Personality Theories

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					            Personality Theories
                (overview)
•   Psychodynamic
•   Sociocultural
•   Humanistic-Existential
•   Trait
•   Learning (classical, operant, social
    cognitive)
            Psychodynamic
• Freud – product of times (culture,
  knowledge) as well as self
• Personality aspects > situation
• Life-forces are sexual, aggression, death
  (Thanatos, later dropped)
        Forces of Personality
• We are shaped by biological urges and
  childhood experiences
• Freud is a deterministic, stage theorist
     Unconscious - Conscious
• Conscious
• Preconscious – becomes conscious
  w/directed attention
• Unconscious – unavailable for viewing
                        Id
•   Hypothetical construct from birth
•   Represents physical drives (instincts)
•   Unconscious process
•   Pleasure principle (instant gratification of
    drives/impulses)
                    Ego
• Construct forming during 1st year
• Partly conscious, unconscious defenses
  towards Id
• Follows the reality principle
• balances impulses and societal expectations
              Ego – con’t
• Provides conscious sense of self
• Uses defense mechanisms to deal with id
• Defenses reduce anxiety of dynamic
  conflicts
      Some Defense Mechanisms
•   Repression
•   Regression
•   Rationalization
•   Displacement
•   Projection
•   Denial
•   Sublimation
                 Superego
• develops in early childhood thru
  unconscious identification
• Takes on social standards from parents,
  authority figures, community
• Moral principle, which is irrational (just as
  the Id is)
• Judgmental – guilt/shame, lack of
  conscience if superego not developed
                Dynamics
• Eros – instinct to preserve & continue life
• Libido – the energy of Eros
• Psychosexual Development – libidinal
  energy expressed in different erogenous
  zones depending on stage of psychosexual
  development for individual
       Stages of Development
• 1st Stage is the Oral stage, birth-18 mon.
• Sucking & biting give sexual gratification,
  as well as nourishment (modern views
  suggest otherwise)
• Frustration vs excessive gratification both
  can lead to fixation at any stage
            Oral Stage con’t
• Oral traits – dependent, gullible, cynical
• Oral activities – smoking, drinking, eating,
  nail biting
• Dependent relationships or distant ones in
  later life
                Anal Stage
• Begins in 2nd year of life; represents conflict
  between self & society (toilet training)
• Sexual gratification transferred to
  contraction & relaxation of elimination
  muscles
• Conflicts can arise leading to retentive or
  expulsive traits
 Retentive & Expulsive Features
• Retentiveness – perfectionism (over self-
  control); neatness “neat freak”; excessive
  devotion to cleanliness
• Expulsiveness – carelessness, messiness,
  and sadism
               Phallic Stage
• Construct forms around age 3 yrs until 6 yrs
• Oedipus complex (boys)
  – sexual attraction to mother
  – castration complex
  – identifies with father
• Electra complex (girls)
  – penis envy
  – identifies with mother
              Latency Stage
• Begins around middle/late childhood at age
  5-6 years
• Sexual feelings remain unconscious
  – repression of sexual feelings
  – learns nonsexual, e.g. social/academic skills
             Genital Stage
• Begins at puberty
• Oedipus & Electra Complex reemerge
• Incest taboo causes repression of impulses
  and displacement to adults or adolescents of
  opposite gender
                Carl Jung
• Personal unconscious & collective
  unconscious
• Archetypes – primitive images that are
  found in the collective unconscious
  reflecting the history of humans
• Theories used in dream analysis & arts
  (drawing, painting, film, stories)
              Alfred Adler
• More psychosocial than psychosexual
• Inferiority complex (leads to striving for
  superiority); organ inferiority
• Creative self – aspect of personality which
  is self-aware in striving to overcome
  obstacles and develop person’s potential
             Karen Horney
• Social relations most important
• Indifference or harshness in childhood
  create insecurity & anxiety
• Neglectful parents often resented by child
• Believed children repressed vs expressed
  feelings
• Believed love could soften traumatic history
              Erik Erikson
• Psychosocial stages
• Outcome of each stage crisis
• Adolescence – ego identity vs identity
  diffusion “who am I?”
• Trust vs Mistrust (1st stage) –
• Stages run throughout life
                Humanism
• 3rd force in psychology
  – Neither psychoanalysis or behaviorism give us
    a sense of choice
• Phenomenological
• Holistic view
• Inherent development of potential
                Carl Rogers
•   Client-centered, non-directive
•   Frames of reference – self & world
•   Unconditional & conditional positive regard
•   Reduce the distance between self-concepts
    & self-ideals
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Level 1 – hunger, thirst, sex, sleep
• Level 2 – safety, security
• Level 3 – love, belonging, affliation
• Level 4 – achievement, competency,
            approval, acceptance
• Level 5 – self-actualization, peak
            experiences
             Existentialism
• Tied to philosophy
• Tends to be more pessimistic, fatalistic than
  Humanism
• Sartre & Heideger – life is trival in the Big
  Plan
• Other existentialists saw meaning as the Big
  Answer
                Sociocultural
•   Individualism, Collectivism
•   Acculturation
•   Bicultural adaptation = higher self-esteem )
•   Indo-Chinese example
          The Trait Theories
• Attitudes, behaviors, reactions that are
  relatively stable across time and situation
• Known since Hippocrates (400-300 B.C.)
  His humor theory contained 4 elements
  (choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic,
  melancholic)
• Gordon Allport catalogued over 18,000
  traits in the 1930s
      Factor Analysis of Traits
• Hans Eysenck, introversion-extraversion;
  emotional stability-instability (neuroticism)
• Choleric = extraverted-unstable; sanguine =
  extraverted-stable; phlegmatic =
  introverted-stable; & melancholic =
  introverted-unstable
• Leary’s interpersonal model
    Factor Analysis of Traits II
• Raymond Cattell’s 16 PF
• Five-Factor Model: extraversion-
  introversion; neuroticism;
  conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness
  to new experiences
• Five-Factor validated across cultures
• Still disagreement on number of traits
                Reliability
• The consistency of a measure
• Reliability must be high enough to talk
  about validity
  – Test, re-test
  – Alternative forms
                    Validity
• Measuring what it’s suppose to measure
  –   Face validity
  –   Content validity
  –   Concurrent validity
  –   Predictive validity
    Measurement of Personality
• Objective tests – forced-choice (e.g. T-F)
  – MMPI, vocational tests
         Projective Tests
Projective tests (Rorschach, Thematic
  Apperception Test – TAT, Murray needs and
  motivations)
Other Measures of Personality
Observations
Ratings
(inter-rater reliability)
  Learning Personality Theories
• S-R (Skinner) the environment shapes us
• S-O-R (Tolman)
• social-cognitive (Bandura) - environment
  influences person & vice-versa
      Social Cognitive Theory
• Environment
• Cognitive-personal factors
• behavior
         Environmental Factors
•   Social influences
•   Political influences
•   Cultural influences
•   Personal learning experiences
             Cognitive Factors
• Cognitive – beliefs, expectations, values,
  intentions, & social roles.

• Personal
  – Emotional makeup
  – Biological/genetic
               Behaviors
• How a person acts, what they say
• What a person doesn’t do, what they don’t
  say
 Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory

• Language
• Observational learning
• Purposeful behavior – anticipate, plan, goal-
  setting
• Self-analysis
      Rotter’s Locus of Contol
• Internal locus of control
• External locus of control
• Compare Individualist with Collectivistic
       Delay of Gratification
• Concept developed by Walter Mischel
• How do people develop delays in
  gradification?
                 Self-efficacy
• Belief in capability to control events,
  complete tasks, perform behaviors.
• Sources
  –   previous experience
  –   compare abilities with others
  –   listen to what others say about your abilities
  –   use feedback from own body/sensations
           Personality Change?
• Stability at 3 y/o & 21 y/o
• Between 20-30 yrs:
  –   <emotional
  –   < thrill seeking
  –   >cooperation
  –   >self-discipline
   Personality Change? – con’t
• After age 30, personality mainly stable
• Self-reports fr. Middle age
  – Endorse >desirable traits
  – Objective tests show little change
  – Evidence of changes in personality disorders &
    substance abuse in 40s-50s
   Personality – Multi-factored
• Genetics = 40-50%

• Nonshared Environmental Factors (reaction
  of genetic factors to environment, e.g.
  temperament) = 27%
Personality – Multifactored con’t
• Error = 26%
• Shared environmental factors (family
  interaction) = 7%
            Person-Situation
• Traits interact with situation to explain
  actions

				
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posted:4/15/2008
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