Adopt an Ecosystem Project a Grade Ten

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					                   Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

                               Lesson Summary:
     Ohio Standards
      Connection:              In this lesson, students will choose an ecosystem to observe
                               the interaction of living organisms with biotic and abiotic
Life Sciences                  factors in that ecosystem. Students will keep journals of
                               observations and reflections and have those journals
Benchmark F                    reviewed by peers and teacher. Students then will create
Explain the structure and
function of ecosystems and     final oral presentations using visual aids, and those projects
relate how ecosystems          will be reviewed by peers and teacher. The presentations
change over time.              may be made at the end of a unit on ecology.
Indicator 15                   Estimated Duration: Two hours and 30 minutes
Explain how living things
interact with abiotic and
biotic components of the
environment (e.g.,             Commentary:
predation, competition,        This lesson allows students the opportunity to observe and
natural disasters and          reflect on the ecosystem in which they live. Students will be
weather).
                               asked to make observations of a particular area and note the
                               interactions between biotic and abiotic factors and how
                               those interactions impact the environment. Students also are
                               asked to predict changes that could occur if one or more
                               factors are altered in the system. This lesson provides
                               students with a real-world opportunity to think about and
                               examine their surroundings.


                             Pre-Assessment:
                             Distribute Attachment A, Pre-Assessment, and have students
                             answer the questions to check for understanding.

                             Scoring Guideline:
                             Use Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Key, to evaluate student
                             performance. Students will not receive scores for the pre-
                             assessment. It is meant to give information on each student’s
                             readiness to learn content and to give students a preview of
                             the content to be learned.

                             Post-Assessment:
                             Students will work in groups of four or five to prepare oral
                             presentations to summarize observations of the interactions
                             between biotic and abiotic factors. See Attachment C, Project
                             Guidelines.



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                     Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

Scoring Guidelines:
Use the peer evaluations and the rubric in Attachment D, Project Scoring Guidelines, to
assess student work.

Instructional Tip:
When reviewing student work, be sure to look for all types of interactions (biotic/biotic and
abiotic/biotic). Make sure there is evidence of change in the ecosystem. Be sure that students
have identified many factors (20 for a score of four). Student presentations must be focused
and organized.

Instructional Procedures:
1. Provide an article, video clip or presentation about an ecosystem and its disruption.
    Possible topics include Mt. Saint Helens, El Ni o, Exxon Valdez, wildfires, flooding,
                                                     ñ
    Yellowstone, etc.
2. Provide a mini-lecture on biotic and abiotic factors. Use the chosen media above to
    illustrate the various factors and discuss the significance of the interactions that take
    place in the ecosystem.
3. Discuss the pre-assessment questions. Review concepts of predator-prey, competition,
    parasitism, mutualism and commensalism.
4. Have each student choose an ecosystem to observe (a or b):
    a. Natural observation area (home, yard, school, etc.);
    b. Students make and/or monitor a terrarium or aquarium.

Instructional Tip:
The terrarium should have enough time to establish equilibrium so that sufficient
biotic/abiotic and biotic/biotic interactions can be observed to provide a clear understanding
of ecosystem concepts.

5. Guide students to record what they see in their ecosystems and predict how those
    ecosystems change over time (e.g., the types of plants, animals, soil, water, temperature,
    pH).
6. Have students share ideas and record their comments in small groups of two to four
    students. Allow 10 to 15 minutes for this activity.
7. Have students make observations and record the data in their science journals. Data
    include biotic and abiotic factors as well as interactions among living organisms and
    those factors. Remind students to record specific observed interactions and label them
    appropriately, abiotic/biotic or biotic/biotic. Include drawings or visual representations of
    the ecosystems and interactions. Allow students to record observations for a designated
    period of time (during a change in season). Ideally, this could be a year-long observation.
8. Organize students into groups of three to complete peer reviews of journals. Peer reviews
    are recorded in the journal so that each student receives feedback from several peers. Use
    Attachment C, Project Guidelines, to guide student review of journals.
9. Collect journals for teacher feedback and return to the students. Students can respond to
    peer or teacher review.
10. Have students complete journals and compile data. Students should now choose the mode
    for their final presentations (poster, multi-media presentation, etc.).
11. Distribute and explain Attachment C, Project Guidelines.
12. Have students prepare and deliver their presentations.

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                     Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

13. Have students in the audience complete peer reviews.

Differentiated Instructional Support:
Instruction is differentiated according to learners needs, to help all learners either meet the
intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the
specified indicators.
• Provide students with assistance with the record keeping portion of this activity.
• Provide writing prompts for students needing assistance with their journal.
• Reduce the number of biotic and abiotic factors for the presentation.
• Have students use a viewfinder or cardboard tube to focus observations.
• Challenge students to conduct an independent study on ecosystems and present
    information to the class.

Extensions:
• Find a news article concerning succession (e.g. Yellowstone fires) and compare to the
   ecosystem used in class.
• Predict how abiotic and biotic factors would be affected by a natural disaster (flooding,
   earthquake, etc.).
• Create a concept map illustrating the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors.
• Predict what would happen if mosquitoes/snakes were eliminated.
• Provide students with a critical-thinking question about organisms in the Ohio ecosystem.
   (e.g., blue jays were present in your yard all year, now they are gone. Explain what
   environmental factors caused them to die. One answer is the West Nile Virus).
• Look at closed systems (the Biodome in Tucson, Arizona, submarines, space shuttle,
   bottle biology, etc.).

Homework Options and Home Connections:
• Encourage students to visit state or city parks and describe the biotic and abiotic factors
  and their interactions.
• Have students use what they have learned about ecosystems to develop a background or
  community garden.
• Contact the Ohio Department of Natural Resources about hunting regulations and their
  impact on the ecosystem.

Material and Resources:
The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of
Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of
its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does
not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site’s main
page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information
required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes


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                    Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related
to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.

For the teacher:      Classroom terrarium or aquarium (for students choosing option B),
                      field guides to identify organisms.

For the students:     Journal, the Internet, pen or pencil, field guides to identify organisms.

Vocabulary:
• ecosystem
• abiotic
• biotic
• predation
• competition
• parasitism
• mutualism
• commensalism

Technology Connections:
• Have students use presentation software to explain observation areas/ecosystems.
• Use digital photos of observation areas for visual aids.
• Use online field guide/resources to identify organisms.
• Use CD ROM of bird, frog and insect songs to help identify biotic factors in an
   ecosystem.
• Have students explore a virtual ecosystem.
• Use the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Web site to identify organisms in their
   ecosystem http://www.ohiodnr.com.

Research Connections:
Barraza, Laura. “Children’s Drawing About the Environment.” Environmental Education
Research 5:1 (1999)

    This particular research study used artistic drawings from British and Mexican students
    to evaluate their environmental perceptions. This is important for it reinforces the fact
    that students can express their understanding of the environment through drawings.

Marzano, R., Pickering, D., Pollock, J. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based
Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development. 2001.

    Identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability
    to use knowledge. This process includes comparing, classifying, creating metaphors and
    creating analogies and may involve the following:

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                    Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

    •   Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences.
    •   Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences.
    •   Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form.

    Nonlinguistic representations help students think about and recall knowledge. This
    includes the following:
    • Creating graphic representations (organizers);
    • Making physical models;
    • Generating mental pictures;
    • Drawing pictures and pictographs;
    • Engaging in kinesthetic activity.

    Cooperative-learning groups have a powerful effect on student learning. This type of
    grouping includes the following elements:
    • Positive interdependence;
    • Face-to-face promotive interaction;
    • Individual and group accountability;
    • Interpersonal and small group skills;
    • Group processing.

    Generating and testing hypotheses engages students in one of the most powerful and
    analytic of cognitive operations. It deepens students’ knowledge and understanding. Any
    of the following structured tasks can guide students through this process:
    • Systems analysis;
    • Problem solving;
    • Historical investigation;
    • Invention;
    • Experimental inquiry;
    • Decision making.

Wiggings, Grant and Jay McTighe, Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: 1998.

   Facets 1: Explanation, Students have opportunities to build, test, and verify theories or
   explanations.
   Encourages students to work toward more learning through less teaching.

Attachments:
Attachment A, Pre-Assessment
Attachment B, Pre- Assessment Key
Attachment C, Project Guidelines
Attachment D, Project Scoring Guidelines


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                     Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

                                        Attachment A
                                       Pre-Assessment

1.   Name three different ecosystems.
     OR
     Name two different types of ecosystems found within five miles of your home.




2.   For ONE of the above ecosystems, name five different biotic factors and five different
     abiotic factors.

     a.                         a.
     b.                         b.
     c.                         c.
     d.                         d.
     e.                         e.

3.   For the ecosystem you chose in question two, suggest three things that might cause
     change in the system over time.

4.   Explain what happens when two organisms in the same ecosystem are trying to eat the
     same foods or use the same types of shelter at the same time. Why is this interaction a
     problem for the organisms?

5.   Define the following terms:
     a) predation
     b) competition
     c) parasitism
     d) mutualism
     e) commensalism




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                    Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

                                      Attachment B
                                   Pre-Assessment Key

1. Examples in Ohio include: mature forest, marsh, lake or pond, urban park, grassland


2. Examples for grassland biotic: wildflowers, grass, tree swallow, cricket, wren, mosquito,
   deer, deer tick.
   abiotic: soil acidity, soil mineral content, rainfall, wind or wind storms, amount of sun,
   average low or high temperatures


3. Examples for grassland: fire, introduction of new mammal species by man, nearby air-
   pollution, drought, increased rainfall, etc.


4. This is an example of competition between two biotic components of the ecosystem. The
   problem is caused by limited resources sought by multiple species.


5. a) An instance when one organism consumes another organism for survival.
   b) An instance when one organism or group competes with another organism or group
      for resources required for survival.
   c) A symbiotic relationship where one organisms lives in, with or on a host organism.
      The host organism is usually harmed.
   d) A symbiotic relationship where one organism lives with another and both organisms
      benefit.
   e) A symbiotic relationship where one organism lives with another organism and one
      benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.




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                     Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

                                       Attachment C
                                     Project Guidelines

Work in groups of three or four to present a summary of the observations and interactions of
biotic and abiotic factors in a selected ecosystem. (See criteria below.) Final presentations
must include a visual aid. During your presentation, your peers will evaluate your project
based on the following requirements:

a.   Identify the ecosystem and make a visual representation.
b.   Define the terms biotic and abiotic.
c.   List 10 biotic and 10 abiotic factors in the selected ecosystem
d.   Predict what types of observations one can expect to see in the selected ecosystem
     between biotic and abiotic factors.
e.   Categorize and give examples of five observed interactions. (e.g. predation, competition,
     etc.)
f.   Analyze what happens as a result of these interactions.
g.   Explain how the ecosystem changes over time. One month. One year. Five years.
     Twenty-five years. Why or why not?
h    Explain what caused the ecosystem to change over time and how it changed.
I    If this trend continued, describe what effect it might have on the ecosystem.
j.   Predict how human interaction might affect the ecosystem.

Checklist for Student Activity
Place a check mark on the line when the section is complete.

_____ Choose an ecosystem
_____ Obtain a journal and define terms
_____ Make and record predictions of interactions
_____ Make visual representation of observation area
_____ Review peer comments and make revisions
_____ Prepare for final presentation
_____ Make final presentation




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                     Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

                                       Attachment D
                                 Project Scoring Guidelines

Peer Evaluation of Final Oral Presentation
Each student will complete the evaluation form for each presentation.

Name of Evaluator: ____________________________________________

Title of Oral Presentation: _______________________________________

Presenter(s): ____________________________________________________

Explain how one abiotic or biotic factor caused change in the ecosystem.




Explain how the abiotic/biotic or biotic/biotic factors interacted within the ecosystem.




Use the rubric to evaluate each presenter for the following criteria:

a) Define and then list 10 biotic and 10 abiotic factors in the ecosystem.
b) Comments made on initial predictions made in journal.
c) Categorize (predation, competition, etc.) and give examples of five observed
   interactions.
d) Analyze what happened as a result of these interactions.
e) How did the ecosystem change over time? What happened as a result of this change?
f) What caused the ecosystem to change over time and how did it change?



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                       Adopt an Ecosystem Project – Grade Ten

                                        Attachment D
                                    Project Scoring Guidelines
                                            Continued

                           Level 4               Level 3               Level 2            Level 1
Depth of             Predictions and       Predictions and       Predictions and     Predictions and
Understanding:       evaluations of        evaluations of        evaluations of      evaluations of
Analysis of          interactions are      interactions are      interactions are    interactions are
biotic/biotic or     clearly identified    clearly identified    implied.            unclear or
abiotic/biotic       and researched.       Evidence and          Evidence and        absent.
interactions and     Evidence and          explanations are      explanations are
predictions          explanations are      clear and logical.    implied.
                     clear and logical.
Depth of             Evidence and          Evidence and          Evidence and        Evidence and
Understanding:       explanations have     explanations have     explanations have   explanations
Changes that         a clear and logical   a logical             an implied          have no
occurred in the      relationship.         relationship.         relationship.       relationship
ecosystem.
Depth of             Twenty factors        Sixteen factors are   Twelve factors      Eight or fewer
Understanding:       are identified        identified            are identified      factors are
Vocabulary:          accurately.           accurately            accurately          identify
Identification of                                                                    accurately
abiotic and biotic
factors.
Communication:       Presentation is       Presentation is       Presentation has    Presentation
                     effectively           focused and           some focus and      lacks focus and
Focus and            focused and           organized.            organization.       organization.
organization         organized.


   Adapted from Council of Chief State School Officers State Collaborative on Assessment and
   Student Standards (SCASS) Science Project, April 1997.

   Tip: When reviewing student work, be sure to look for all types of interactions (biotic/biotic
   and abiotic/biotic). Make sure that there is evidence of change in the ecosystem. Be sure that
   students have identified many factors (20 for a score of four). Presentations must be focused
   (on topic without extraneous material) and organized (follow a logical sequence).




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Description: the interaction of living organisms with biotic and abiotic. factors in that ecosystem. ... Explain how one abiotic or biotic factor caused change in the ecosystem. ...