Aeneid Book 1 - DOC by jordanbetts


									  Aeneid Book 1. 198-209: The Stirring Sham After a Stormy Defeat

198          “O socii—neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum—

199        O passi graviora, dabit deus his quoque finem.

200        Vos et Scyllaeam rabiem penitusque sonantes

201        accestis scopulos, vos et Cyclopia saxa

202        experti: revocate animos, maestumque timorem

203        mittite: forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit.

204        Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum

205        tendimus in Latium, sedes ubi fata quietas

206        ostendunt; illic fas regna resurgere Troiae.

207        Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis.”

208          Talia voce refert, curisque ingentibus aeger

209        spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem.
             Aeneas and his men have landed in Africa after a huge storm, on the order
             of Juno, was sent down to destroy their ships, and prevent them from
             fulfilling their destiny. Neptune has given the Trojans another chance,
             and Aeneas must now revive the spirits of his men to the adventure that
             lies ahead, but can he revive his own spirits?

198   neque...ignari: litotes (double negative to verify something by rejecting its   opposite)
      ante: adverbial use, modifies malorum
      malorum: objective genitive with ignari

199   O…O: anaphora (same word repeated at the start of successive clauses or phrases)
      graviora: comparative, taken as direct object of passi, what gender is graviora?
      What is the case of passi?
      his: taken as indirect object of dabit (neuter, plural, substantive referring back to

200   Vos et…vos et: anaphora again
      What does the que conjoin?
      Scyllaeam rabiem: Scylla was a creature that had six dog heads that would catch sailors
      as they passed too close to her while trying to avoid Charybdis, a whirlpool monster on
      the other side of the strait.
      et…penitusque…et (201): Polysyndeton (unnecessary amount of conjunctions), list of
      things that the companions of Aeneas have “endured”

201   accestis = accessistis, syncope (letters within the word are lost), second person, plural,
      perfect, indicative, active
      Cyclopia saxa: the Cyclopes were one-eyed giants living on the island of Sicily who
      would throw rocks at ships if they passed too close.

202    experti = experti estis, deponent verb, perfect tense needs some form of the very “to be.”
      revocate animos maestumque timorem mittite (203)
          A        B                    B          A  Chiasmus (alteration of traditional word
       order of two pairs of words, usually in parallel structure).
       What does que conjoin?

203    mittite = omittite, omitto, omittere- to let go
       forsan = for(si)tan, syncopated
       meminisse- perfect active infinitive complementing iuvabit. iuvabit is an impersonal
       verb, meaning that the agent is implied in action, and the subject of the verb is “it.”
      Since et is not conjoining two items of grammatical similarity, what does it mean in this

204   Per…per: anaphora
      discrimina rerum= dangers (literally meaning “dangers of things” combine the two
      nouns, since rerum is vague to make abstract noun concept- dangers)
205   Latium- district of central Italy where destiny will lead Aeneas to build his new city.
      sedes…quietas: hyperbaton (a pair of syntactically paired words separated by two or
       more words), surrounding ubi fata to put emphasis on the fact that this “location” is
       “quiet”. sedes is ambiguous in light of its case; but quietas confirms what case sedes is.

206    fas (est)- impersonal usage, It produces the accusative-infinitive construction with
      resurgere as the infinitive and regna as the accusative that will function as the subject of
      the infinitive.
      illic- “in that place”

207   vosmet- emphatic form of vos, “you yourselves”
      rebus…secundis- taken together to mean “good fortunes” ablative of circumstance

208 Talia- neuter, accusative, plural, substantive usage (adjective functions as a noun)= “such
    refert: here is means “he says”
    curisque ingentibus- ablative of cause with aeger
    What does que conjoin?

209 vultu and corde- ablative of place where
    altum…dolorem: hyperbaton, emphasis on place where pain is hidden, surrounding corde
    spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem: alliteration of “m” to emphasize the
    sadness and burden on the heart of Aeneas; makes the line sound more gloomy.
accedo, accedere, accessi, accessus     to approach
aeger, aegra, aegrum                    weary, sick, troubled
altus, alta, altum                      high, deep
animus, animi, m                        mind, soul, courage (pl)
ante (adverb)                           previous, earlier, before
casus, casus, m                         fall, destruction, misfortune
cor, cordis, n                          heart
cura, curae, f                          care, trouble, sorrow
Cyclopius, a, um                        Cyclopean
deus, i, m                              god
discrimen, discriminis, n               danger, crisis
do, dare, dedi, datum                   to give, to grant
dolor, doloris, m                       grief, pain, suffering
duro, durare, duravi, duratus           to harden, to endure
enim (conjunction)                      for
et                                      and, also, even
experior, experiri, expertus sum        to try, to experience
fas, n (indeclinable)                            divine will
fatum, fati, n                          prophecy, destiny, fate
finis, finis, m                         end, limit, goal
forsitan                                perhaps, perchance
gravis, grave                           heavy, serious, grievous
hic, haec, hoc                          this/these
ignarus, ignara, ignarum                ignorant, unaware
ille, illa, illud                       that/those
in (+acc)                               into, to, for
ingens, ingens, ingentis                vast, huge, enormous
iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus               to help, to please
Latium, Latii, n                        Latium
maestus, a, um                          sad, gloomy, mournful
malum, mali, n                          evil, misfortune
memini, meminisse (defective verb)      to remember, to recall
-met (intensive particle)
mitto, mittere, misi, missum            to send, to put away
neque (nec)                             and not, not, nor
O                                       O! oh!
olim                                    once, at some time
ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentus   to show, to promise
patior, pati, passus sum                to suffer, to endure
penitus (adverb)                        deep, within, wholly
per (+acc)                              through, across, over
premo, premere, pressi, pressus         to control, to repress
-que                                    and
quietus, quieta, quietum                     calm, peaceful
quoque                                       also
rabies, rabiei, f                            rage, madness, fury
refero, referre, retulli, relatus            to bring back, to tell, to say
regnum, regni, n                             kingdom, rule
res, rei, f                                  thing, affair, business
resurgo, resurgere, resurrexi, resurrectus   to rise again
revoco, revocare, revocavi, revocatus        to recall, to restore
saxum, saxi, n                               rock
scopulus, scopuli, m                         rock, cliff
Scyllaeus, Scyllaea, Scyllaeum               of Scylla
secundus, secunda, secundum                  favorable
sedes, sedis, f                              seat
servo, servare, servavi, servatum            to save, to preserve, to foster
simulo, simulare, simulavi, simulatus        to imitate, to pretend, to feign
socius, socii, m                             companion, comrade
sono, sonare, sonui, sonitus                 resound, roar
spes, spei, f                                hope
sum, esse, fui, futurus                      to be, to exist
talis, tale                                  such, of such a kind
tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentum              to stretch, to strain, to aim
timor, timoris, m                            fear, anxiety
tot                                          so many
Troia, Troiae, f                             Troy
tu, tui                                      you (sing)
ubi                                          where/when
varius, a, um                                varied, different
vostrum, vobis                               of yourselves
vox, vocis, f                                voice
vultus, vultus, m                            face, countenance

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