VIEWS: 133 PAGES: 64 POSTED ON: 7/30/2010
APPRENTICE LEADERSHIP PROGRAM STUDENT GUIDE Developed by: U.S. Coast Guard Leadership Development Center Training Support Branch April 2010 1 This page intentionally left blank 2 Coast Guard’s 28 Leadership Competencies *Leading Self *Leading Others Accountability & Responsibility Effective Communications Followership Influencing Others Self-Awareness & Respect for Others & Learning Diversity Management Aligning Values Team Building Health & Well-Being Taking Care of People Personal Conduct Mentoring Technical Proficiency Leading Performance & Change Leading the Coast Guard Customer Focus Stewardship Management & Process Improvement Technology Management Decision Making & Problem Solving Financial Management Conflict Management Human Resource Management Creativity & Innovation Partnering Vision Development & Implementation External Awareness Entrepreneurship Political Savvy Strategic Thinking *Competencies in Leading Self and Leading Others are discussed in ALP. 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction…………………………………………………………..5 Topic 1.1: Introduction to Leading Others…………………………6 Topic 2.1: Effective Communications……………………………....19 Topic 3.1: Influencing Others…………………………………….....29 Topic 4.1: Respect for Others and Diversity Management………..37 Topic 5.1: Team Building…………………………………………....48 Topic 6.1: Mentoring………………………………………………...56 4 Introduction Welcome to the Apprentice Leadership Program, or ALP. The ALP is the first rung on the Leadership Development Continuum and has the potential to anchor a successful Coast Guard career with common language and activities for generations of Coast Guard Junior Enlisted Professionals. This 3-day course is designed to prepare you, as E-3’s, for the supervisory duties and responsibilities you will face as Junior Petty Officers, irrespective of the technical rating that you earn in the field. 5 Topic 1.1: Introduction to Leading Others Your learning objectives for this module are: As a Petty Officer, ESTABLISH your role as a Petty Officer in accordance with references. DEFINE the Coast Guard’s definition of leadership. COMMUNICATE the seven competencies of Leading Self as it pertains to Coast Guard Junior Enlisted personnel: Accountability and Responsibility, Followership, Self-Awareness, Align Values, Health and Well-Being, Personal Conduct, and Technical Proficiency. STATE the significance of elements of the advancement certificate with respect to “Accountability and Responsibility”. COMMUNICATE the six competencies of Leading Others as it pertains to Coast Guard Junior Enlisted personnel: Effective Communications, Influencing Others, Respect for Others and Diversity Management, Team Building, Taking Care of People, and Mentoring. INTRODUCE the concept of commitment versus compliance. 6 What Makes a Good Leader? Each and every one of us in the Coast Guard is a leader and has a role in accomplishing the mission. We all play a role in setting the standards others will follow, and these impact individual and organizational effectiveness, morale, good order, and discipline. Many times we try to come up with ways to describe leaders or what we think leaders should be. What are some attributes YOU feel make a great leader? How would you describe leadership? Coast Guard Definition of Leadership There are hundreds of different leadership definitions, yet most say essentially the same thing. The Coast Guard and our Commandant defines leadership as: INFLUENCING ACHIEVE YOU OTHERS GOAL Leadership requires individuals to develop and possess certain traits that encourage their peers, subordinates, and seniors to do the same. To aid in your career success, the Coast Guard utilizes 28 Leadership Competencies (see page 3 of this ALP Student Guide). The first seven competencies are about Leading Self. 7 Leading Self Competencies According to these Leading Self competencies, “Fundamental to successful development as a leader is an understanding of self and one’s own abilities. This includes understanding one’s personality, values, and preferences, while simultaneously recognizing one’s potential as a Coast Guard member.” The seven Leading Self competencies are: 1. Accountability & Responsibility 2. Followership 3. Self-Awareness & Learning 4. Aligning Values 5. Health & Well-Being 6. Personal Conduct 7. Technical Proficiency Group Exercise In your assigned small groups, discuss the 1-2 Leading Self competencies supplied by the instructor and discuss what each mean to you individually and as a group. Be prepared to discuss the following questions as a group and brief your answers to the class. What happens if a leader does not embody these qualities, traits or competencies? How do we develop these qualities, traits or competencies? 8 Leading Self Competencies, continued How would you define accountability? How do you think accountability impacts you as a Petty Officer? You are expected to recognize the impact of personal behavior and job performance on co-workers and the Coast Guard, comply with Coast Guard policies and regulations, and accept responsibility for personal performance and the performance of your work group. How would you define responsibility? What are some of the challenges you are facing as you gain more responsibility? We hold people responsible to maintain good order and discipline. A military service needs discipline when performing missions, and requires devotion to duty. Some of the rules that hold individuals accountable are the UCMJ, CG, and Unit, and Shipboard regulations. How would you define followership? To effectively fulfill the role of followership, the Coast Guard expects you to embody the following characteristics: Initiative Dependability Accountability Critical Thinking Effective Communication Learning from Others Responsibility Commitment 9 Leading Self Competencies, continued According to the Leadership Development Framework: “Followers look to leadership for guidance and feedback, and actively seek to understand through listening. They are responsible for asking questions and providing feedback when appropriate and are accountable to leadership for the efficient and effective performance of tasks assigned. Additionally, followers are responsible to subordinates and coworkers for requesting and obtaining the resources needed to ensure proper mission performance. They attempt to anticipate current and future requirements and make preparations to fulfill such requirements through appropriate use of time and resources.” Why should you align your values with the Coast Guard’s? What things can you do on a daily basis to ensure personal health and well- being in your ship/office/unit? How do you feel when you are impacted by someone else’s behavior? Has your personal conduct ever impacted others? 10 Leading Self Competencies, continued As Petty Officers, you are responsible to recognize the impact of your personal behavior and conduct on coworkers and the Coast Guard. You will comply with Coast Guard policies and regulations and accept responsibility for personal conduct and conduct of the work group. What long-range plans have you developed, including education and training? All of you have chosen a career path within the Coast Guard that requires you to gain technical knowledge, skills, and expertise within that field. It is your duty to know the Coast Guard’s roles and missions and understand what your personal role is in fulfilling those mission tasks. Part of your responsibility is your own personal development within your chosen area of responsibility. What do you think your Advancement Certificate is going to mean or represent to you? Your Certificate of Advancement clearly states the terms of responsibility, authority, and accountability. By accepting advancement in rate, you have expressed a willingness to accept the responsibilities and carry out the delegated authority of your new positions. Coast Guard leaders utilize the regulations and guidelines that govern accountability and responsibility in order to hold others accountable as situations warrant. 11 Leading Others Competencies The focus of these six competencies is outward; you influencing others. The Leading Others competencies are: 1. Effective Communications 2. Influencing Others 3. Respect for Others & Diversity Management 4. Team Building 5. Taking Care of People 6. Mentoring How well do you think you communicate up and down the chain of command? As a Petty Officer, you need to communicate with others both in writing and orally. You must understand and follow basic workplace conversation. You must be candid, honest, and unbiased when presenting the facts. You must listen to others, and ask relevant questions to better understand or gain additional needed information. In what ways do you feel you are influenced by your peers here at “A” School and the Apprentice Leadership Program? At this level, influencing others involves working cooperatively with others, developing a meaningful understanding of others’ positions, and developing the ability to gain cooperation by giving cooperation. 12 Leading Others Competencies, continued How would you define diversity? How do we take diversity into account as we influence our people? Have you experienced or witnessed a situation were diversity may not have been taken into account and it impacted the people in some way? In order to influence or be influenced there must be respect in relationships. As you start out in the Coast Guard and rise in rank, you must treat all individuals fairly and without bias. You must act in compliance with Coast Guard policies. The Coast Guard creates and promotes an environment that supports diversity and sensitivity among its team members. What role has team building played in your career? As a Petty Officer, you must be open to the view of others and work in a collaborative, inclusive, outcome-oriented manner with supervisors, peers, and subordinates. How do you “take care” of others in your current role? How many of you have participated in a formal mentoring program in the past? Another aspect in the continued development of your Coast Guard career is participation in a mentoring program either in a formal or informal capacity. Right now, you are only expected to recognize your own strengths and weaknesses and pursue your own self-development. 13 Leading Others Competencies, continued Commitment versus Compliance *Dr. William James Model* 100% E 80 – 90% F F O R Their Choice T 20 – 30% 0% When we talk about committed individuals we are talking about people who are committed to a charge or trust. Just as you, your peers, subordinates, and seniors are committed to your task and duties as members of the Coast Guard. Compliant individuals are those who conform in fulfilling official requirements or yield when force applied. Many successful executives have learned that motivation for a task comes not from compliance but from commitment. Commitment, like motivation, comes from within. The Coast Guard expects their members to be committed at all times, not just compliant. A member functioning at only 20- 30% of their capacity is merely compliant; a member who puts forth a level of 80-90% is a committed peak performer. This is who we look for to inspire and motivate others. 14 Scenario/Case Study Petty Officer DeVito has just transferred from a small boat station to his first choice, a Sector in his home town. During his last year at the station, he spent his off duty time completing the Striker program for Yeoman. He would travel three hours to the Sector for training and supervision from the Yeoman. This training included the review of personnel records, data entry in three different systems for members of his unit, and familiarization of necessary publications and manuals. During his first year at the Sector, Petty Officer DeVito immersed himself in the day-to-day operations of the unit so that he could master the skills required of his new position. In this same time period, Petty Officer DeVito had attended a professional hockey game. During the National Anthem he noticed all of the services were represented with the exception of the Coast Guard. Taking the initiative, Petty Officer DeVito contacted the team to find out if the Coast Guard Color Guard Team had ever been invited. To his surprise, the Coast Guard Color Guard Team had never been considered nor did the hockey team know how to go about contacting them even if the wanted to use them. Prior to being placed on the Sector New York Color Guard, Petty Officer DeVito was a barracks watch stander and volunteered to help the Color Guard, when needed. Petty Officer DeVito requested through the Color Guard Coordinator at the time if it was ok to contact the New York Rangers. Since this was never done before, the coordinator granted his request, thinking that it was a long shot anyway. After two weeks of not hearing anything back, Petty Officer DeVito’s phone rang and on the caller ID it said Madison Square Garden. Since that phone call, the Coast Guard Sector Color Guard Team-New York has been used for three years, attending over 25 games, including opening night and playoff games. Petty Officer DeVito is also now in his second year of providing Color Guards for the New York Knicks. 15 Scenario/Case Study, continued Petty Officer DeVito was named Color Guard – Honor Guard Coordinator, and is responsible for providing funeral honors for deceased veterans, Joint Color Guards for the New York Mets, New York Jets, New York Giants, New York Yankees, championship boxing, as well as other high profile events and dinners in the New York Metropolitan Area. The Sector New York Color Guard provides full Coast Guard Color Guards for events that are attended by the Commandant, elected officials, as well as athletes and members of the movie and music industry. Petty Officer DeVito was recently named Sector New York Enlisted Person of the Quarter for his day-to-day job, as well as being the Weight Program Coordinator and Color Guard – Honor Guard Coordinator. What Leading Self competencies did Petty Officer DeVito embody? What Leading Others competencies did Petty Officer DeVito embody? What opportunities have you had to implement a program to represent the Coast Guard? Have you noticed any opportunities to utilize your position to help yourself and others? 16 Additional Reference Material for Learning: The 28 Leadership Competencies http://www.uscg.mil/leadership.comp.asp Leadership Development Framework (and other directives) http://cgweb2.comdt.uscg.mil/CGDIRECTIVES/WELCOME.HTM 17 Quiz Match items in Column A to definitions in Column B. Column A Column B 1. Accountability & Responsibility a. Assessing one’s personal behavior behavior and accepting feedback to confirm personal _____ strengths and identify areas or improvement. 2. Followership b. Being self-motivated, results- oriented, and accountable for _____ one’s performance. 3. Self-Awareness & Learning c. Maintaining personal Programs that include physical mental, and spiritual well- being. _____ 4. Aligning Values d. Using knowledge, skills, and expertise to effectively organize _____ prioritize tasks. 5. Health & Well-Being e. Taking ownership in effectively organizing and prioritizing _____ assigned tasks. 6. Personal Conduct f. Developing and maintaining an understanding of Honor, Respect, and Devotion to Duty. _____ 7. Technical Proficiency g. Seeking and accepting the command, guidance, or leadership of others. _____ of others. 8. Initiative, accountability, responsibility, and critical thinking are all characteristics of ___________________. 18 Topic 2.1: Effective Communications Your learning objectives for this module are: As a Petty Officer, DEMONSTRATE communication principles in accordance with references. STATE communications processes including role of sender and receiver. IDENTIFY elements of a message which affect communications including visual, verbal, and vocal. IDENTIFY barriers to communications. IDENTIFY good listening skills. 19 The Communication Process Person to person communication is the exchange of information, ideas, and feelings among people. Communication takes place when you transmit a message from one person to another person, or to a group of people. However, effective communication requires more than just transmitting a message. The message must be clear, accurate, and above all, understood by the person or persons with who you are communicating. Communication is a dynamic process, ongoing and ever changing. The five major elements of communication are: Five Major Elements of Communication Message The first element in the communication process is the message. The message is not only conveyed information, but the emotions that give the words meaning. Words alone do not fully establish the full meaning of the message. Non-verbal communications may give clues that the receiver may use to interpret the message. 20 Five Major Elements of Communication, continued The Sender The sender is the source of the communication; he/she formulates the message and starts the communication process by transmitting information to the receiver. The receiver hears the message and decodes it, interpreting the message. Transmission Medium The transmission medium is the pathway by which the message flows. It is vehicle that carries the message from the sender to the receiver, and back. The medium can be electronic, verbal, and non-verbal. The Receiver The receiver is the element in the communication process that interprets the meaning of the message. Only when the receiver has understood the message, can true communication take place. To interpret the message correctly, the words in the message must mean the same thing to the receiver and sender or there will be miscommunication. Feedback The most common cause of ineffective communication is the failure of the sender to request feedback from the receiver. Feedback is the element of communication that confirms the message has been received and understood. In most written forms of communication, some reply is required. Oral communication via electronic means usually requires only a verbal repeat of the message followed by “roger”, “understood”, or “aye- aye”. 21 Five Major Elements of Communication, continued In face-to-face communication, feedback can be more complex. One way to get feedback from face-to-face communication is to solicit questions from your receiver, or from each person to whom your message applies. Why do you think you were misunderstood? What did the individual do to indicate misunderstanding? Do you think it was the sender, receiver, message, or the way the message was sent or received? The transmission medium? Communication Elements Good communication is difficult. The key is to focus on understanding and improving communication. There are three key elements to good communication; verbal elements (actual words), vocal elements (tone of voice and speech), and visual elements (body language). Verbal communication, or our choice of words, has the least impact on face- to-face communication. Vocal qualities such intonation, resonance, rhythm, pitch, volume, inflection, and clarity can make a direct impact on the receipt of the message. Our voice can convey much more than just words. We may be saying all the right things, but actually sending something else to our receiver. What someone hears might not be what we are sending. It is not unusual for our visual and vocal elements to sometimes send conflicting and more or less intense messages. The visual element is basically our body language or what people see. Body language describes human interaction, excluding written and spoken words. It is anything that can be seen by the other person. Because gestures express more than words, you must be that much more aware of your body/facial projections and those of your shipmates. Your eyes are also an important part of the communication process because they are the principal receivers of nonverbal communication. The amount of eye contact projects a wide range of nonverbal messages. 22 Group Exercise As a group, let’s talk about how we inadvertently shut down communications. We are going to create a list based on your ideas. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ The things listed here are referred to as barriers to communication. If these are truly things that shut down communication, what can we do to eliminate them? What is the advantage of removing as many barriers as possible? Physical Barriers to Effective Communication There are numerous physical and environmental barriers to effective communication. These types of barriers include physical, psychological, and space barriers. Physical barriers to effective communication include: distance, noise and distraction. Distance is considered a physical barrier because if the receiver is far away from the person speaking he/she may only be able to pick up bits and pieces of the conversation. 23 Physical Barriers to Effective Communication, continued Noise is considered an environmental barrier to effective communication. For example, an airplane flying overhead, loud music playing, or being on a boat deck with high winds all create barriers to effective communications. Distractions can be both physical and environmental. Psychological Barriers to Effective Communication Fear is a psychological barrier to effective communications. For some people, talking to a senior member brings out the fear factor. Fear is inherent in relationships with senior members and often intimidating, whether justified or not. Often words themselves do not transfer meanings. Whether written or spoken, words are merely ideas used in communication. As ideas, they cause a response of some kind in the nervous system of the receiver. A receiver’s response to words comes from the receiver’s experience with the things to which the words refer. When individuals have different experiences, different words will have different meanings. Space Barriers to Effective Communication When speaking to people you have just met, what differences have you noticed in their demeanor? This is due to “personal space”. For a moment, think of all people existing in their own bubble. When someone violates our bubble by getting too close, we can become tense or even angry. How closely we allow others to come and still feel comfortable is one measure of our relationship to them. 24 Space Barriers to Effective Communication, continued There are three zones of interaction: Intimate: Body contact is about 18 inches away; this contact is reserved for family members, very close friends, or children. We are more defensive about this zone than any other. When strangers enter this zone we feel they are trespassing; become nervous, uneasy, and even hostile. Personal: Contact is one to four feet; used for friends and companions for personal conversation. Some people also become hostile if an intruder enters this zone. Social: Two areas, close and far. Close ranges from four to twelve feet. Use this for public interactions and two-way conversations. This distance is about the width of the boss’ desk and the space we prefer between neighboring workstations and others with whom we converse. Far area ranges outward from a distance no closer than twelve feet. Use this for one-way communication, such as classroom lectures and public speeches. L.E.A.P.S. Has anyone been to some form of Law Enforcement training and remembers the acronym L.E.A.P.S.? LISTEN: To what the person is saying. EMPATHIZE: Acknowledge and understand the emotions they are expressing. ASK questions: To get more information. PARAPHRASE: In your own words repeat what the person is saying to check your understanding. SUMMARIZE: Restate the situation with all the facts to clarify the role, problem or behavior. 25 L.E.A.P.S. , continued What does this all mean? Listening takes time and you must take time to listen. Good listening requires you to temporarily suspend all unrelated thoughts and have your mind be a blank canvas. In order to an effective listener, you have to learn to manage distracting thoughts within your own mind. If we become good listeners, can we eliminate some of the barriers we discussed earlier? Group Exercise This exercise is used to develop skills of communication by active and effective listening. You will be broken into groups of three and provided with a current topic such as music, entertainment, sports, or movies. If your group has a topic of its own they would like to discuss, please present it to the instructor. Each group selects a speaker, a listener, and a referee. The selected topic is discussed by the speaker who, without interruption explains his/her feelings on the topic. After the speaker has finished, the listener summarizes, without notes, what was said by the speaker on the subject. Following this segment, the speaker and the referee can correct or amplify any item stated by the listener. Note that the referee is the only person allowed to use notes. After approximately 5-7 minutes of discussion, select a new topic and reverse the roles, using the same procedure. This will be repeated again, allowing each person in the group to have the speaker role. 26 Group Exercise, continued Once all groups have finished, the class will discuss the following: In your role as speaker, did you sense any difficulties or awkward moments? What about as listener or referee? Did you identify or observe any barriers that obstructed listening? In your role as listener, why was it difficult to summarize and paraphrase the speaker’s comments? Additional Reference Material for Learning: http://www.uscg.mil/leadership/comp.asp http://www.umext.maine.edu/onlinepubs/PDFpubs/6103.pdf http://www.dynamicflight.com/avcfibook/communication/ http://www.earthlingcommunication.com/ http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/clearinghouse/Links/Listening.htm http://www.corrections.com/tracy_barnhart/?p=574 27 Quiz 1. What are the five major elements involved in the communication process? 2. Which element in the communication process is the source of communication? 3. Which element in the communication process interprets the meaning of the message? 4. List the three key elements used to focus on understanding and improving communication. 5. What three types of barriers prevent effective communication? 6. Name the two basic types of communication. 7. List the four basic steps in the message receiving process. 8. What is the most common cause of ineffective communication? 9. List the three zones of interaction? 28 Topic 3.1 Influencing Others Your learning objectives for this module are: As a Petty Officer, INFLUENCE others to achieve a desired outcome IAW references. COMPARE internal and external motivation. RECALL communications and how it applies to influencing others (motivation). In a case study, IDENTIFY how others are influenced to achieve a goal. 29 Introduction Motivation is the force within an individual that accounts for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended. Understanding what drives certain people will expand your abilities as a leader. Using that knowledge will increase your ability to influence others and enable you to be a more effective leader. Upon becoming a Petty Officer, you can help your people see how their performance, in meeting the needs of the command, can satisfy their own needs. Why is motivation important? How does motivation affect performance? What motivates you? What are your goals? Have you ever helped someone else achieve his/her goals? Influence Webster’s online dictionary defines influence as: “The act or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of command.” Coast Guard’s definition of Leadership: INFLUENCING ACHIEVE YOU OTHERS GOAL 30 Motivators Motivation is defined as: “The amount of energy or effort one is willing to put forth to achieve a goal.” An individual’s needs are the basis for action; needs motivate individuals. So it can be said that motivation is a total process that is determined by the interaction of human needs, the situation, and a combination of personal and group needs. These “needs” that motivate us can be divided into two basic types of motivators, “External” and “Internal”. Things leaders do to encourage people to accomplish what the organization wants them to do, external motivators, can be positive or negative, and usually have a short-term impact. These motivators do not necessarily promote productivity and actually may reduce the effectiveness of the organization over time. For example, positive motivators such as rewards and recognition constitute the majority of extrinsic motivators. Rewards, such as early liberty are important and helpful in the short term, but do not sustain productivity in the long term unless the complemented by intrinsic motivational factors. Recognition, whether formal or informal, official or unofficial, creates a climate where people feel good about themselves and their contribution to their team. On the other hand, when you attempt to “rule” with fear and punishment, you may frequently motivate people to get the job done, but organizational effectiveness may be greatly reduced due to the debilitating effects of fear, stress, and anxiety over time. What type of external motivators have you experienced or witnessed thus far in the Coast Guard? 31 Motivators, continued Internal or intrinsic motivation is something that is developed within the individual and motivates them to high performance (e.g., pride in workmanship and a sense of achievement). Internal motivation sets up individuals for success. Internal motivation occurs when you recognize needs, and create or recognize opportunities to satisfy these needs, and actually grow. A member’s internal drive created by intrinsic motivators acts as a model for others to emulate. Internal motivators tend to be long term and provide the highest sense of motivated attitude. So, when you involve your team in decisions, you can install a sense of ownership, and people will support what they help to create. What type of internal motivators have you experienced thus far in the Coast Guard? Group Exercise/Discussion Based on this discussion, what are some of the things that motivate you? What makes you do the things you do? What motivates you in your personal life? What motivates you in your professional life? Let’s list them by internal and external motivation. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 32 Case Study When she was 8 years old, Maria Delgado began cooking with her mother. In her family, cooking was a way to not only feed your family, but express your love for them. In the family tradition, Maria’s mother taught and handed down recipes that had been in the family for generations. Cooking became a passion for Maria and she loved to plan, prepare, and serve meals for her entire extended family. When she graduated high school at 18, Maria knew she wanted to have a career in food service, but was unsure of which route to take. A reputable culinary school was out of the question. Maria’s parents could not afford to send her there. Maria did not want to go heavily in debt at such a young age with school loans. Maria talked to her high school guidance counselor who recommended one of the military service branches as an alternative. Maria did her research on each of the branches, and then made the decision to join the Coast Guard as a Food Service Specialist (FS) “A” School. At “A” school, Maria loved learning new dishes and the more formal prepping and cooking techniques required of all FS personnel in the galley. Upon her “A” school graduation, FS3 Delgado received orders to the Coast Guard Cutter DALLAS. FS3 Delgado was thrown into a patrol and all the new requirements of reporting to a Coast Guard cutter. At first, FS3 Delgado was excited to use her new skills, working to establish herself in the galley and with her new shipmates. After a while, FS3 Delgado began to feel the pressure placed on her as a new FS3 on a cutter; cooking for 200 shipmates, the hectic pace, duty rotation, and PQS. After her first patrol, FS3 Delgado began to doubt herself and her choice to join the Coast Guard. She no longer found cooking enjoyable and was feeling overwhelmed and frustrated. What was worse is that she began to have verbal confrontations with co-workers, show up late to her work shifts, and was overheard grumbling about her duties. Additionally, her supervisor noted that FS3’s food quality had become poor and she could often be found in tears if something did not go her way. 33 Case Study, continued Personally, FS3 Delgado could hardly find the energy and motivation to perform her duties any longer. She is unsure what to do about the situation. Why do you think FS3 Delgado lost her passion for cooking and became frustrated? What was FS3’s motivation to cook for her family? What can FS3 do about this situation? What are some visible signs of FS3’s decreased motivation? What can her supervisor do to help? Communication and Influencing Others Your entire Coast Guard career revolves around the relationships you form with your fellow Guardians. Communication between people is critical to building relationships required for effective leadership. Since people and situations are all different, the right communication technique depends on the situation. Building a trusting relationship with others will enhance communication, as well as your ability to influence others. Leaders set the example, good or bad, with every action taken, and word spoken, on or off duty. Through words and personal example, leaders communicate purpose, direction, and motivation. 34 Communication and Influencing Others, continued As you become Petty Officers, you will be responsible for influencing others by helping to: Create and sustain an organizational culture which permits others to provide the quality of service essential to high performance. Enable others to acquire the tools and support they need to perform well. Show a commitment to military service. Influence others toward ownership and teamwork and meaningful contributions to mission accomplishment. Additional Reference Material for Learning: http://www.uscg.mil/leadership/comp.asp http://www.au.af.mil/au/ http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/influencing_ people.html http://www.nytimes.com/1986/02/18/science/influencing-others-skills- are-identified.html 35 Quiz 1. Which type of motivator do leaders use to encourage people to accomplish what the organization wants them to do? 2. Name the type of motivator sets an individual up for success? 3. If a leader wants to promote productivity and effectiveness with long- term results, which type of motivator should he/she use? 4. How do Company Commanders influence their recruits? 5. Give an example of how you have been externally/extrinsically motivated in the Coast Guard? 6. Give an example of how you were internally/intrinsically motivated in the Coast Guard? 7. What is the Coast Guards definition of leadership? 8. Motivation is defined as “The amount of ___________ or __________ one is willing to put forth to achieve a __________.” 9. As a Petty Officer name two ways you will be responsible to influence others? 10. Identify two personnel goals, and your motivation for each? 36 Topic 4.1 Respect for Others & Diversity Management Your learning objectives for this module are: As a Petty Officer, SUPPORT an environment of respect and diversity for each member of the work team IAW Commandant Directives. REVIEW Commandant Policies on Diversity, Equal Opportunity, and Human Relations. REVIEW Commandant’s Equal Opportunity Manual (COMDTINST M5350.4 (series), Chapter 3. DEMONSTRATE sensitivity to cultural diversity, race, gender, background, and experience in the work place. 37 Introduction and Diversity of People The USCG is comprised of many people from various parts of the world, with many different backgrounds, and traditions (accents, expressions, experiences, etc.). Each member brings their own unique experiences, talents, skills, and abilities to assist in meeting team missions. We have personnel on Active Duty, Reservists, Auxiliarists, government services personnel, and Contractors all working together as one branch of service. Diversity Management allows us to recognize, respect, and maximize the talents of all team members. Group Exercise What does diversity mean to you as an individual? What does diversity mean to you as a group? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 38 Commandant’s Policy on Diversity As a Petty Officer, you will be interacting with all kinds of people. It is important to always remember that we all are different, yet we all wear the same uniform. Some of the differences could be skills, lifestyles, religions, ethnic groups, gender, ages, etc. As a Petty Officer, it is imperative that you understand, support, and enforce the Commandant’s Policy on Diversity. The Commandant’s Policy on Diversity states: Diversity is not a program or policy – it is a state of being. Diversity sparks innovation and incorporates fresh approaches. It provides well-rounded perspectives in problem solving that let us identify better ways of performing the duties entrusted to us by our government and fellow citizens. The Coast Guard is a diverse workforce. Our mission success and our core values require us to ensure our work environment enhances the potential and contribution of all employees by promoting inclusion, equity, and respect. Each of you, regardless of who you are or where you sit in the organization, plays a key role in the success of the Coast Guard. You are our greatest strength. Your creativity, commitment, experience and collaboration make the difference between getting results, and just doing the job. Mission execution, reputation, leadership and culture are defined primarily by the abilities and performance of our people. Active Duty, Reserve, Civilian and Auxiliary, your commitment to excellence is apparent every day, in every mission, across the country, around the world, against all threats, and all hazards. I am personally committed to ensuring our Coast Guard provides an environment that values and embraces the contributions and potential of every member of our diverse workforce. Our core values of Honor, Respect and Devotion to Duty are fundamental to our individual and collective success. Live them every day. -USCG Commandant 39 What Diversity is You will also notice that the categories go far beyond race or gender. There is a lot of discussion surrounding race and gender because these particular dimensions seem to have a lot of emotion surrounding them but it is important to remember that these are only two dimensions of diversity. There is much that binds together the people in this room, and those similarities are important in diversity, too. Many people think managing diversity is the same thing as Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) and/or affirmative action. In fact, these are all completely different. What Diversity is NOT Many people think managing diversity is the same thing as Equal Opportunity Employment (EEO) and/or Affirmative Action. In fact, these are completely different. EEO: When most people hear EEO, their guard immediately goes up. However, all EEO basically says is that we are all guaranteed an equal opportunity when we seek employment. Affirmative Action: Affirmative Action states that positive steps need to be taken because of past discrimination to level the playing field for all people. It is a concept, not a law, and it is definitely the subject of much debate. As we just discussed, diversity is simply the mix of similarities and differences each of us brings to the workplace. Unfortunately, those who do not have a clear understanding of these terms try to use them interchangeably. 40 Diversity Management Diversity Management is the process of creating and maintaining a positive environment where the differences of all personnel are recognized, understood, and valued, so that all can reach their full potential and maximize their contributions to the United States Coast Guard. Our ability to attract, develop, retain, and deploy a quality, diverse workforce is the key to the Coast Guard’s success - it must be a top priority for everyone. We must draw on the strength of our differences and similarities to: 1. Create a positive work environment. 2. Promote personal and professional development. 3. Empower all people to reach their full potential. 4. Attract talent that reflects America. 5. Remove barriers that hinder progress. 41 Commandant’s EEO Policy The Commandant’s EEO Policy states: All Coast Guard personnel – military, civilian, auxiliary – shall be treated with respect. The Coast Guard prohibits all forms of discrimination that violates law or policy in any action affecting our personnel, those seeking employment with us, and those benefiting from our public services or sponsored programs. Toward this end, we shall: Reach out widely to identify the best-qualified applicants for enlistment, officer accession, civilian employment, and auxiliary enrollment. Our goal is to recruit, retain, train, and deploy a highly capable, diverse, and flexible workforce; Ensure that all people are given fair and equal treatment in personnel decisions; evaluate personnel based on their job performance; provide advancement and retention opportunities based on demonstrated performance and potential; and take prompt, appropriate, and effective measures to enforce this policy and ensure personal accountability. Every Commander, Commanding Officer, Officer-in Charge, and supervisor is to be personally committed to and responsible for fair and equal treatment of all Coast Guard personnel and those with whom we interact. We must be a model organization that ensures no unlawful discrimination in recruitment, selection, assignment, retention, training, or general treatment of any member of the Coast Guard. 42 CG Equal Employment Opportunity Every member of Team Coast Guard deserves to be treated with honor, dignity, and respect, and work in an environment free of discrimination or harassment. Discrimination is defined as any action prohibited by law, Executive Order, regulations, or policy in which members of a category or group of individual are treated differently from members of another group or category. The Coast Guard will not tolerate harassment or discrimination on any prohibited basis against any Coast Guard military member or civilian employee (including applicants for employment) at any time based on: race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, etc. This list will vary slightly whether one is military or civilian. Commanding officers (COs) or their equivalent at all levels of the service are personally responsible and accountable for ensuring that EO laws, regulations, policies, and program standards are proactively applied and rigorously enforced within their commands. *Chapter 3 of the EEO Manual has more information related to policies on Discrimination, Sexual Harassment, Affirmative Programs of Equal Employment, Reasonable Accommodation, Social Climate, Human Relations, and the Discrimination Complaint Program and Meditation. Three Levels of Diversity Management Diversity management has three levels of involvement. Personal. What is my role? Interpersonal. How do I interact with others? Organizational. How do I support my organization? When we talk about diversity, we are talking about our core values, because we are talking about how we treat and interact with the people with whom we work. 43 Three Levels of Diversity Management Honor is diversity on a personal note. Do you demonstrate uncompromising ethical conduct and moral behavior in all of your personal actions? Respect. How do you interact with people around you? Do you treat them with fairness and compassion? Do you encourage and motivate them? Devotion to Duty. How do you support the organization as a whole? Are you committed to the USCG and the accomplishment of its missions? Scenario(s) When you think about the members of your unit, what assumptions do you automatically make? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Here are some things to think about: How many people at your unit are single parents? We need to realize that what happens in your work affects your life, and what happens in your life affects your work. We have more and more USCG members who are single parents; some by design, some not by design. Let me tell you about a very talented second class Petty Officer who is a single parent. She had aspirations of attending OCS, loved the USCG, and was great at what she did. She was assigned to a 110’ and took her daughter with her. She was living in leased housing, and because 110s get underway, made arrangements for her sister to come and live with her while attending college. That way, when the Petty Officer was underway, her sister could take care of the baby. 44 Scenario(s), continued Does that sound like a good plan? She was going to meet her obligations to the USCG, and the baby would be taken care of. But do you know what happened? The Housing Officer said that her sister could not live in leased housing because she was not in the USCG. Is that a law? No, it’s policy. Unfortunately, by the time the Housing Officer decided that it was okay, the Petty Officer had already made the decision to leave the USCG. We lost an extremely talented young woman because the needs of our diverse workforce were not fully considered. The Petty Officer was not trying to pull a fast one on the military. She was just trying to meet her obligations. Now the ship is without a second class Petty Officer, and the USCG’s workforce is one member less. Discrimination Discrimination is defined as any action prohibited by law, Executive Order, regulation, or policy in which members of a category or group of individuals are treated differently from members of another category or group. It is the USCG’s policy to provide its military members equal opportunity training during their military service and access to the rights, responsibilities, and privileges of such service, regardless of: Race Color Religion Gender National Origin Participation in EO-related activities The USCG is a diverse force not only in people, but missions too. Diversity occurs every day in the USCG. 45 Exercise Take a few minutes to write down an example of our service supporting a member with an unusual /diverse situation. Or if you can’t think of a positive example, what about a negative example? Someone who had to leave our service because of circumstances in their personal life that our service could not support. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Where to get more information HQ Diversity Management Division Gender Policy Advisor 202-267-2467 Ethic Policy Advisor 202-267-0109 Workforce Policy Advisor 202-267- 6240 Diversity Management Division Website http://www.uscg.mil/diversity.htm (click on diversity) Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute 46 Quiz 1. Diversity is_________________________. 2. Why is Diversity Management important to the Coast Guard? 3. Diversity is NOT ___________________ and/or ________________. 4. Name the three levels of Diversity Management involvement. 5. What is the goal of the Commandant’s Equal Opportunity Policy? 6. Who should you contact about an Equal Opportunity concern or issue? 7. In his diversity policy statement, the Commandant challenged each CG member to do five things. What are those five things? 8. A key precept in the Equal Opportunity (EO) Program is that _________________________________________________________. 9. What is discrimination? 10. According to policy, military members will receive equal opportunity regardless of what? 47 Topic 5.1 Team Building Your learning objectives for this module are: As a Petty Officer, PERFORM as a team member to accomplish a team goal IAW references. CONTRAST various group decision making methodologies (i.e., leader- made, leader-made with input, team-made). ESTABLISH trust as a vital element of group development. IDENTIFY the stages of group development and a member’s role on a team. 48 Decision Making Methodologies One key to success in any organization is the effective use of resources. Productive teams and teamwork, in appropriate applications or situations, can be the best example of using personnel effectively. There are three decision making methods used by the Coast Guard: 1. Leader-made 2. Leader-made with input 3. Team-made Each method has advantages and disadvantages and is specific to the situation at hand. Let’s take a few minutes to look at each. Developing Group/Team Trust & Cooperation What exactly is trust? Trust is not a fact; rather it is a sense of confidence that develops over time. The main elements of trust include a belief in a person’s character and competence. Mutual trust requires members of a team to believe they can depend on each other to achieve a common purpose. Trust is a critical ingredient for creating and maintaining a high level of performance within a team. Trust requires time and effort to develop and can quickly be lost. How does communication play a role in developing trust? 49 Group Exercise In your small groups, you have been assigned two or three of the following “ingredients” for building or invoking trust. Working within your groups, please describe each of your assigned ingredients and discuss why it is important to build and maintain trust. Ingredients for invoking trust: • Clear team goals • Improvement Plan • Action Plan • Well-defined roles • Helpful team behaviors • Well-defined decision procedures • Balanced Participation • Ground rules • Awareness of group process • Scientific approach • Pay attention to your people • Make team feel valued • Develop a sense of belonging • Give team members a cause • Focus on short term goals • Manage conflict You have approximately 10 minutes to discuss your ingredients within your group and then each group will brief to the class their findings. 50 Stages of Group Development As you work in a team atmosphere, you will find that your team goes through stages of development. Identifying and understanding theses stages will help you move through them and create a more cohesive team. There are 4 stages of team development identified by Dr. Bruce Tuckman. 51 Group Exercise Working in your assigned group, discuss one of the stages identified by Dr. Tuckman, and its impact on a group/team’s performance. You have approximately 10 minutes to discuss and then each group will brief to the class their findings. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 52 Team Roles and Responsibilities Now that you understand how decisions are made within a team, and the stages they go through, let’s discuss the different roles that exist within a team. Team Leader: Give clear direction Get members acquainted Create positive atmosphere Assign straight-forward, simple tasks Be sensitive to members’ need for direction Open up conflict Move toward negotiation and consensus Get members to assume more tasks responsibly Let team assign own tasks Encourage team to review own goals and progress Listen and facilitate Participate, consult, inspire Be involved in tasks as needed Keep communications and information flowing Reinforce and celebrate achievement Provide new vision Followership 53 Team Roles and Responsibilities, continued Team Members: Having interpersonal skills; skills that each members should bring to the team/group Listening Supporting each other’s efforts to do well Differing with others in a constructive manner when needed Participating equally Being able to give and receive constructive criticism Be able to negotiate Value other’s opinions Followership If team members utilize and develop these skills, they can greatly assist the team in becoming effective. 54 Quiz 1. A group of two or more people working together to accomplish common goals is called a ______. 2. One key to success in any organization is the effective use of its _________. 3. The three common decision making methods used by the Coast Guard are: a. b. c. 4. Which decision making method involves a group approach to the situation? _______________________________________________ 5. _______is a critical ingredient for creating and maintaining a high level of performance within a Team. 6. _______________ is vital to building and maintaining trust. 7. What are the four stages of Tuckman’s team development model? a. b. c. d. 8. In the ____________ stage of group development, members solve problems as a cohesive group. 9. During the _____________ stage of group development, group members begin to think in terms of a team and work through obstacles. 10. ________________ support each other’s efforts, participate equally, and are willing to listen to each other’s thoughts and ideas. 55 Topic 6.1 Mentoring Your learning objectives for this module are: As a Petty Officer, ENGAGE in the Coast Guard mentoring programs as a mentor/mentee IAW Commandant’s Mentoring Program. STATE resources of the mentor program. STATE the benefits of a formal mentoring process STATE the steps to become a mentor/mentee 56 Mentoring vs. Teaching Mentorship is a supportive relationship established between two individuals where knowledge, skills, and experience are shared. The mentee is someone seeking guidance in developing specific competencies, self-awareness, and skills. The mentor is a person who has expertise in the areas of need identified by the mentee and is able to share their wisdom. The mentee has the opportunity to ask questions, share concerns, and observe a more experienced professional. Investing time and effort in the cultivation of a mentorship program is a win-win situation for all involved. It enhances the happiness, job satisfaction, and effectiveness of both mentors and mentees; and organization they work for is able to reach its goals, while empowering its people. GROUP EXERCISE Break into 3-4 small groups and using the easel charts, list all the mentor- type relationships you have had prior to the Coast Guard. As a group, answer the following questions: What made this a mentoring relationship? What did these individuals teach you? What were some of the characteristics of these relationships? 57 Mentoring So far, everyone here has been able to identify a person (mentor) that was able to help them at some point in their lives. Maybe this person helped you get through a difficult situation or was beneficial in helping you to achieve a goal. Now let’s talk about the mentoring processes that occur within the Coast Guard. What is mentoring and how is that different than teaching? We have all had teachers, and some have been mentors, but what makes them mentors? Mentors not only teach, but offer: Resources Values Insight Perspectives Advice Lessons learned Mentors and Mentees Mentees are usually junior members who wish to enhance their professional development using the advice and counsel of a mentor. A mentor is usually a senior member willing to share expertise, knowledge, organizational insight, professional advice, or other information with another. 58 Elements of Mentoring Relationship For a mentor/mentee relationship to occur the following elements must exist: Mutual respect Trust Caring Mutual support for growth Types of Mentoring Mentoring can take various forms. The different types of mentoring include: Formal Informal Situational Supervisory Formal mentoring is a relationship that has an agreed to beginning and end, a method for no fault termination, a formal matching of the mentor and mentee, and agreed upon goals, objectives and checkpoints. Informal mentoring typically occurs when a mentee seeks out a mentor for career advice. It can also be initiated by the mentor who reaches out to a mentee whom they believe would benefit from advice and experience. These relationships tend to grow over time and can be very effective and rewarding. 59 Types of Mentoring, continued Situational mentoring is “the right help at the right time” provided by someone when a mentee needs guidance and advice. It is usually short term to address an immediate situation, but may transition into a more long-term connection. The last type of mentoring is known as Supervisory mentoring. It is expected that all supervisors in the Coast Guard will provide this type of mentoring to their subordinates. The Individual Development Plan (IDP) is a tool that the supervisor can use to help them. The IDP outlines expectations for coaching and feedback. Most frequently this type of mentoring is informal and relates to day-to-day guidance about the current job. As leaders, supervisors should encourage mentoring, and encourage their subordinate to seek other sources when they (the supervisor) are not the subject matter experts. Benefits of Formal Mentoring For both the mentor and mentee: Increased productivity Improved performance Greater career satisfaction For the Coast Guard: Professional development of personnel Job satisfaction and retention of personnel 60 Mentoring Resources COMDTINST 5350.24 (series), Coast Guard Mentoring Program On-Line Mentoring Training Course http://learning.uscg.mil/mentoring/ -Course Catalog -Leadership and Professional Development -Mentoring http://www.uscg.mil/leadership/ http://www.uscg.mil/ http://www.uscg.mil/leadership/comp.asp Group Exercise In your small groups, discuss specific ways in which a mentor would be beneficial, the type of mentoring it would be, and how you plan on beginning the mentoring process. Each group will have approximately 10 minutes to discuss and then will brief the class. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 61 Optional Exercise As a Petty Officer, ENGAGE in the Coast Guard mentoring programs as a mentor/mentee IAW Commandant’s Mentoring Program. Directions: Use the form provided in your Individual Development Plan (IDP), and identify areas in your life where mentoring would benefit you in achieving your goals, write them down and decide the type of mentoring, and how you plan on seeking out mentors to assist you in your goals. 62 Quiz 1. Define the mentor program/relationship. 2. Name the four types of mentoring discussed in the lesson. 3. Which type of mentoring program would benefit a new PO3 with the goal of a successful 20-year career in his/her rating? 4. Which type of mentoring program would benefit a PO2 wanting to ask for a tour at sea for his/her next assignment but unsure how this would fit with his/her family goals of having children within the next two years? 5. Who benefits from a mentoring program? 6. List two resources for information on participating in a mentor program. 63 This page intentionally left blank 64
"Apprentice Leadership Program Student Guide - APPRENTICE "