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Pengaruh Penggunaan Kontrasepsi Hormonal terhadap Gingivitis The

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Pengaruh Penggunaan Kontrasepsi Hormonal terhadap Gingivitis The

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									Pengaruh Penggunaan Kontrasepsi Hormonal terhadap Gingivitis

(The Effect of Hormonal Contraception Usage on Gingivitis)

Primada


ABSTRACT
Hormonal contraception is widely used to reduce birth rate. It is likely that this has become one basic need of families who expect to
have more harmonious living. I n the city of Surabaya for instance, women commonly use this method of contraception up to 83.4% of
them have been active family planning participants using injection.
 I n Surabaya, most application of hormonal contraceptions have been donefor a long period (more than 2 years). However, there were
few studies on the effects of this long-ucting contraception on the health of mouth soft tissues. I t is therefore necessary to investigate
 the egects of contraception especially on the teeth supporting tissues (gingival and periodontal). The stirdy will be beneficial to those
 women who use hormonal contraception so they can apply additionul protective measures to safely continrte their family planning
progrum and avoid any possible harnfull effects.
The purpose of this study was to prove the eflects of hormonal contraception usage on the risk of gingivitis (bleeding and swelling of
the gurn). The population of the study were women aging [18-451 years. The samples were purposively takenfrom the special program
students of the second and the fourth semester at Dr. Sutomo Midwife Academy.
This strtdy used the observasional anulytical case control approach. The population samples involved 170 women divided into two
groups: case and control grorcp. ?he samples were selected and grouped using inclusion and e.ulusion criteria. The analysis tool on
this study was logistical regression with confidence interval of 95.0%.
The result showed that wonlen who have used hormonal contraception had odds ratio 8.942 times greater chances to get gingivitis
rather than those who did not use hormonal contraception. The result also showed that the methods of contraception, namely pills,
injection and implant did not have signiJicant effect with p > 0.0.5. However, the eflect of medicinal contents, especially o progesterone
                                                                                                                             f
showed significant effects with p < 0.05 and odds rutio 13.122 tinles greater than other contraception methods. Interestingly, the study
revealed that the contraception time periods were indeed important to the developrnent of gingivitis, and so were some confounding
variables such as SimpliJied Oral Hygiene Index and the frequency of teeth brushing.
 The result of this study reconzmended that women using hormonal contraception should give c a r e j i l attention to the health of their
 mouth and teeth. The high level of estrogen and progesterone especially progesterone in their bodies can cause swelling o r spontaneous
 gum bleeding. While the symptoms are sometimes not noticeable and are often ignored, this effect hormonal contraception can cause
fatality such as missing teeth and other systemic diseases.


Key word: hormonal contraception, estrogen, progesterone, gingivitis


PENDAHULUAN                                                                  Efek samping kontrasepsi hormonal dapat berupa
    Program Keluarga Berencana merupakan salah satu                     gejala subyektif maupun ob~ektif   yang bisa bersifat lokal
upaya pemeri ntah dalam menekan laju pertumbuhan                        maupun sistemis. Efek samping tersebut antara lain berupa
penduduk dalam rnewujudkanrnasyarakat yang lebih maju                   peflambahan berat badan, efek diabetOgenik, gangguan
dan sejahtera sehinggatercapai misi n       ~~      ~ ~ ~               sistem ~kardiovaskuler, edema, kloasma, displasia servik,
                                                                         kl       ~~      l ~ i     ~~ ~ ~     ~        ~
'2015". Kontrasepsi hormonal rnerupakan salah satu slat                 sakit kepala, mual dan lain-lain (Hartanto, 1996)-
kontrasepsi yang digunakan sebagian besar para akseptor                      Sedangkan efek samping terhadap rongga mulut
KB (83,4%) masyarakat kota Surabaya.                                    khususnya pada jaringan lunak penyangga gigi (gingiva dan
     Termasuk jenis kontrasepsi hormonal ini adalah: pil                periodontal) masih jarang diketahui dan penelitian tentang
(oral pills), suntik (injection) dan susuk (implant).                   ini masih        sedikit.
Kandungan hormon reproduksi yaitu estrogen dan                               Prevalensi penyakit periodontal dan penderita karang
progesteron yang terdapat dalam slat kontrasepsi ini &pat               gigi di Indonesia Persentasinya masih cukup          yaitu
 mencegah terjadinya kehamilan.                                         2,4% dan 42,8% dan persentasi terbanyak dialami pada


 76                                                                                                       JBP Vol. 5, No. 2, M k 2003

								
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