Diffusion of Cultures

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Diffusion of Cultures Powered By Docstoc
					Geography of

  Africa Unit
  t of
 Five Geographic
Regions of Africa

     Africa Unit
North Africa
• Mountain
  Ranges (Atlas

• Sahara desert
  (world’s largest)
North Africa
West Africa
• Grasslands

• Most
West Africa
East Africa
• Mountainous
• Plateaus
• Grasslands
• Hills
East Africa
South Africa
• Namib &

• Drakensberg
South Africa
Central Africa
• Equator

• Rain forests
Central Africa
Countries of

  Africa Unit
How well do you know the
  countries of Africa?

 Click on the words above to play a review game.
• Desertification –
  The spreading of a
  desert region

• The region of Sahel
  is most affected by
  the spreading
Great Rift Valley
• Great Rift Valley –
  4,000 mile giant
  fault, or break in the
  earth’s crust. From
  Red Sea to Zambezi

• Evidence has found
  that the earliest
  Africans first lived in
  this area.
Major Rivers
• Nile River – world’s longest (4,000 + miles)
Sources: White Nile (Uganda) & Blue Nile
  (Ethiopian highlands) flows into the
• Congo River – Central Africa – through rain
  forests, 2,720 miles long
• Niger River – Africa’s third longest- 2,600
  miles long. Begins in West Africa (Guinea)
• Zambezi River – Fourth longest 2,200 miles –
  Southern Africa; contains Victoria Falls;
  flows into the Indian Ocean
Climate and Diversity
• The equator runs nearly through the
  center of Africa
• 80% of the nation is tropical
• Further from equator = colder
• Higher Elevation = colder
Geography of Africa Review
• Interactive Map of Africa
Civilizations of

    Africa Unit
Where Civilization Began
• Olduvai Gorge – located on the edge of
  the Great Rift Valley in Tanzania

• Archaeologists – Mary and Louis
  Leakey discovered bone over 2 million
  years old

• This has led some scientists to believe
  that the first people were from Africa
Bantu Migration
• Today, close to 100 million people across the
  southern half of Africa speak related
  languages, collectively known as Bantu
• Linguistic evidence shows that the root Bantu
  language emerged in what is now Nigeria and
  Cameroon by 2000 BC.
• By 1000 BC, in a series of migrations, Bantu
  speakers had spread south to the lands of
  Angola and east to Lake Victoria. Over the
  next 1500 years they scattered throughout
  central and southern Africa, interacting with
  and absorbing indigenous populations as
  they spread.
Kingdom of Kush
• Approximately 2000
  B.C. – 200 A.D.
• Kush and Nubia are
  the same place
• It developed along the
  Nile River in present
  day Sudan
• Fought with Egypt
  over control of the
  Nile River
Kingdom of Kush (Nubia)
• Black Africans
• Kush produced many resources like
  gold, ivory, copper, frankincense and
• Important center of trade
• Kush traded with all civilization along
  the Nile River.
• Cultural Diffusion is a direct result from
These are the pyramid of Ancient Nubia. They were used as
tombs. Although they are similar to those of Ancient Egypt,
they have some differences. Compare these pyramids with
those of ancient Egypt.
Nubian Pyramids
      Nubian      Cursive     Nubian      Cursive
    Hieroglyphs   Version   Hieroglyphs   Version   One reason little
                                                        was known
                                                         about the
                                                    culture was that
                                                       they did not
I                           T                       write down their
                                                    history until late
                                                    in ancient times.
                                                     Another reason
                                                    is that they were
K                           N                             isolated
                                                     Outside people
                                                      would need to
W                           D                           cross harsh
                                                     desert or many
                                                    called cataracts,
                                                     to reach Nubia.

Nubian writing was similar to Egyptian writing but developed
     into a completely separate language later in time.
Kingdom of Axum

• Black Africans

• Approximately 300
  A.D. – 900 A.D.

• Important center of
Kingdom of Axum

• Axum and Ethiopia are the same place

• They were a Naval Trading power

• Traded with Kingdoms on the Nile river
  and East Coast of Africa

• Cultural Diffusion is a result of this

• Christianity was the dominate religion
Axum / Kush Venn Diagram

   Kingdom of Axum   Kingdom of Kush
     The Gold – Salt Trade
• Traveling caravans crossed the vast
  Sahara desert to the Middle East
• Travelers looked to profit from the
  desert crossing with large trades
• The savanna lands of West Africa
  lacked salt, which is essential to survival
• In West Africa, salt was more valuable
  than gold
Ghana became a rich and powerful nation,
especially when the camel began to be used
as a source of transport. Ghana relied on
trade and trade was made faster and
bigger with the use of the camel.
       Empire of Ghana
• 300A.D. to 1100A.D.
• Ghana developed in West Africa
  between the Niger and the Gambia
• The rivers helped Ghana to grow rich
  because they were used to transport
  goods and develop trade.
• Ghana collected taxes from traders who
  passed through the kingdom.
        Empire of Ghana

• Ghana had few natural resources
  except gold.

• They were also very good at making
  things from iron. Ghanaian warriors
  used iron tipped spears to subdue their
    The Empire of Ghana
• First powerful West African Kingdom

• The emperors power rested in his gold

• $ = power to buy goods and weapons

• Each trading caravan that entered or
  left Ghana had to pay a tax

After 700 AD, the religion of Islam began to spread over northern
Africa. Followers of this religion are called Muslims. Muslim
warriors came into Ghana and fought with the non-Islamic people
there. This weakened the great civilization of Ghana. Local
warriors then decided to break away from the power of Ghana and
form their own local kingdoms. This ended many of the trade
networks. This eventually weakened the civilization of Ancient
    Empire of Ghana Falls
• Conflicts from the north began to hurt
• Group of Berbers called Almoravids
• 1076 they seized the capital of Ghana
• This broke the empire of Ghana into
  several small states
The Empire of Mali is Born
The Empire of Mali
• 1200 A.D. – 1450 A.D.

• Strongest and most powerful during the
  rule of Mansa Musa.

• Mansa Musa – Greatest leader of Mali

• Ruled for 30 years 1307 – 1337 when
  he died
Influence of Islam
• Muslim traders carried religion across West
• Mansa Musa adopted a new faith and
  Mandingos or farmers under Ghana’s rule
  also converted
• As a faithful Muslim he made a pilgrimage or
  hajj to Mecca
• He built many mosques in Mali
In 1324 Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca, with
60,000 followers and 80 camels carrying more than
4,000 pounds of gold to be distributed among the poor.
Perhaps the greatest king of Mali was Mansa Musa
(1307-1337). He developed the gold and salt trade of
Mali and his kingdom became very powerful and rich.
When Mansa Musa died there were no kings as powerful as
he was to follow. Eventually a group of people known as
Berbers came into the area and other people came up from
the south to form the kingdom of Songhay.

The Berbers still live in North Africa. This picture,
taken in 1893, shows a Berber group.
Ghana / Mali Venn Diagram

   Empire of Ghana   Empire of Mali
Kingdom of Songhay (Songhai)
• 1450A.D. – 1600A.D.
• The Golden Age of Africa
• The people of Songhay were farmers and
  fisherman who lived along the Niger River of
  West Africa.
Sunni Ali
• By 1464 – Sunni Ali,
  gained power in Gao
• Because of the fall of
  Mali traders could not
  travel safely
• Sunni Ali was looking
  to restore order
• Sunni Ali based his
  military on a cavalry
  that conquered
  Timbuktu, and the
  other major cities of
  the Mali.
Askia Muhammad
• Askia Muhammad (1493-1528)
• Askia Muhammad continued Sunni
  Ali's imperial expansion
• In order to maintain his large empire
  Muhammad further centralized the
• At it’s height, Songhay was larger than
  all of the European states combined.
Kingdom of Songhai
• Askia Muhammad was also the first to
  standardize weights, measures, and
  currency, so culture throughout the Songhay
  began to unify.
• Askia Muhammad created an Islamic
  Songhay society.
• The urban centers were dominated by Islam
• The non-urban areas were not Islamic
• The vast majority of the Songhay people,
  around 97%, followed traditional African
The Fall of Songhay
• Songhai fell in 1591 to invaders from Morocco
• They were attracted to Mali’s wealth
• The Morocco soldiers won because they had
  guns and cannons
Why was this the Golden Age?
• Under the leadership of Askia Mohammed, Timbuktu
  once again became a prosperous commercial city,
  reaching a population of 100,000 people.
• Merchants and traders traveled from Asia, the Middle
  East and Europe to exchange their exotic wares for
  the gold of Songhay.
• Timbuktu gained fame as an intellectual center
  rivaling many others in the Muslim world. Students
  from various parts of the world came to Timbuktu's
  famous University of Sankore to study Law and
• Medieval Europeans came the Kingdom to study
  from mathematicians, astronomers, physicians, and
  jurists whose intellectual endeavors were said to be
  paid for out of the king's own treasury.
The Forest Kingdom of Benin
• Arose in a thickly forested area near the equator

• Developed in the delta region of the Niger River

• Ruler – set up a centralized government

• Had intersecting streets, workers produced
  brass, wood, ivory, and woven goods

• Best known for their Bronze art
The Forest Kingdom of Benin
       (Bronze Art)
Early African

   Africa Unit
Family Ties
• Farming and herding
  societies consisted of
  extended families

• Kinships created
  strong bonds and a
  sense of community
Structure of African Society
                Kinship –
              to individual
                Family –
              members of a

          Clan – Group made up
            of related families

     Tribe – Group made up of related
Inheritance and Descent

               • The Ashanti people believed
                 the child’s blood came entirely
Matrilineal      from the mother
               • Uncle is more important than
                 the father

               • Oldest son is the head of the
 Patrilineal     family
               • Oldest son was the inheritor
         Status of Women
Societies that             Societies that did
valued women               not value women
    Women could be
       leaders                    Women did the
                              planting, weeding, and
    Women were the
  teachers of the family
                               In some societies
    Were respected             men married many
   because the bore            women [polygamy]

                                Viewed a wife as
  Bride Wealth paid to           property of the
      brides family                 husband
Patterns of Government

 Local     Leaders
leaders                  Consensus
  are      listen to     is reached
chosen    arguments

Problem     Public
 arises   Discussion        Gifts
Economic Organization

• Most villagers were subsistence farmers
  – They produced only enough food for
  their own needs with little or no surplus

• Fallow – allowing the land to regenerate
  important minerals needed to grow crops

• Land was community property
Natural Resources   Human Resources
  [water / land]    [labor / knowledge]


Capital Resources       Distribution
  [seed / tools]     [family / friends]
The Age Grade System

  Definition        Purpose           Effect

• Includes all    • To Learn      • This group
  boys or girls     about           usually
  born in the       community       thinks
  same year         and shared      similarly
• This same         duties          and works
  age group       • Together        together
  works             they take       quite well
  together for      part in
  their entire      special age
  lives             ceremonies
African Religions
•   Supreme being had created everything
•   Supreme being was a distant figure
•   Many are monotheistic
•   Oral traditions and myths
•   Ancestors could help or harm them
•   Every object on earth was filled with a
    living spirit (Animism)

• The term animism is derived from the Latin
  word anima meaning breath or soul. The
  belief of animism is probably one of man's
  oldest beliefs, with its origin most likely dating
  to the Paleolithic age. From its earliest
  beginnings it was a belief that a soul or spirit
  existed in every object, even if it was
  inanimate. In a future state this soul or spirit
  would exist as part of an immaterial soul. The
  spirit, therefore, was thought to be universal.
Diviners and Healers

• Rooted in Tradition
• Their purpose was to
  explain the cause of
• Experts in herbal
• Today, doctors study
  the roots and herbs
  used in traditional
  African healing
The Slave Trade

    Africa Unit
How Does The Slave Trade Begin?

Early 1400’s – Europeans
sent explorers to West Africa
to map it and look for gold

   They traded iron, copper,
   fish, sugar, ivory, gold, and

       Europeans wanted to convert
       Africans to Christianity
How Does The Slave Trade Begin?
 Europeans required a large
 labor force to make their
 American colonies profitable

    1st used Native Americans

        Then looked to Africans
        because of their numbers and
        their lack of modernization
Triangular Slave Trade


Triangular Slave Trade
The Middle Passage
Triangular Slave Trade


The Atlantic Slave Trade

        575,000 Slaves

      3,850,000 Slaves

    4,700,000 Slaves
Negros for Sale?

                   • What is the first
                     thought you had
                     when you read
                   • How would a
                     wealthy colonial
                     American have
                     looked at this?
                   • What would an
                     African think
                     when they saw
Why was there a slave trade?

Demand              Demand
  for                  for
 Goods               Slaves
 Ending the Slave Trade
1700’s – European thinkers
begin to oppose slavery

  Abolition Movement –
  movement to end slavery

     1807 – Britain outlawed

        1834 – Britain outlawed

          It continued in USA until
  Why did the slave trade end?

Industrialization     Need for
African Diaspora

• The slave trade sent millions of
  Africans overseas this created a
  scattering of individuals
• Survivors struggled to hold on to their

• African people and their culture of food,
  music, dance, and tradition was spread
  across a wide area.
• 1787 – British set up a colony in West
  Africa for freed slaves (Sierra Leone)

• Later, free blacks from the US formed
  Liberia, it became independent in 1847
Age of Imperialism

      Africa Unit
Tribalism in Africa
• Tribalism – Pride and loyalty to ones
  people within Africa being based on
  tribal boundaries

Historical Significance
• Europeans did not understand or
  respect Tribalism.
• This has resulted in additional conflict
  being created in Africa which has
  continued to last to present day
   (Colonialism) (Colonization)

Main Cause of African Imperialism

Economic Motives
• European factories need raw materials
  to run.
• (Coal / Iron Ore / Oil / Cotton / Rubber)
• These raw materials are found in Africa.
Strategic Motives
• Offers port city’s between Europe and
Causes of African Imperialism
Political Motives
• Prestige – The more land you control
  the more powerful you are

Religious (Spiritual) Motives
• Christians believed that it was their duty
  to spread the ideals of Christianity
• White Man’s Burden – Duty of the white
  race to bring the superior white culture
  to non-whites
• The White Man's Burden
• By Rudyard Kipling

  Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best
  ye breed-- Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your
  captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered
  folk and wild-- Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half
  devil and half child. Take up the White Man's burden--
  In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And
  check the show of pride; By open speech and simple,
  An hundred times made plain, To seek another's profit
  And work another's gain. Take up the White Man's
  burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth
  of Famine, And bid the sickness cease; And when your
  goal is nearest (The end for others sought) Watch sloth
  and heathen folly Bring all your hope to nought. Take
  up the White Man's burden-- No iron rule of kings, But
  toil of serf and sweeper-- The tale of common things.
  The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not
  tread, Go, make them with your living And mark them
  with your dead. Take up the White Man's burden, And
  reap his old reward.
Boers (Dutch) vs. British
• The Dutch (Boers) had settled in Cape Town
  in 1652
• Early 1800’s – British won control of the
  Cape colony from the Boers
• The Boers retreated on the “Great Trek”
• The Boers set up two independent republics
  in the 1850’s
1. Orange Free State
2. Transvaal
 The Berlin Conference
• Representatives
  from 14 European
  countries made
  decisions about
  dividing Africa

• No African
  were invited
  The Scramble for Colonies

• Some colonies
  were taken by
  force but most
  were voluntarily
  given up

• Treaties were
  negotiated with
  African leaders
New Patterns of Government

          • European Governments
 Direct     controls everything

         • European officials make
           decisions and native leaders
  Rule     enforce them

    Africa Unit
 Negative                    Positive
 Effects of                 Effects of
Imperialism                Imperialism
 Traditional patterns of
  life were destroyed       Built roads, bridges,
                               and railroads
   Exploited Africa’s
   natural resources

  Switched to farming
                            Set up new schools
      cash crops

African villages were no
  longer self-sufficient
                           Introduced new farming
   Africans became                methods
 dependant on Europe
Steps to African Independence
Nationalism grew in the
different African countries
after WWII.

   Most Europeans were
   reluctant to fight to hold
   onto overseas colonies.

       African leaders began to
       use the cry of “Africa for
Steps to African Independence
African leaders organized
political parties and staged
strikes & boycotts.

   Organization of African Unity
   - Formed in 1963 to promote
   peace and independence

       Pan-Africanism – calls for
       the unifying of all of Africa
Kenya Fights for Independence

• In Kenya, white settlers had moved in and
  displaced African farmers, mostly of the
  Kikuyu tribe.
• Jomo Kenyatta was a spokesman for the
  Kikuyu and led the movement to get
  Europeans off their land.
• Kenyatta supported nonviolent methods,
  but others turned to guerrilla warfare.
• By 1952, they began to attack European
Kenya Fights for Independence
• The British called the guerrillas Mau Mau and
  pictured them as savages.
• The British imprisoned Kenyatta and threw
  thousands of Kikuyu into concentration
• The British went on to bomb the Mau Mau
  fighters, armed only with swords.
• The rebels were crushed, but not the freedom
• When the British released Kenyatta in 1963,
  he became the first prime minister of an
  independent Kenya.
Apartheid in
South Africa

   Africa Unit
Origins of Apartheid

•   1910 Britain granted S. Africa self-rule
•   Whites make up 13% of Africa’s pop.
•   77% are black
•   1948 – Nationalist party comes to power
•   Supported by white farmers (Boers)
•   They set up apartheid – rigid separation
    of races
The Republic of South Africa
• S. Africans were classified as black,
  white, and “coloured” (mixed)
• Pass laws were created
• White only busses, beaches,
  bathrooms, restaurants, and schools
• Opposition groups were banned from
  speaking out (ANC)
• Nelson Mandela is imprisoned for 27
  years for opposing racial segregation
Struggle Against Apartheid

• Archbishop Desmond Tutu strongly
  opposed apartheid, but not through
  violence (won Nobel Peace Prize)
• Freedom marches and boycotts spread
  across South Africa
• During the 1980’s economic sanction
  were imposed by the United states and
  other nations
Apartheid Ends
• F.W. De Klerk lifts ban on opposition
• 1990 – Nelson Mandela is released
  from prison
• His release symbolized hope for the
  people of South Africa
• 1991 – Africans were no longer
  classified by race
• 1992 – citizenship is given to blacks
• 1994 – Mandela is elected President
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