Africa South of the Sahara by wuyunyi


									Africa South of the Sahara

          Created JDG 2000
                  Africa South of the Sahara
                                      Quick Facts

q   One of the richest regions in terms of mineral resources
     – neo-colonialism & fragment states prevent any nation from having complimentary
       collection of resources
q   66% of economic activity is agricultural--least industrialized region of the world
q   605 million people in 1997
q   Core: South Africa

                                       Created JDG 2000
                    Africa South of Sahara

q   Central Africa: Gabon, Rep. Of Congo, CAR, Dem. Rep. Of Congo, Chad,
    Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Burundi
q   Western Africa: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia,
    Cote D’Ivoire Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Togo,
q   Eastern Africa: Eritria, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Tanzania, Uganda
q   Southern Africa: Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar,
    Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland

                                     Created JDG 2000
                             Africa S. of Sahara
                                Physical Geography: Climates

    q    Equatorial
          – Monsoon (W. Africa) &
            Tropical Rain forest (C.
    q    Tropical Rain forest &
         Highland (E. Africa)
    q    Mid-Latitude/Tropical Rain
         Forest/Arid (S. Africa)

Source: Clawson (nd)                     Created JDG 2000
                    Africa South of Sahara
                         Physical Geography: Hydrography

q   Mozambique Channel
q   Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, Tana, Nyasa, & Chad
q   Major Rivers: Congo, Niger, Zaire, Zambezi, Orange
q   Red Sea

                                    Created JDG 2000
                    Africa South of Sahara
                        Physical Geography: Physiography

q   Rift Valley
q   High Veld
q   Kalahari & Namib Desert
q   Congo, Niger, & Sudan Basins
q   Bie Plateau

                                   Created JDG 2000
                    Africa South of Sahara
                          Physical Geography: Resources

q   Limited Fuel Resources
     – Timber dominates leading to massive deforestation
q   Access to potable water important
     – compounded by environmental degradation
q   Precious Metals
     – Southern Africa
q   Subsistence Farming
q   Commercial Agriculture/Plantations
     – Rubber, Coffee, Tea, Fruits, Vegs., & Groundnuts

                                    Created JDG 2000
                      Africa South of Sahara
                      Physical Geography: Environmental Problems

q   Desertification
     – myth?
q   Tropical Diseases
q   Soil Conservation & Fertilizer Inputs
q   Rapid Industrialization
q   Drought
q   Increased vulnerability to all environmental problems due to lack of safety
    nets (family, economic security, surplus) throughout the region

                                      Created JDG 2000
                                Africa South of Sahara
                                   Human Geography: Cultural Geography
q   Pre-Colonial                                                   q       Post-Colonial
     – thousands of culture groups with shared                              – superimpose boundaries over former
       language, symbols, & customs                                           colonial states & numerous historically
          • sometimes referred to as ‘tribes’                                 distinct culture groups
     – animistic in nature                                                  – Attempts to create an “African” identity
q   Colonial (as early as 1500s)                                              throughout the 1950-70 not successful
     – extractive/exploitative economic                                     – Neo-Colonialism MNCs
          • earliest exploitation associated with slavery
     – highly racialized & gendered
          • local cultures used to stabilize colonial structures
     – powers include Belgium, France, Germany,
       UK, Italy, Portugal, Spain
     – some independent countries did exist, such as
       Ethiopia & Liberia

                                                        Created JDG 2000
Pre-Colonial Africa

     Created JDG 2000   From Bradshaw
   Colonial Africa

From J. Johannes (2000)

                          Created JDG 2000
                                             Paths to Independence

From J. Johannes (2000)

                          Created JDG 2000
                       Africa South of Sahara
q   Overall, colonialism lead to the
    replacement of of local culture with
    colonial culture
     – France’s ideal was referred to as a
         ‘Black-faced Frenchman’
q   Today, the legacy of colonial includes
    civil strife, a continent wide debt,
    institutionalized hatred, and a lack of
     – Tutsi & Hutu in Rwanda
         (formerly part of German East Africa)

                                          Created JDG 2000
                    Africa South of Sahara
                           Human Geography: Religions

q   Pre-Colonial Religion
     – Animism
     – Islam (Sudan & Mauritania) & Judaism (Ethiopia & Eritrea)
q   Missionaries
     – Roman Catholicism
     – Protestant

                                    Created JDG 2000
                     Economic Development
                       Human Geography: Economic Development

q   Integration into the world economy has come with high costs
     – IMF reform
q   Path to independence paved with corruption & debt crisis
q   Transition from Colonialism incomplete and linkage to world markets still related
    to colonial powers
     – MNCs
q   Vulnerability to Natural Hazards
q   Health Care Crises
     – schistosomiasis, sleeping sickness, AIDS
         • “AIDS” Orphans

                                        Created JDG 2000
                 Africa South of the Sahara
                           Human Geography: Population

q   High Birth Rates
q   High Infant Mortality Rates-Throughout
q   Irregular Population Pyramids--Wars, Disease, AIDS Crisis

                                     Created JDG 2000
                 Africa South of the Sahara

q   Rural, Urban, & Squatter Landscapes
    – rural to urban migration for limited industrial opportunities
q   Primate Cities v. Hinterland
    – Head Links to former European powers
    – Equalizing development an issue


                                     Created JDG 2000                 Source: J. Johannes (2000)

To top