Psychological Disorders By Ann Katherine Buddin In life, psychological disorders are inevitable. Many people are affected in some way by a type of disorder whether it is a friend or a family member. Psychological disorders are deviant and distressful occurrences in one’s behavior. Influences such as biological, psychological, and social-cultural contribute to the cause of these disorders. Biological influences include evolution, peoples’ genes, and structures of the brain whereas psychological influences are stress, disturbing memories, and other trauma. Social-cultural influences are a person’s roles and expectations. The DSM-IV is often used to classify psychological disorders; however, it does not treat or diagnose these problems. With knowledge of these disorders, people can understand the hardships and tribulations others deal with daily. One in particular, anxiety disorders, affect many people worldwide. Anxiety disorders are characterized by constant maladaptive behaviors. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is when people have unwanted repetitive thoughts towards something or someone whereas Post Traumatic Stress Disorders is when people have haunting memories, social withdrawal, and nightmares. PTSD often affects war veterans. Generalized Anxiety Disorder makes people continually tense and terrible anxiety. Another anxiety disorder is a phobia. Most common ones include acrophobia, sociaphobia, claustrophobia, and arachnophobia. Panic disorders are unpredictable episodes of terror such as chest pain, choking, or other frightening occurrences that often reduce anxiety. Anxiety disorders are often treated with barbiturates and benzodiazepines such as Valium and Xanax. In addition, mood disorders surround us everywhere. A specific type is Major Depressive Disorder which is characterized by weeks of depressed moods and feeling of self-worthlessness. Depression is the number one reason people seek mental health services. A Bipolar disorder is when person alternates between states of hopelessness and overexcitedness. It results in low levels of norepinephrine and can be treated with Lithium Bicarbonate. Also, Dysthymic disorder is low levels of depression and takes about two years to treat it. Seasonal Affective Disorder often occurs in places that are dark all day like Alaska and can be treated with sunlight. Treatment of mood disorders consists of MAO Inhibitors, SSRIs such as Zoloft, and Tricyclics. Another type of disorder involves one’s personality. A particular personality disorder is Antisocial Personality Disorder. It is when a person is unaware of wrongdoing towards others. Histrionic Personality disorder occurs when a person is overly dramatic like when a person cries about your mother’s death than you do. Dependent personality disorder is characterized by pervasive psychological dependence on other people. Compulsion is a person’s obsession with another person. Dissociative disorders occur from a breakdown in a person’s normal conscious experience. Psychogenic amnesia is when people cannot remember things, for they disrupt one’s memory. Dissociative Identity Disorder sufferers usually suffer severe physical, psychological, or sexual abuse as a child. Dissociative fugue is when a person suddenly an unexpectedly travels away from home or work and is unable to recall the past. Another psychological disorder that is worth analyzing involves schizophrenia or confused and disconnected thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. Schizophrenia results in high levels of dopamine and can be treated with Thorazine. There are many subtypes of schizophrenia. Subfields of schizophrenia include paranoid(hallucinations), catatonic(odd movement), undifferentiated(disordered thinking), disorganized(disorganized speech or behavior), and residual(withdrawn after disappearing of hallucinations). As can be seen, there are many disorders that affect people in every day life. The major disorders include anxiety, mood, personality, dissociative, and schizophrenic. A large sum of these people seek treatment such as medications or therapies. Although there is treatment for these disorders, they are still difficult and almost impossible to prevent. Myers, David (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.