Psychological Disorders Ann Katherine Buddin by benbenzhou


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									                                  Psychological Disorders
                                 By Ann Katherine Buddin
       In life, psychological disorders are inevitable. Many people are affected in some

way by a type of disorder whether it is a friend or a family member. Psychological

disorders are deviant and distressful occurrences in one’s behavior. Influences such as

biological, psychological, and social-cultural contribute to the cause of these disorders.

Biological influences include evolution, peoples’ genes, and structures of the brain

whereas psychological influences are stress, disturbing memories, and other trauma.

Social-cultural influences are a person’s roles and expectations. The DSM-IV is often

used to classify psychological disorders; however, it does not treat or diagnose these

problems. With knowledge of these disorders, people can understand the hardships and

tribulations others deal with daily.

       One in particular, anxiety disorders, affect many people worldwide. Anxiety

disorders are characterized by constant maladaptive behaviors. Obsessive Compulsive

                      Disorder is when people have unwanted repetitive thoughts towards

                      something or someone whereas Post Traumatic Stress Disorders is

                      when people have haunting memories, social withdrawal, and

nightmares. PTSD often affects war veterans. Generalized Anxiety Disorder makes

people continually tense and terrible anxiety. Another anxiety disorder is a phobia. Most

common ones include acrophobia, sociaphobia, claustrophobia, and arachnophobia. Panic

disorders are unpredictable episodes of terror such as chest pain, choking, or other

frightening occurrences that often reduce anxiety. Anxiety disorders are often treated

with barbiturates and benzodiazepines such as Valium and Xanax.
       In addition, mood disorders surround us everywhere. A specific type is Major

                Depressive Disorder which is characterized by weeks of depressed moods

                and feeling of self-worthlessness. Depression is the number one reason

                people seek mental health services. A Bipolar disorder is when person

                alternates between states of hopelessness and overexcitedness. It results

                in low levels of norepinephrine and can be treated with Lithium

Bicarbonate. Also, Dysthymic disorder is low levels of depression and takes about two

years to treat it. Seasonal Affective Disorder often occurs in places that are dark all day

like Alaska and can be treated with sunlight. Treatment of mood disorders consists of

MAO Inhibitors, SSRIs such as Zoloft, and Tricyclics.

       Another type of disorder involves one’s personality. A particular personality

disorder is Antisocial Personality Disorder. It is when a person is unaware of wrongdoing

                      towards others. Histrionic Personality disorder occurs when a

                      person is overly dramatic like when a person cries about your

                      mother’s death than you do. Dependent personality disorder is

characterized by pervasive psychological dependence on other people. Compulsion is a

person’s obsession with another person.

       Dissociative disorders occur from a breakdown in a person’s normal conscious

                  experience. Psychogenic amnesia is when people cannot remember

                  things, for they disrupt one’s memory. Dissociative Identity Disorder

                  sufferers usually suffer severe physical, psychological, or sexual abuse

                  as a child. Dissociative fugue is when a person suddenly an

unexpectedly travels away from home or work and is unable to recall the past.
       Another psychological disorder that is worth analyzing involves schizophrenia or

                confused and disconnected thoughts, emotions, and perceptions.

                Schizophrenia results in high levels of dopamine and can be treated with

                Thorazine. There are many subtypes of schizophrenia. Subfields of

                schizophrenia include paranoid(hallucinations), catatonic(odd movement),

                undifferentiated(disordered thinking), disorganized(disorganized speech

or behavior), and residual(withdrawn after disappearing of hallucinations).

       As can be seen, there are many disorders that affect people in

every day life. The major disorders include anxiety, mood, personality,

dissociative, and schizophrenic. A large sum of these people seek

treatment such as medications or therapies. Although there is treatment

for these disorders, they are still difficult and almost impossible to prevent.

Myers, David (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

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