Country levels of meat hygiene and meat inspection practices
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Country levels of meat hygiene and meat inspection practices for domestic supply and export by Dr. Gunter Heinz Background: The author has worked as a veterinarian and meat technologist for • German government and EU for veterinary export control of meat from Third Countries to Germany and the EU. • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN to provide technical assistance in meat technology and meat hygiene to developing countries worldwide. Content of the presentation • Report on meat hygiene and meat inspection practices referred to developed and developing countries 1. Existing problems and deficiencies in developing countries in Asia with focus on food safety/meat inspection. 2. History of sanitary control by foreign veterinarians in meat exporting countries. 3. New EU food hygiene law and its impact on the meat sector. 4. Meat hygiene issues beyond meat inspection in chilled meat exports. • Generally in developed countries there are no substantial differences between meat productions for the domestic and the export market. It can be assumed that developed countries adhere to meat inspection rules and General Hygienic Practice GHP in routine slaughtering. • In contrast, in developing countries, if approved for meat exports to demanding markets, there are great food safety gaps between export and domestic meat productions. In many countries domestic meat productions are frequently associated with severe food safety problems. The standard is particularly low in Asian developing countries. However, as the region is making economic progress, new slaughterhouse projects with modern and hygienic facilities are planned in many places. Existing problems and deficiencies in the meat sector in developing countries with focus on food safety • The abattoir sector was neglected in livestock sector development programmes. Present structure: 1. Large city abattoirs, most of them old, outdated and source of severe contamination and pollution. 2. Many small to medium public or private abattoirs, most of them basic or below acceptable standard, catering for the traditional “wet” markets. 3. Only a few privately owned abattoirs for bovines, small ruminants or pigs, which produce for export or high-quality local meat markets, can meet international hygienic standards. Large city abattoir Outside Large city abattoir Inside (2007 !) Small slaughter facilities Buffaloes All photos taken in Asian countries in 2007! Small slaughter facilities: Cattle slaughtering Booth slaughtering Cattle slaughtering Floor slaughtering/flaying Cattle slaughtering Floor slaughtering/evisceration Cattle slaughtering Carcass cutting at contaminated slaughter place Entero-pathogenic E. coli? • Recent press releases from the US: • Nov. 2007: Cargill recalls 450 t of beef possibly tainted by E. coli • Oct. 2007: Cargill recalls 380 t of ground beef • Sept. 2007: Topps recalled 10 000 t beef patties, the second largest beef recall in US history Cattle slaughtering, vertical Major part of flaying on the floor Cattle slaughtering, vertical Floor contact to stabilize for splitting Cattle slaughtering, vertical Carcass cutting, heavy parts drop on floor Small slaughter facilities: Pig slaughtering Floor slaughtering with “spreading” of carcass Pig slaughtering Evisceration Pig slaughtering Splitting Pig slaughtering Carcass cutting on floor By-product handling Emptying intestines next to meat on floor Meat transport (2007!) These are not old photos! • All photos were taken in 2007! Malpractices in animal welfare Severing the spinal cord by stabbing into the Foramen atlanto- occipitale (“Puntilla”) Malpractices in animal welfare Blow on the head by using a hammer Halal slaughtering Throat cut without stunning Unsuitable pig stunning Home-made stunning tongs without transformer Severe shortcomings in traditional abattoir sector • Malpractices in animal welfare, in particular stunning • Slaughter methods generate high levels of meat contamination due to lack of proper facilities and careless slaughtering by slaughter personnel • Meat cutting and boning frequently done in most unhygienic ways, e.g. on dirty slaughter floor • Meat transport in filthy vehicles • Abattoir effluent treatment inefficient or not existent • Meat plant cleaning and sanitation deficient • Meat inspection and sanitary control incomplete or mostly not done at all. Deficiencies in meat inspection (Asia) No meat inspection, heads (left) and green offal (right) are disposed of on floor Deficiencies in meat inspection Racks for pig inspection but not used (left) / Pig inspection carried out but not complete (right) = the only abattoir seen in 2007 where meat inspection was done! Trichinosis control completely unknown in Asian developing countries (below: Digestive method, could be easily introduced) Urgently needed improvements in abattoirs • Revision of public and private abattoirs and withdraw license in facilities which do not meet basic hygienic requirements • Replace booth slaughter systems by line slaughtering, except in small operations • Introduction of functional stunning equipment • Efficient meat plant cleaning and sanitation • Methods of abattoir effluent treatment with emphasis on biogas digestion • Enforcement of proper meat inspection, installation of suitable inspection facilities and organization of meat inspection training FAO Regional Meat Inspection Training • FAO was running in 2001/2002 three regional training courses, each course with 20 participants and 4- weeks duration organized in Malaysia. • Approx. 20 Asian developing countries sent participants (total of participants approx. 60). • Participants were supposed to act as trainers in meat inspection in their home countries, which unfortunately was not always realized. • Participants in future courses should carefully be selected and only accepted if it is secured that they will be used as trainers in their home countries. Urgently needed: Regional Meat Inspection Training for developing Asia • No ante- and post-mortem inspection in many abattoirs. • Knowledge of veterinarians and vet. assistants in meat inspection is low. • Most slaughter facilities do not provide suitable installations to carry out proper meat inspection. • Rendering facilities are needed for the destruction of condemned or inedible carcass parts. • Japan was engaged in the past in meat inspection training for developing Asia. The courses took place in Japan and in Japanese language, which required language training. • It is recommended that Japan provides funding for regional meat inspection training to be organized by JICA or in cooperation with UN agencies such as FAO in an advanced Asian developing country such as Malaysia. Courses should be in English. National meat inspection training in African country 2007 Proposed establishment of a permanent Meat Inspection and Hygiene Training Center for developing Asian countries • For Africa a Regional Meat Inspection and Meat Technology Training Center was opened in the 1980ies in Botswana, funded by Denmark (DANIDA) • The Training Center was working successfully for over one decade with international aid and has later been nationalized. • The success of the Center is still today visible in Africa: Quality of meat inspection in Africa better than in developing Asia. • A Center for Regional Meat Inspection and Meat Hygiene/Technology Training is urgently needed in developing Asia. Japanese inputs would be useful!