Quick review of remote sensing, Introduction to remote sensing by xdu18397

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									 Quick review of remote sensing,
Introduction to remote sensing in
hydrology, hydrological cycle and
         energy balance

             Lecture 1

             1/16/2009
                                                                           1.
                                                                        Hydrologic
                                                                          cycle




      All units in the picture above are 1012 m3.
      http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/labs/water_cycle/water_cycle.html

• Identify the reservoirs of the hydrological cycle
• Hydrological processes (flux) connecting the reservoirs

• Write the water balance equations for ocean, atmosphere, and land.
                   Reservoirs




http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hyd/bdgt.rxml
                                      Percent of    Percent of    Residence
                       Volume (km3)
                                        total       freshwater    time (yr)
Water in Land Areas:   47,971,710     3.5
Lakes:
        Fresh          91,000         0.007        0.26           (All surface
        Saline         85,400         0.006                       water:)
                                                                  4.0
Rivers                 2,120          0.0002       0.006
Marshes                11,470         0.0008       0.03
Soil moisture          16,500         0.0012       0.05
Groundwater:                                                      (All subsurface
                                                                  water:)
         Fresh         10,530,000     0.76         30.1           20,000
         Saline        12,870,000     0.93
Biological Water       1,120          0.0001       0.003
Icecaps and glaciers 24,364,100       1.76         69.6
Atmosphere             12,900         0.001        0.04           0.02
Oceans                 1,338,000,000 96.5                         2,650
Total                  1,385,984,610 100           100
                                                             Hornberger et al., 1998
              Water Balance Equation




where: M = mass within the control volume [M]; t = time [T]; I' =
mass inflow rate [M T-1]; and O' = mass outflow rate [M T-1].




where: V = volume of water within the control volume [L3]; I =
volume inflow rate [L3 T-1]; and O = volume outflow rate [L3 T-1].
where: V = average volume of water stored, and assumed to be
constant; P = average precipitation rate; rsi = average surface
water inflow rate; rgi= average groundwater inflow rate; rso=
average surface water outflow rate; rgo= average groundwater
outflow rate; and et = average evapotranspiration rate. All terms
in the equation have dimensions of volume per time [L3 T-1].
What drives the hydrologic cycle?
                          2. Energy Balance




    http://geography.otago.ac.nz/Courses/283_389/Resources/palaeo/GlobalEnergyBalance.html

•Write the energy balance equations for the earth
     Short-wave radiation




http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7i.html
Campbell and Norman, 1998
                       Long-wave radiation




                  http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7i.html


•Write the energy balance equations for the earth surface
Campbell and Norman, 1998
                      Discussion

• What determine incident short-wave radiation
  on the earth surface?
  – Solar constant: Describes the Solar Radiation that falls on an
    area above the atmosphere at a vertical angle: s = 1.37 kW / m².

  – others

• What control out-going long-wave radiation
  from the earth surface?
Describe the patterns, and
Explain…




             Find the difference
             between the two




http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/95206e.html
How is the Hydrological Cycle driven?
                 3. Atmospheric circulations




     If no earth rotation                          With earth rotation


http://ess.geology.ufl.edu/ess/Notes/AtmosphericCirculation/atmosphere.html
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/climate.htm
         4. Oceanic circulations




http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/images/maps/ocean_currents.jpg
   Hydrologic Information System to the State
        in (Near) Real Time Via Internet




Products:
- Rainfall
- Snow cover
- Runoff
- River flow
- Recharge
- ET
-Soil Moisture
-LULC
-VI

								
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