alphabet soup Alphabet Soup Draft nearsightedness by benbenzhou


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									                            Alphabet Soup –Carl Borleis

The “alphabet soup” term is defined in red. An example of an appropriate
accommodation or area of awareness a teacher should have about a person with this
disability is listed in blue for easy reference.

FAPE (Free and Appropriate Public Education):
        Part of legislative act requiring public schools to provide free and
appropriate education – students can not be denied access to education due to
disability. A School District can not deny a severely handicapped individual
because of the added cost represented by the admission of said student.
ED (Emotional Disability or Emotional Disturbance):
        A disability regarding a student’s emotional state/behavior – ODD would be
an example. Providing clear, consistent, and well-enforced rules would be a specific
way to deal with ODD.
LD (Learning Disability):
        A wide ranging disability signified by a student’s inability to learn at a
set/average pace of other students. Many factors may be part of this disability: lack
of proper schema, differently-connected neurotransmitters, etc… Provide the
student with additional time to work and present the material to them in smaller
OHI (Other Health Impaired):
        This is a “catch-all category for Impairments that may not be covered in
other categories. May include severe allergies, physical/mental ailments, etc.
…Treat all people with dignity and respect their needs for accommodation –
whatever that may be.
MR (Mental Retardation):
        This is a collection of several disabilities effecting the cognitive development
of an individual. Downs Syndrome would be an example. People with MR are not
usually unable to learn, but may take additional time and smaller chunks of
information to be able to process. The amount of additional/repetitive practice may
need to be increased.
IEP (Individualized Education Plan):
        An education plan that is specific to an individual student with any
range/number of disability listing various accommodations that will be given to the
student to aid/assist in that student’s education. A possible accommodation for a
person with a LD in reading may be to have tests read to the person and/or answers
recorded by a Para or other member of the education community.
LRE (Least Restrictive Environment):
        This provides for an environment for a student that is the least restrictive to
that individual’s education. In many cases, this means inclusion in a regular
classroom environment, but in other situations it can be removal from a classroom if
that is best for the student (perhaps in the case of a severe ADD student in order to
minimize distractions).
TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury):
        This would indicate some injury to the brain (usually after childbirth) that is
not genetic in nature. The injury could have been sustained during a car accident,
but the resulting injury has impaired the brain functions and accommodations are
needed to assist in the student’s education. Daily activities may include either/both
physical therapy or/and cognitive/psychomotor exercises. (i.e. Student may need
material provided in predominately auditory formats if damage has occurred to
visual areas of the brain.)
VI (Visual Impairment):
        This is an indication of some disability in the visual aspect of a person where
their visual functionality is less than 20/20. Acute nearsightedness would be an
example. Providing enlarged print, enlarged images, magnification ability, and/or
oral descriptions of events could be some possible accommodations.
HI (Hearing Impairment):
        This is an indication of some disability in the auditory aspect of a person
where their auditory functionality is compromised. A person that needs a hearing
aid would be an example. Provide visual enhancements. Depending on severity of
the impairment, amplification devices may be used to allow student to hear auditory
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act):
        This is a legislative act that provides for universal accommodations to be
made to public buildings (or buildings providing access to the public) that allow
access to individuals with a broad scope of disabilities (physical, visual, auditory,
etc.). An example would be wheel chair ramps in lieu of (or adjacent to) an outdoor
staircase. Students may need a different sized desk/table in order to accommodate a
wheel chair.
IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act):
        This is a legislative act that is more inclusive than 504 providing descriptions
for 13 different areas of Disabilities and requirements for accommodations to be
made for individuals who may have one/more of the listed disabilities. These
students will generally have IEP’s (Individual Education Plan). Make sure to follow
the specific details of the plan. These are legal documents. It is required that a
school district follow these plans.
IDEA-97 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997):
        This is an updated version of the original IDEA act. It gives more details
about disabilities, expected accommodations, and funding for person’s with
disabilities. Same as IDEA above.
EHA (Education for the Handicapped Act):
        Public Law 94-142, was passed by Congress in 1975. It established that
schools receiving federal money should provide (with parental input) a learning
environment and educational experience to disabled students that is similar to what
non-disabled students receive. A student with a handicap should not be kept in a
room by themselves, but should be provided with inclusion opportunities within a
regular classroom. Additional help may be needed to a student in a different
resource room, but inclusion should occur as frequently as possible.
IFSP (Individual Family Service Plan):
        It is similar in scope to an IEP, but set up for children under that age of 3.
Comes from Part C of IDEA This is not a specific disability, and is not part of a
regular K-12 environment, but aspects of this plan may be included in an IEP for
school-aged students.
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder):
        This is a disability/disorder that is broad in scope, but describes an
individual that has a difficult and repeated inability to stay focused on a task, and is
also overly active. While many children often fit this description, a child with this
disability will be heightened in their display of these activities. Provide clear
directions in a printed format for the student to be able to refer to. Provide
shorter/smaller chunks of material to work on, allow frequent breaks, and/or
exercise time to increase concentration abilities.
ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder):
        This is the same as ADHD without the hyperactivity. This person will have a
much calmer demeanor, but will still have an excessively hard time staying on task.
Students with this disorder often need similar accommodations to ADHD, but
usually without the high need for activity. Some activity may still help with
FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome):
        This is a disease among people who’s birth mother likely used/abused alcohol
during the person’s pregnancy. The syndrome can effect coordination, emotional
and cognitive learning, and even facial features. Place students near front of room,
provide student with pre-printed notes, and allow short breaks as needed.
FAE (Fetal Alcohol Effect):
        This is a similar disease to FAS, but is not as easily recognizable. It typically
does not manifest itself with facial features, or cognitive disorders similar to FAS,
but still have issues with emotional development. It may go undiagnosed causing
the child/student/family not to be able to receive appropriate
accommodations/assistance in dealing with the problem. Reward positive behavior
with praise immediately.

DCD (Developmental Cognitive Delay):
Low-functioning intellect based on IQ scores. Provide the student with additional
time to work and present the material to them in smaller chunks.
ASL (American Sign Language):
        This is a method of communication for individuals with severe hearing
impairment. It uses visual signs created by the use of hands/fingers to communicate
with others. Learn it… use it.
DHH (Deaf/Hard of Hearing):
        This is a classification of severe hearing impairment for individuals who can
not hear at all, or can not hear well enough to distinguish voices/syllables. Use of
visual clues will be essential for educational success. See note for ASL.
ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders):
        This is a wide spectrum of disorders which include social and tactile/sensory
aspects of development. People with autism MAY be fixated on a process/event with
disregard to others around them. They may have difficulty expressing themselves
verbally, or they may not be able to deal with certain stimuli (bright lights or
specific noises). It is estimated that 1 in 150 Americans have autism. Provide
correct/adequate stimuli. Some students may need to avoid bright lights or sudden
sounds, while others may need to touch/rub something in order to stay focused on
their work.
PI (Physically Impaired):
        People who are physically impaired have the loss of one or more body parts.
This can range from the loss of a finger, to not having the use of arms and/or legs.
Muscular Dystrophy would be an example of a physical impairment.
Accommodations could range from connecting an apparatus to a pencil that allows
them to grip it, to use of a mouth operated mouse/keypad.
SID (Sensory Integration Disorder):
        A disorder where the person is able to perceive information correctly from
the five various senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell) but the information in not
properly processed by the brain. Accommodations are similar to visual, auditory,
and/or autism accommodations depending on the extent and manifestations of the

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