Disorder): A disorder where the person is able to perceive information correctly from the five various senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell) but the information in not properly processed by the brain. Accommodations are similar to visual, auditory, and/or autism accommodations depending on the extent and manifestations of the disorder.