Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>




More Info
  • pg 1
									                       GRADUATE STUDENT INFORMATION
THE ACADEMIC JOB SEARCH                                                         ACADEMIC JOB PREPARATION
                                                                                    The	minimum	job	application	in	academia	requires	a	vita	(CV),	letter	
DOCTORAL STUDENTS YEAR OF                                                       of	application	(or	cover	letter),	and	at	least	three	reference	letters.	
CANDIDACY JOB SEARCH TIMELINE                                                   Many	departments	also	request	a	writing	sample,	a	personal	statement,	a	
    As	you	enter	your	final	year	of	doctoral	work,	many	of	you	may	be	          statement	of	research	interests,	a	statement	of	teaching	interests,	and/or	
struggling	with	the	demands	of	defending	your	dissertation	or	final	            at	least	one	chapter	from	your	dissertation.
research	studies,	continuing	your	work	as	a	research	assistant,	and	
beginning	the	process	of	obtaining	an	academic	job.	The	following	              WEBSITES TO AID IN YOUR
timeline	and	suggestions	can	serve	as	a	guide	to	help	you	manage	               ACADEMIC JOB SEARCH
your	academic	job	search	process.                                               Academic Job Postings
                                                                                   Academic	Careers	Online
Summer Quarter                                                                         academiccareers.com
Update your CV, general letter of application, and organize                        Academic	Employment	Network
materials for a teaching portfolio.                                                    academploy.com
    Obtain	feedback	from	faculty,	mentors,	and	fellow	students	                    Academic	Keys	(academic)
on	creating	a	CV	that	contains	the	necessary	information	for	your	                     education.academickeys.com
field	of	study.	Make	an	appointment	with	a	CDC	counselor	for	further	              Academic	Position	Network
feedback.                                                                              apnjobs.com
                                                                                   Affirmative	Action	Register
Obtain letters of reference.                                                           aar-eeo.com
    This	is	a	good	time	to	contact	past	references	and	update	letters.	            American	Educational	Research	Association
Consider	using	the	Reference	File	Service	at	the	CDC	to	store	letters	of	
reference:	https://cdc-secure.stanford.edu/reference .
                                                                                   Chronicle	of	Higher	Education	(includes	higher	education)
Fall Quarter
Finalize one version of your CV as a template.                                  Postdocs
   You	may	have	several	versions	of	your	CV	depending	on	the	                      Post	Docs
positions	for	which	you	are	applying:	research	positions,	teaching	                   post-docs.com
positions,	endowed	chairs,	and	other	types	of	academic	jobs.
                                                                                Community Colleges
Apply for positions.                                                               California	Community	Colleges

                                                                                                                                                              GRADUATE STUDENTS
     Find	these	through	your	dissertation	chair/advisor,	departmental	                ccweek.com (infonet)
listings,	CDC	resources,	professional	conferences	and	                             California	Community	College	Registry
organizations,	and	various	Internet	websites.                                         cccregistry.org
Continue to solicit letters of recommendation and update previous                     aacc.nche.edu
letters.                                                                           Community	College	Web
Attend the CDC’s Academic Job Search Series and other 
departmental and campus events.                                                 DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE
   CV	and	cover	letter	writing,	academic	job	talks,	teaching	portfolios,	and	   TEACHING PORTFOLIO
on-/off-campus	interviewing	are	usually	covered	here.                               Since	teaching	ability	is	not	easily	demonstrated	on	a	vita	or	
                                                                                during	an	interview,	a	“teaching	portfolio”	which	demonstrates	
Meet with a CDC counselor for further resources.                                one’s	teaching	expertise,	may	sometimes	serve	as	a	useful	addition	
                                                                                to	your	application	for	an	academic	position.	A	teaching	portfolio	
Winter Quarter                                                                  may	be	especially	relevant	when	applying	for	positions	where	
Continue applying for positions.
                                                                                teaching	is	stressed	in	the	job	description.	The	intent	of	the	teaching	
   Prepare	and	practice	your	academic	job	talk.	Practice	interviews	with	
                                                                                portfolio	is	to	capture	the	intellectual	substance	and	actual	samples	
peers,	faculty,	CDC	counselors,	and	other	supporters/mentors.
                                                                                of	teaching	methods	that	an	academic	interview,	vita,	or	application	
                                                                                letter	cannot.
Spring Quarter
Continue applying for positions.                                                    Job	applicants	seeking	positions	in	other	career	fields	including	
   Tenure	track	and	one	year	positions	continue	to	be	announced	                architecture,	art,	advertising,	fashion,	and	writing	often	prepare	
during	this	period.                                                             “portfolios”	containing	samples	of	their	work.	Employers	use	
                                                                                portfolios	as	a	means	to	determine	the	abilities	of	applicants.	
Evaluate academic job offers and be sure to negotiate for time to                   Review	of	the	portfolio	is	usually	part	of	the	interview	process,	
carefully consider each offer.                                                  although	some	applicants	are	asked	to	submit	samples	of	work	
   Discuss	negotiation	strategies	with	your	advisor,	CDC	                       earlier	in	the	process.	Others	choose	to	send	a	portfolio	as	part	of	the	
counselors,	and	other	personal	resources.                                       dossier.	It	is	up	to	you	to	determine	what	to	send,	how	much	to	send,	
   *If	you	have	not	yet	found	a	position,	do	not	despair.	You	may	              and	the	appropriate	time	to	send	the	different	components	of	your	
wish	to	continue	applying	for	jobs	and	it	may	take	more	than	one	               application.	Samples	of	teaching	portfolios	are	available	at	the	Career	
year	to	find	a	position.                                                        Development	Center	and	the	Center	for	Teaching	and	Learning.

                                                                                                                                cdc.stanford.edu         5
                    SUGGESTED COMPONENTS OF A TEACHING PORTFOLIO                                         Pedagogical Statement:	Learning	and	Teaching	is…
                        Work samples from current or recent teaching responsibilities:                   Goals:	My	students	will	learn….
                        •	 	 ourse	materials	prepared	for	students	such	as	syllabi,	exams,	              Implementation:	I	have	encouraged/will	encourage	this	
                           handouts,	and/or	discussion	questions.	*If you have never                        learning	by….
                           created such items, it is okay to create a mock-up of planned                 Growth:	I	have	successfully	developed	and	learned….
                           materials you would use.                                                      Goals:	In	the	future,	I	plan	to….
                        •	 	 tudent	essays,	field	or	lab	reports	and	other	works	with	your	
                           TA	critiques	and	feedback.                                                     It	is	okay	to	mention	personal	experiences	which	have	brought	you	
                        •	 	 n	edited	videotape	or	written	case	study	of	a	classroom	                 to	this	place	in	your	career	as	well	as	mistakes	from	which	you	have	
                           teaching	experience.	                                                      learned.	What	is	most	important,	however	is	that	the	information	be	
                                                                                                      relevant	and	positively-focused.	In	addition,	it	is	also	common	to	use	
                        Documents of one’s professional development as a teacher:                     metaphors	for	teaching	or	quotations	about	teaching	which	guide	you.	
                        •	 	 ecords	of	changes	resulting	from	self-evaluation.	                       Again,	however,	it	is	important	to	bring	such	references	back	to	you—
                        •	 	 vidence	of	participation	in	workshops,	seminars,	and	                    how	you	have	implemented	said	philosophies.	
                           profes	 ional	meetings	intended	to	improve	teaching.	                          To	review	a	sample	teaching	statement	go	to	page	9	or	visit	the	
                        •	 	 tatement	of	teaching	responsibilities.                                   Center	for	Teaching	and	Learning.
                        •	 	 tatement	of	pedagogical	philosophy	and	strategy.
                                                                                                      WRITING AN EFFECTIVE
                        Information from others:                                                      RESEARCH STATEMENT
                        •	 	 tudent	evaluation	forms.                                                     Many	top-tier	academic	institutions	and	science/tech	
                        •	 	 tatements/evaluations	from	colleagues	who	observed	your	                 departments	require	applicants	to	submit	a	research	statement	
                           teaching.                                                                  as	part	of	their	dossier.	This	is	typically	a	one-	to	two-page	essay	
                        •	 	 nvitations	to	teach	from	outside	agencies.                               about	your	research	interests,	experiences,	and	goals.	It	is	used	to	
                                                                                                      assess	fit	with	the	institution	as	well	as	level	of	research	acumen	in	
                    TIPS FOR DEVELOPING YOUR TEACHING PORTFOLIO                                       a	particular	area	or	field.	Although	everyone’s	research	statement	
                        •	 	 tart	compiling	samples	for	your	portfolio	as	early	as	possible.          will	vary,	it	should	include:
                        •	 	 orm	the	habit	of	filing	away	samples	of	work	that	demonstrate	
                           your	teaching.                                                             Previous Research Experience (25%):	Where	did	your	career	begin	
                        •	 	 elect	those	items	that	you	deem	to	be	the	best	examples	of	              and	on	what	early	projects	did	you	work?	How	did	it	lead	you	here?	
                           your	work	demonstrating	teaching	quality.                                  What	are	your	research	philosophies	and	methodologies?
                        •	 	 he	intended	use	of	your	teaching	portfolio	may	vary,	thus	so	
                           should	its	format.                                                         Current Projects (25%):	On	what	does	your	dissertation	focus?	
                        •	 	 e	sure	the	format	is	well	organized	and	present	your	work	               How	was/is	it	funded?	What	are	your	specialty	areas?	What	
                           with	care,	neatness,	and	creativity.                                       methodologies	did	you	use?	
                        •	 	 fter	you	secure	a	job,	plan	to	continue	to	retain	copies	of	your	work.

                                                                                                      Future Endeavors (50%): Where	will	this	lead?	What	are	your	
                    WRITING AN EFFECTIVE TEACHING                                                     funding	sources?	What	are	the	implications	of	this	research?	How	
                    STATEMENT                                                                         does	this	fit	within	the	institution	to	which	you	are	applying?
                        Though	teaching	portfolios	are	a	good	way	to	display	evidence	of	
                    teaching	experiences	and	skills,	teaching	statements	are	requested	                   Within	the	research	statement,	you	are	not	required	to	explain	
                    more	often.	This	is	typically	a	self-reflective	essay	about	teaching	which	       exactly	what	your	research	will	be	in	the	future	(you	do	not	need	to	
                    may	be	included	in	your	portfolio	or	submitted	on	its	own.	It	is	typically	       state	hypotheses	or	name	specific	methodologies	unless	necessary,	
                    one	to	two	pages	in	length	and	will	focus	on	your	teaching	interests,	            for	example).	What	is	most	important	is	that	you	are	able	to	present	
                    provide	an	overview	of	the	teaching	you	have	done	thus	far,	and	high-             a	realistic	and	interesting	research	agenda	which	fits	the	goals,	
                    light	your	beliefs	about	learning,	education,	and	pedagogy	in	general.            facilities,	and	needs	of	the	department	to	which	you	are	applying.	
                                                                                                      In	doing	so,	you	also	do	not	have	to	highlight	potential	working	
                       To	make	the	teaching	statement	easier	to	prepare,	it	is	best	to	               relationships	within	the	department	unless	there	is	an	obvious	fit	or	
                    begin	by	writing	down	your	thoughts	about	the	following	prompts:                  you	feel	it	will	make	your	essay	stronger.
                       Why	does	teaching	appeal	to	you?                                                   Finally,	be	sure	to	cite	any	work	from	which	you	draw.	It	is	not	
                       Who	was	your	favorite	teacher?	Least	favorite?	Why?	                           necessary,	however,	to	talk	entirely	about	the	work	of	your	research	
                       What	is	the	purpose	of	teaching?	(i.e.,	To	train	future	leaders?	To	           group.	While	it	is	important	to	give	credit	where	it	is	due,	your	statement	
                           provide	critical	thinking	skills?	To	promote	your	field?	etc.)             should	focus	on	the	work	you	have	done	within	the	group	so	that	the	
                       How	do	students	best	learn?	What	techniques	have	you	used	to	                  committee	can	garner	an	idea	of	your	skills	and	potential.
                           promote	this	learning?                                                         A	sample	research	statement	can	be	found	on	page	10.
                       What/where	have	you	taught	and	what/where	do	you	want	to	be	
                           teaching	in	the	future?                                                    WRITING AN EFFECTIVE
                       What	is	it	about	the	position	to	which	you	are	applying	(and	the	              PERSONAL STATEMENT
                           students	you	will	be	teaching)	that	specifically	appeals	to	you?              One	of	the	most	commonly	asked	questions	by	applicants	is	
                       How	have	you	assessed	your	teaching	effectiveness?	What	have	                  “what	do	schools	look	for	in	a	personal	statement?”	There	is	no	short	
                           you	done/will	you	do	to	improve	effectiveness?	                            answer	to	this	question.	There	are,	however,	some	guidelines	and	
                                                                                                      suggestions	to	be	offered.	In a discussion of the personal statement, 
                       After	you	have	thought	about	each	of	these	ideas,	begin	writing.	              there are two general principles to consider:
                    The	order	of	your	teaching	statement	may	vary	but	in	general	you	                    First,	some	universities	use	the	personal	statement	as	a	
                    may	want	to	organize	it	around	these	concepts:                                    pre-interview	document.

                    6        Stanford Career Development Center
    Second,	most	job	descriptions	do	not	state	exactly	what	they	                this project, I was given my first glimpse into the
want	in	a	personal	statement	or	they	only	list	vague	guidelines.	This	           complex work of international law. My work on this
is	because	the	search	committee	wants	to	know	what	you	feel	is	                  fellowship culminated with several published articles
most	significant	about	your	application.                                         and an invitation to lecture on this subject in Japan.”

CONTENT                                                                        This	concerns	the	past;	now	what	are	the	hopes	or	plans	for	the	
    The	applicant’s	statement	should	be	about	him-	or	herself.	            future?	Later	in	the	essay,	the	applicant	wrote:
Although	this	fact	may	seem	obvious,	it	is	amazing	how	many	
statements	are	submitted	which	focus	on	relevant	personal	goals	                 “The preceding paragraphs have illustrated the
in	addition	to	professional	ones.	Search	committees	are	more	eager	              extensive connection my education and work have had
to	read	about	what	you	have	to	say	about	yourself	as	a	candidate	                with the law. In retrospect, I believe that I am most
for	positions.	                                                                  effective in a classroom environment, educating future
    What	should	you	write	about	yourself?	The	key	is	to	stress	your	             leaders to think critically and produce solid research.
strengths	without	being	obnoxious	and	deal	with	your	weaknesses	                 This is what has led me to academia.”
without	being	defensive.	Committees	look	at	how	persuasive	an	
applicant	is	in	discussing	her/his	own	candidacy.	                         10 MISTAKES TO AVOID WHEN
    The	personal	statement	gives	the	applicant	the	opportunity	to	         WRITING YOUR TEACHING, RESEARCH,
take	the	search	committee	by	the	hand	and	guide	them	through	his/          AND PERSONAL STATEMENTS
her	application.	The	big	advantage	here	is	that	it	can	be	done	solely	            F
                                                                           	 1.	 	 ailing	to	recognize	the	importance	of	the	personal/	research/
on	the	applicant’s	terms.	Consequently,	if	there	is	some	activity,	               teaching	statement.	
work,	or	life	experience	that	he/she	is	very	proud	of,	that	should	               U
                                                                           	 2.	 	 nderestimating	the	difficulty	and	time	involved	in	
be	stressed	and	expanded	on	in	the	personal	statement.	It	is	your	                developing	the	essays.
responsibility	and	also	to	your	advantage	to	highlight	the	strongest	             W
                                                                           	 3.	 	 aiting	until	just	before	your	deadline	to	begin	work	on	the	
parts	of	the	application.	Separate	yourself	from	the	pack.	By	                    statement(s).
stressing	your	strong	points,	you	are	able	to	maximize	your	chances.	             N
                                                                           	 4.	 	 ot	researching	the	school,	department,	and/or	position	
However,	be	careful	how	this	is	done.	Confidence	is	a	fine	quality,	              ahead	of	time.
however	arrogance	is	something	else.	The	line	between	the	two	is	
                                                                           	 5.	 Submitting	a	statement	that	is	more	generic	than	personal.
fine,	but	it	is	crucial	that	the	applicant	understand	the	difference.	
                                                                           	 6.	 Filling	your	statement	with	clichés.	
    Some	people	would	say	that	you	should	not	discuss	your	
                                                                           	 7.	 	 ot	focusing	on	all	aspects	of	your	experiences	(previous	work,	
weaknesses	in	a	personal	statement.	They	argue	that	to	deal	with	
                                                                                  current	projects,	and	what	you	hope	to	produce	in	the	future).
your	weaknesses	only	draws	attention	to	them.	There	is	merit	in	this,	
                                                                           	 8.	 	 ubmitting	your	essay	with	typographical	or	grammatical	
of	course.	However,	part	of	the	search	committee’s	job	is	to	examine	
closely	both	the	strong	and	weak	points	of	each	applicant.	The	issue	is	
                                                                           	 9.	 	 rying	to	guess	what	the	committee	wants	instead	of	
not	whether	the	weaker	parts	of	the	application	will	be	examined.	The	
                                                                                  focusing	on	what	you	personally	bring	to	the	position.	
issue	is	on	whose	terms	they	will	be	examined.	

                                                                                                                                                      GRADUATE STUDENTS
                                                                           	 10.	 	 riting	statements	that	simply	list	out	experiences	or	repeat	
    Some	applicants	are	reluctant	to	discuss	certain	aspects	of	their	
background,	such	as	history	of	disadvantage,	ethnic	status,	etc.	and	             information	from	the	CV	instead	of	expounding	on	information	
the	affects	these	had	on	their	career	decisions	and	goals.	This	is	a	             and	writing	about	it	in	conventional	essay	formats.
mistake.	No	one	is	asking	for	lengthy	stories	of	heroism	in	
overcoming	enormous	obstacles.	Information	of	this	kind,	however,	         ACADEMIC CVS AND COVER LETTERS
is	very	valuable	to	committees	and	in	most	instances,	if	done	                 The	curriculum	vitae	(also	referred	to	as	the	vita	or	CV)	
professionally;	it	can	only	work	to	the	applicant’s	advantage.	            is	a	summary	of	an	individual’s	educational	background	and	
    In conclusion,	remember	these	few	things:                              experiences.	The	CV	is	used	when	applying	for	teaching	and	
                                                                           administrative	positions	in	academia	or	for	a	fellowship	or	grant.	
   First,	applicants	should	be	brief.	They	should	say	what	they	           In	contrast	to	a	CV,	a	resume	is	used	to	summarize	an	individual’s	
have	to	say	and	no	more.	There	are	usually	no	page	restrictions.	          education	and	experience	related	to	a	specific	career	objective	in	
Experience	suggests	however,	that	two	pages	are	sufficient.	               the	private	or	public	sector.	The	CV	is	the	key	document	in	securing	
                                                                           an	interview	with	a	search	committee.	Other	important	elements	of	
    Second,	many	applicants	subscribe	to	the	theory	that	recruiting	       the	application	process	include	the	application	or	“cover”	letter	and	
is	strictly	a	numbers	game	and	most	personal	statements	are	never	         letters	of	reference.	In	addition,	applicants	are	sometimes	asked	to	
read.	This	is	not	the	case.	Of	course,	the	numbers	are	very	important	     include	transcripts,	teaching	evaluations,	and	research	proposals.
in	any	decision,	but	the	statements	are	read.	Applicants	should	be	
advised	to	write	their	statements	with	great	care.	In	many	cases,	         WRITING YOUR CURRICULUM VITAE
they	will	be	the	determining	factor.	                                         It	is	crucial	to	have	the	CV	represent	your	experience,	
                                                                           accomplishments,	expertise,	and	special	professional	qualities	in	the	
An Example…                                                                most	positive	manner	possible.	The	visual	impact	of	the	CV	provides	
    It	is	refreshing	to	read	a	statement	which	gives	some	                 the	initial	message	about	your	attention	to	detail	and	thoroughness.	
background	on	why	a	person	wants	to	work	in	a	particular	area	or	
field.	Here	is	an	excerpt	from	a	statement:                                      I
                                                                              •	 	 s	it	well	designed,	organized	and	attractive?
                                                                              •	 	 re	categories	of	information	clearly	labeled?
      “Shortly after my return from Washington, D.C., I was                      I
                                                                              •	 	 s	it	easy	to	find	certain	sections	of	interest	to	search	
      awarded a research fellowship from the International                       committee	members?
      Union for the Conservation of Nature. The purpose                          H
                                                                              •	 	 as	your	advisor	reviewed	and	critiqued	it?
      of this project was to develop an inventory of ecologi-                    H
                                                                              •	 	 ave	you	avoided	using	acronyms?
      cally balanced, marine-based technologies. During                          H
                                                                              •	 	 as	it	been	prepared	on	a	computer	with	letter	quality	print?

                                                                                                                          cdc.stanford.edu        7
                        •	 	 as	it	been	proofread	several	times	to	eliminate	any	typos?
                           H                                                                  WRITING YOUR COVER LETTER
                        •	 	 as	it	been	copied	on	heavyweight,	smooth	finished	white	             Use	departmental	letterhead,	if	appropriate.	The	most	important	
                                                                                              aspect	of	your	letters	is	that	they	should	be	written	individually	
                        While	contents	of	a	CV	will	vary	from	field	to	field,	it	is	worth	    to	respond	to	each	position.	This	means	that	you	must	give	some	
                    noting	some	of	the	major	categories	and	information	typically	            thought	to	how	your	background	matches	the	qualifications	of	the	
                    included.	Attached	are	sample	resumes	which	reflect	stylistic	            position.	In	addition,	your	letters	must	indicate	a	sincere	interest	in	
                    differences	and,	to	some	degree,	conventions	of	the	fields	               academic	life	and	in	the	institution	to	which	you	are	applying.
                    represented.	Your	CV	should	be	long	enough	to	thoroughly	present	             State	the	specific	position	for	which	you	are	applying	
                    all	your	qualifications	in	the	categories	discussed	below.	That	will	
                                                                                              and	where	you	learned	about	it.	If	there	is	not	an	advertised	
                    probably	take	two,	three,	four,	or	more	pages.	See	sample	CV	on	
                    page	39.	                                                                 position,	explain	who	suggested	you	write	or	why	you	are	writing.	
                                                                                              Let	the	reader	know	who	you	are,	what	your	field	is,	and	where	you	
                    Typical Format:                                                           are	attending	school.	Indicate	any	special	interest	or	background	
                                                                                              you	have	that	may	be	of	interest	to	their	department	or	institution.
                        Identifying Information: Name,	address,	phone,	back-up	number	
                                                                                                  These	paragraphs	will	vary	according	to	your	field	and	possibly	
                           and	email.	Leave	off	date	of	birth,	marital	status,	number	of	
                           children	or	other	information	that	is	not	job	related	or	does	     the	types	of	positions	for	which	you	will	be	applying	(teaching	
                           not	add	to	your	qualifications.                                    emphasis	vs.	research	emphasis).	Discuss	your	dissertation	or	
                                                                                              thesis	(or	most	recent	research),	what	it	accomplishes,	your	
                        Education:	Begin	with	your	most	recent	or	expected	degree.	           methodology,	conclusions,	and	the	implications	of	your	work.	
                           List	degrees,	majors,	institutions,	and	dates	of	completion	       This	may	take	more	than	one	paragraph,	but	you	should	write	to	a	
                           (or	expected	date)	in	reverse	chronological	order.	Also	list	
                                                                                              general	audience	as	opposed	to	specialists	in	your	field.	Discuss	
                           minors,	subfields,	and	honors.
                                                                                              future	plans	for	research	or	research	interest	as	well.	You	should	
                        Dissertation or Thesis: Provide	the	title	and	a	brief	description	    also	point	out	supporting	fields	in	which	you	have	expertise	or	
                           of	your	work,	its	theoretical	framework,	your	conclusions,	        enumerate	the	variety	of	classes	you	could	teach.	If	the	position	
                           your	director	(and	readers,	if	their	names	or	departments	         requires	teaching,	be	enthusiastic	about	your	experience	and	
                           add	breadth	or	new	perspectives	to	your	area	of	research).	
                                                                                              discuss	the	courses	you	have	developed	or	your	teaching	style.
                           For	engineering	and	sciences,	if	you	decide	to	describe	your	
                           research	more	completely	in	the	“Experience”	section,	you	             Deal	with	logistics,	namely,	are	you	having	a	reference	file	
                           may	want	to	simply	list	the	title	of	your	dissertation	in	this	    sent	and	a	writing	sample/chapter	of	your	dissertation	sent?	If	so,	
                           section.	For	a	new	candidate	in	humanities	or	social	sciences,	    mention	that	you	look	forward	to	meeting	with	the	committee	and	to	
                           the	dissertation	should	be	featured	prominently	in	this	section.   their	inviting	you	to	an	interview.	See	sample	letter	on	page	45.

                        Awards, Honors, Fellowships, Scholarships:	Recognition	
                          of	scholarship	by	the	university	or	within	the	field	is	very	
                          important.	Memberships	in	honorary	societies	belong	in	this	
                          section	as	well,	unless	they	have	already	been	listed	under	

                        Professional Experience:	This	category	is	often	divided	into	
                           several	possible	categories	such	as	“Research	Experience,”	
                           “Consulting,”	“Fieldwork,”	“Teaching	Experience,”	or	
                           “Postdoctoral	Work,”	as	well	as	many	others,	depending	on	
                           your	discipline.	Reverse	chronological	order	is	again	the	rule.

                        Academic Service: List	all	departmental	and	university	groups,	
                          committees	and	task	forces	on	which	you	served.	Student	
                          groups	are	valid	as	well.	You	should	demonstrate	that	you	
                          have	exhibited	leadership	qualities,	and	you	will	assume	
                          certain	departmental	administrative	duties	if	hired.

                        Memberships or Professional Affiliations:	List	all	professional	
                          groups	and	offices	held.

                        Languages: List	all	you	read/speak	and	note	those	in	which	you	
                           are	fluent,	proficient,	or	in	which	you	have	a	basic	knowledge.	

                    8        Stanford Career Development Center

                                   SUMMARY OF TEACHING PHILOSOPHY AND INTERESTS

           Although one of my goals as an instructor is to relate the intellectual edifice which comprises the field of microbiology,
  it is by no means the only goal. It is just as important to teach students to think critically about the facts they are being
  served. The essence of a good scientist is the ability to think critically. I believe that achieving these goals requires the
  participation of both student and teacher.

         I feel that fulfilling my first goal of relating the scientific underpinnings (the facts) of microbiology demands that the
  student be an active participant in the process. This is the guiding principle behind many of my efforts in the classroom.
  Because different students employ different modes of learning I attempt to present the same information in a variety of ways.
  As an example, auditory learners may grasp the concepts surrounding supercoiled DNA by simply listening to a description
  of the phenomena. A verbal explanation will be insufficient for visually oriented learners however. Using twisted surgical
  tubing as a prop to explain the supercoiling of DNA can clarify a complex idea and make the lecture more memorable for
  these visually oriented learners. I find that using a variety of methods to present the subject matter draws the students into
  the lecture making them active participants in the process. Active participation also requires the development of critical
  thinking skills on the part of the student. To foster this ability I attempt to intersperse questions or short discussions within
  the lecture to encourage students to critically analyze the material at hand. Finally, the inclusion of current events in the
  classroom makes the material personally relevant to the students and provides a perspective of the material within a larger
  societal context.

         But the learning requirements of higher education do not stop at the classroom door. Another tenet of my teaching
  philosophy was succinctly stated by Chickering and Gamson in Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate
  Education (Chickering and Gamson, 1987): “there is no substitute for time on material”. In reflecting on my own learning
  experiences I’ve found that I learned and retained the most information while actively engaged in writing term papers or other
  constructive projects. I believe that such an approach should be an integral and substantial part of any course. Modern
  technology can be an enormous aid to these outside projects by providing additional tools such as on-line tutorials and
  resources. These in turn have the potential to make a student’s learning experience more engaging, more in-depth and
  possibly more efficient than the traditional lecture. I feel that part of my role as an instructor is to direct students to
  noteworthy resources and to develop engaging online content appropriate to the current course of study.

          The active participation of the students is only half the equation in a successful learning/teaching environment
  however. Beyond merely lecturing, self-evaluation, self-improvement and student feedback are crucial components of my
  participation in the process. As a means of self-evaluation I have used videotape to critically review my public speaking

                                                                                                                                                     GRADUATE STUDENTS
  abilities and assess how well the lecture material was presented, as well as, how well it was received. While at Miami
  University I found it very motivating to watch the student evaluation scores of my teaching improve course after course.
  The desire to excel in teaching motivated me to attend classes and seminars, such as Teaching and Presentation Skills
  presented by the Stanford University Postdoctoral office. In addition, I regularly read Tomorrow’s Professor Listserv which
  provides articles, references and resources for continued development of teaching skills (http://ctl.stanford.edu) and I
   frequently peruse the American Association of Higher Education website (http://ww.aahe.org). I look forward to
  incorporating some of the teaching techniques that I’ve only had the opportunity to read about into future classes.

         Much of the motivation for self-improvement in teaching comes from enjoying what you do. I have had substantial
  teaching opportunities in a wide variety of microbiology courses and found each experience very rewarding. I have taught
  everything from non-majors courses such as “Experimenting with Microbes” to graduate courses such as the “Microbial
  Diversity” course at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole. It has been particularly enjoyable to teach non-majors
  courses and observe the dawning realization among students of the impact that microorganisms have not only in their daily
  lives but the impact that they have had throughout history. At the other end of the spectrum I also enjoy teaching graduate
  level courses because of the enthusiasm for microbiology exhibited by the students, as well as the challenging and insightful
  questions that the students pose.

          It is my guiding philosophy that teaching and learning are the two sides of a process, which requires committed
  participation of the players on both sides. As each teaching opportunity arises approach it with the goal of eliciting the
  participation of each and every student. To that end I continue to try and expand my pedagogical skills. And if I have done
  my job well I will have also conveyed some of my enthusiasm for microbiology and sparked a life long interest in microbiology
  among the students. Additional documentation of my teaching experience, philosophy and future plans is available at

                                                                                                                              cdc.stanford.edu   9
                                                                                               GRADUATE STUDENTS

                                     SAMPLE RESEARCH STATEMENT

1 0
                                       RESEARCH INTERESTS AND GOALS                                                                           project has been undertaken in collaboration with Craig Cummings (Stanford University) and
                                       Summary                                                                                                David Relman (Stanford University). The aims for this project are to:
                                                 My research interests lie primarily in the area of microbial ecology. Two of the diverse
                                       ecosystems I have had the opportunity to work in are the Gulf of Mexico and the human                          - Develop algorithms which identify insertion and deletion events among contiguous
                                       subgingival crevice. Despite the vast differences in the scale of these two ecosystems                           genes within the CGH data.
                                       similar methodological and modeling approaches can be used to answer key ecological                            - Develop a hidden Markov model (HMM) for gene insertion, deletion and substitution
                                       questions such as species composition and dependencies. The ecological tools that I have                         events.
                                       applied in my work have included predator-prey and density-dependent models of microbial                       - Automate the application of maximum parsimony algorithms for the phylogenetic
                                       interactions, identification of microbial species using hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering             analysis of CGH data.
                                       methods, and parametric estimators of species diversity. Many of the approaches in my work                     - Develop a maximum-likelihood model and algorithm for the phylogenetic analysis of
                                       utilize ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to identify and quantify microorganisms independent of cultivation.                 CGH data.
                                       Cultivation has provided an extremely biased view of microbial diversity. Ribosomal RNA is                     - Develop a graphical user interface (GUI) for simultaneous presentation of CGH
                                       well suited for the culture-independent study of microbial ecology because it reflects organismal                data, annotation and phylogeny.
                                       phylogeny and cellular rRNA concentration is correlated with growth rate.
                                                                                                                                                      Finally, my current research in oral microbial diversity has driven me to develop
                                       Past Research                                                                                          several bioinformatics programs to process and collate large numbers of microbial sequences.

Stanford Career Development Center
                                               My graduate work began with Dr. Thomas Schmidt at Miami University and continued               This software is now routinely used in related projects within the lab.
                                       with his move to the Center for Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University. This research
                                       focused on the development and application of ecological models to Synechococcus populations           Direction	of	Future	Research
                                       along a nutrient gradient in the Gulf of Mexico. During the course of my graduate research                     My current research into oral microbial communities provides an opportunity to
                                       I developed a method to measure control of Synechococcus population size by predation or               pursue a number of intriguing ecological hypotheses in future projects.
                                       density-dependent effects based on the quantification of cellular growth rates using ribosomal
                                       RNA probes. The resulting dissertation and publications remain one of the few applications             •	       Subgingival	 eucaryotic	 diversity.	 	 Little is known of the extent of the eucaryotic
                                       of ecological models to microbial systems outside of a laboratory setting.                             diversity within oral biofilms. The diversity and possible role of oral protozoans as microbial
                                                                                                                                              predators and the subsequent development of oral predator-prey models is an example of the
                                       Current Research                                                                                       exciting opportunities for future study.
                                       •	      Oral	 Microbial	 Diversity. I am currently investigating the association between               •	       Intermediate	disturbance	hypothesis. This hypothesis states that the greatest species
                                       microbial communities (Bacteria and Archaea) and disease progression from gingivitis to                diversity (richness) is maintained at levels of intermediate disturbance within the ecosystem.
                                       periodontitis. This research is being conducted in the lab of David Relman at Stanford                 Within an oral ecosystem perturbations such as brushing, anaerobiosis and changes in
                                       University in collaboration with Gary Armitage at UC San Francisco. This research is driven            pH may be categorized as frequent, intermediate or infrequent disturbances depending on
                                       by three main hypotheses:                                                                              individual habits. Addressing how various levels of disturbance affect microbial diversity
                                               - The number of bacterial and archaeal species (species richness) increases at                 would provide students the opportunity to apply ecological theory to the human body and
                                                 periodontitis sites.                                                                         disease, which has traditionally not been considered from an ecosystem perspective.
                                               - A restricted set of bacterial and archaeal species predominate within periodontitis          •	       Density-dependent	 models	 of	 oral	 biofilm	 formation. By some estimates there
                                                 sites (diversity is uneven).                                                                 are over 500 bacterial species that are potential inhabitants of the oral cavity. The proximity
                                               - The bacterial and archaeal species that predominate within periodontitis sites are           of these species, each with different affinities for various substrates, provides the opportunity
                                                 distinct from those that predominate within gingivitis and healthy sites.                    to develop density-dependent models of how the community competes for limited resources.
                                                                                                                                              This work would incorporate models of the spatial heterogeneity of biofilms which is a
                                               This research has revealed that there is a significant association between the                 departure from most density-dependent models that assume a homogeneous planktonic
                                       abundance of methanogenic Archaea and periodontal disease. It has also revealed that                   community. These models would necessitate using in vitro oral biofilm model systems,
                                       members of the uncultivated TM7 bacterial division are part of the normal oral flora and               as well as diverse techniques such as confocal laser microscopy and substrate-tracking
                                       their abundance may increase during the early phases of periodontal disease. Marker organisms          autoradiographic fluorescent in situ hybridization (STARFISH).
                                       such as these may help to identify individuals at increased risk for the development of                •	       Microbial	diversity	of	the	oral	flora.		The microbial diversity of the oral flora remains
                                       periodontitis and to target early intervention. These and similar results form the basis for           a fertile area of exploration. We and others have identified a number of bacterial species
                                       longitudinal studies in the future and for the development of novel diagnostic tests.                  that may be hallmarks for the development of periodontal disease. Prospective studies are a
                                                                                                                                              logical and necessary follow-up to current research. Definitive evidence of the role of these
                                       •	      Bioinformatics. In addition to the phylogenetic analysis that forms the basis of much          hallmark bacteria may eventually provide a means of early intervention and treatment.
                                       of my work I am also engaged in several bioinformatics projects. The goal of the first project                  In addition, we have been able to demonstrate that methanogenic Archaea comprise
                                       is to sequence and annotate microbial genomes associated with periodontitis patients and               a significant portion of the microbial population in a subset of periodontitis patients.
                                       has been undertaken in collaboration with David Relman (Stanford University) and Steven Gill           Sequencing and annotating the genome of Methanobrevibacter oralis would provide
                                       (TIGR). The investigation of multiple genomes from an ecosystem has only recently become               invaluable insight into the mechanisms by which this organism is able to evade host defenses,
                                       feasible. The bioinformatics tools necessary to facilitate this study will require substantial         as well as, its role within the microbial community.
                                       modification of existing tools or the creation of new tools to track and analyze sequences
                                       from hundreds of microorganisms.                                                                              My work on the human oral microbiota applies ecological theory to the study of an
                                                                                                                                              ecosystem that has traditionally not been considered from an ecosystem perspective. This
                                               The second project is the development of computational tools to automate the                   work could benefit both the school of dentistry and the department of microbiology and
                                       analysis of comparative genome hybridization (CGH) microarray data and to facilitate its               immunology. I look forward to the opportunity to apply ecological theories, tools and
                                       interpretation in the context of genome annotation and phylogenetic relationships. This                approaches in collaboration with members of the department.

To top